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Lake Success, NY

Full time, entry or jr. level collector, auto and/or equip collection exp. preferred. Resume: fax 718-392-5427
attn: Ed Kaye/Eric Coolbaugh

About the Company: Advantage Funding is the leader in automotive and equipment lease financing, Lake Success, NY.

Friday, April 11, 2008


Welcome Aboard---
    Classified Ads---Syndicator
        FTC-IFC Trial Judge says date stands!!!
    Creative Capital Leases for Sale
Up-Date: Over 400 to ELFA Nat. Funding Exhib
    Zack’s view on Marlin & the Leasing Industry
        Classified Ads---Help Wanted
Harbour Capital joins “Broker/Lessor” List
    Leasing Schools/Franchisors List—Up-dated
        Armon Mills, Leasing News Advisory Board
Retailers Post Sluggish Sales in March
    American CEO takes blame for errors
        Latest delay of Boeing 787/ 3rd Q 2009
    Storms pound Midwest with rain, snow
News Briefs---
    You May have Missed---
        California Nuts Brief---
    Sports Briefs---
"Gimme that Wine"
    Calendar Events
        Snapple Real Facts
Today's Top Event in History
    This Day in American History
        Spring Poem
Daily Puzzle
        Provence, France-Vacation
News on Line---Internet Newspapers
San Diego, California

######## surrounding the article denotes it is a “press release”


Welcome Aboard---

While the great majority of our readers go directly to our web site, many join our mailing list to be informed when a news edition is posted. Perhaps it is viewed as a “RSS feed,” as if there is a major
story, Leasing News will send it to those on the mailing list as an “Extra.”

The story is posted to our web site.

We apologize to readers whose company block our e-mail and then read it on their private e-mail service provider. Many companies have stopped sending us their company press releases as they
don’t like what we write about; we subscribe to several services that posted their press releases and find access in this manner.

Leasing News is “free.” We do not charge to read stories or go to our archives. Most of our stories come from information provided by our readers, tips, leads, even “off the record” quotes from reliable sources, known to me personally over the last 37 years.

Kit Menkin, editor

If you missed Main Street Bank buying the Studebaker-Worthington leasing assets sent out on Wednesday, here it is again:



Classified Ads---Syndicator

Overland Park, KS
Top Syndicator from single deal to portfolios. 20+ yrs exp. Available for contract work or full time position. Nationwide contacts.

Westchester County, NY
7+ years in pricing, credit, and syndications. Strong credit skills and marketing experience at VP level. All collateral. MBA in Finance.

For a full listing of all “job wanted” ads, please go to:

To place a free “job wanted” ad here, please go to:



FTC-IFC Trial Judge says date stands!!!

"... pages exceed 2,000."

Northern District of Illinois, Eastern Division, United States Magistrate Judge Jeffrey Cole turned down IFC Credit, Morton Grove, Illinois request asking for more time due to the time involved in depositions and various motions as IFC Credit attorneys flying to various states to interview witnesses. The attorneys for the FTC agreed to the motion to request more time, but the judge did not.

"04/10/2008 169 MINUTE entry before Judge Honorable Jeffrey Cole: The trial in this case is set to begin on 4/28/08 pursuant to an expedited schedule agreed upon by the parties and in part designed to eliminate the need for resolution of the FTC's Motion for Preliminary Injunction... The parties have now filed voluminous cross motions for summary judgment supported by numerous exhibits. By rough estimate, the total pages of the motions and exhibits thus far exceeds 2,000, and the briefing will not be completed until April 17, 2008, six days before the trial is to begin. Under these circumstances, and after a preliminary review of the materials that have thus far been filed, it seems that an appropriate exercise of discretion permits me to proceed with the trial without first resolving the cross motions for summary judgment... See The pre-trial conference presently scheduled for 4/21/08 is rescheduled to 4/22/08 at 3:00 p.m. Mailed and telephoned notice (cdh, ) (Entered: 04/10/2008)"

Two "lead attorneys" are noted for IFC:
Stephen Schulte, Chicago, IL, Winston & Strawn LLP
Jeffrey Wagner, Chicago, IL, Winston & Strawn LLP
The remaining attorneys are:
Beth Anne Alcantar, Morton Grove, IL. IFC Credit Corp.
Vince Borst, Chicago, IL, Borst & Collins, LLC
David Darcy, Chicago, Il, Askounis & Darcy
Debra Devassu. Chicago, Il., Askounis & Darcy
Justin Leinenweber, Chicago, Il, Winston & Strawn LLP
Kenneth Peters, Dressler, Chicago, IL, Dressler & Peters
Peter J. Deeb, Philadelphia, PA, Frey,Petrakis, Deeb, Blum & Briggs, PC

For the FTC:
Lead Attorney, David Horn, Seattle, WA
Robert Schroeder, Seattle,WA
Maxine Stansell, Seattle, WA

On April 9, 2008 Judge Jeffrey Cole: "IFC motion to dismiss the FTC's complaint(#28) is DENIED as to Counts I and II and GRANTED as to Count III. Enter memorandum Opinion and Order."

On April 10, 2008, the 43 pages Memorandum Opinion and Order was posted regarding IFC "face value of $21 million" in leases with "lease payments in some cases as high as $160,000."

The motion GRANTED concerned forum clauses where the judge found "Count III must be dismissed for failure to state a claim on which relief can be granted." It seems to center around "due process."

Here is Judge Cole's 43 page (1.2mb) memorandum Opinion and Order:



Creative Capital Leases for Sale

The latest in Creative Capital Leasing Group, LLC Chapter 11 petition has been a deadline set for relief to the creditors on record is May 31st. Creative Capital has maintained much of the business, which is now estimated to be $8,375,000 from 46 active business equipment leases.

Joseph M. Lee e-mail leasing news, "“I represent as one of the official creditors committee (OCC) whom is being asked to help in finding some potential buyers for the Creative Capital lease portfolio which is now for sale."

Joseph M. Lee
Tel: 1-415-640-1639 (Cell)

In order to learn more about the Leasing Portfolio, including reviewing the Leasing Portfolio files, or to make a bid, please contact counsel for the Committee: Edward Medina, Gordon & Rees, LLP, Phone #
619-696-6700, email:

Creative Capital Bankrupt Story

PFF Bank & Trust wins One



Up-Date: Over 400 to ELFA Nat. Funding Exhibition

In the leasing meeting round-up on April 4,2008, ELFA at the time did not have specific numbers, but expected "several hundred." This is the latest press release:

"Over four hundred people have registered for the 20th annual ELFA National Funding Exhibition, April 16 - 17 in Chicago. Are YOU on this list? If not, you should be.

"National Funding Exhibition
April 16-17, 2008
Fairmont Hotel, Chicago, IL

"You should be aware of comments from the 2008 Industry Future Council meeting, including, "If you don't find a way to fund yourself, you're out" and "Liquidity is king, and right now it's hard to come by". ELFA's National Funding Conference is the industry's major funding event -
can you afford to miss it?

"Mail and on-line registration is now closed, but you can bring the registration form and payment to the conference.

"The lite list is available to all, the detailed list can be viewed only by those already registered."

Lite List/Alphabetical:


( Note: Edward A. Dahlka, Jr., former president of LaSalle National Leasing, who was very active for many years in both the Equipment Leasing and Finance Association as well as Equipment Leasing and Finance Foundation, is listed as one of the attendees---no company affiliations. Here is a great opportunity to get him to consult or work at your company .editor)


AIG Commercial Equipment Finance, Inc.
Alliance Leasing, Inc.
All Points Capital
ALTEC Capital Services
Bank of the West
Boston Financial & Equity Corporation
Comerica Leasing Corporation
Commonwealth Capital Corp.
Fifth Third Leasing Company
First Bank of Highland Park
First Eagle Bank
GE Commercial Finance
Huntington Equipment Finance
IBM Global Financing
IFC Credit Corporation
Key Equipment Finance
Kingsbridge Holdings, LLC
Lakeland Bank
LEAF Financial Corporation
National City Commercial Capital LLC
New World Equipment Funding, LLC
People's Capital & Leasing Corp.
Popular Equipment Finance
Prudential Capital Group
RBS Asset Finance
Regions Equipment Finance
Sovereign Bank
Star Financial Bank, Star Equipment Finance Division
Sterling Bank Leasing
SunTrust Leasing Corporation
United Leasing, Inc.
US Bank Business Equipment Financing
Wells Fargo Equipment Finance Inc.

Leasing Association Conference Attendance Report:



Zack’s view on Marlin and the Leasing Industry

Zacks Investment Service has downgraded Marlin Business Service (MRLN) to a sell.

Marlin Business Service stock closed at $7.82. The further bad news is the volume was only 28,407 whereas the three month average is 72,119.

As per the latest proxy, Insiders own approximately 7.7% of outstanding shares. As per Zacks database, Institutions own about 63.85% of the total shares outstanding. The top three institutions were Columbia Wanger Asset Management (9.8%), William Blair & Company (5.9%), and Pequot Capital Management (4.3%).

What is most interesting is the view from Zack Investment Service.
While they mentioned the new hires, the report did not bring up the resignation of the former president Gary Shivers, whose position is still vacant. Dan Dyer the CEO claims to be the president, but Shivers’ contribution is obviously missing, as well as Michael Bennie, Bill Waddel, Dominic Janney, Tom Mancini, and Joe Gallo.

Gone recently are:
Gary Shivers, former president of Marlin.
Gary Kester, former VP of credit services.
Mike Bennie, former VP in charge of broker services.
Mike Witt, former director of legal.
Mark King, former director of credit.
Brian Cornell, former director of sales.
John Forsyth, former jack of all trades. (Sales, syndications, major accounts, etc)
Marcel Gilbert, former VP of IT (considered one of the best in the business)
Dominic Janney, former VP in charge of retail sales.
Tom Mancini, former VP in charge of copier sales and residuals.
There are others as talented, who built the culture, and left earlier, but what is most interesting is Zack’s view of the leasing industry today:

View of the leasing industry for Marlin by Zack Investment Service:

"MRLN s principal competitors in the highly fragmented and competitive small-ticket equipment leasing market are smaller finance companies and local and regional banks. Other providers of equipment lease financing include Key Corp, De Lage Landen Financial, GE Commercial Equipment Finance and Wells Fargo Bank, National Association. Many of these companies are substantially larger and have significantly greater financial, technical and marketing resources than MRLN yet many of them are not the primary competitors given that the company s average transaction size is relatively small and that its marketing focus is primarily on independent equipment dealers and their end user customers.

“Some of the competitors possess lower cost of funds and access to funding sources that are not available to MRLN. A lower cost of funds could enable a competitor to offer leases with yields that are less than the yields offered by the company. In addition, certain competitors may have higher risk tolerances or different risk assessments, which could enable them to establish more origination sources and end user customer relationships and increase their market share. MRLN competes on the quality of service they provide to their origination sources and end user customers; as such the company will continue to encounter significant competition in future.

“The weakening of the economy could further put pressure on the new originations and also affect the credit quality. The result for the present quarter was primarily impacted due to the changes in the external environment, weakening of the housing related industries, such as mortgage brokers, construction related industries, real estate and financial service providers. The new business growth was also impacted by the softness in the general business activity levels, most significantly in the industries related to residential and real estate development and also in the states of California and Florida. Pricing on the new lease originations in the 4Q07 was 12.98%, down 8 bps from the 3Q07 pricing of 13.06%.

“Net Interest and Fee Margin declined considerably by 49 bps sequentially to 10.17% during 4Q07. This compression still remains a challenge to top-line growth. As we have consistently stated, MRLN s net interest and fee margin should continue to experience pressure over time due to increased competition, as MRLN expands into new markets for direct business as well as into indirect business, where the company competes against larger companies with greater resources. At this time, further compression should be expected based on the tightening in the credit markets. We have modeled for a decline of about 25 bps over the next couple of quarters. However we do expect the cost of funds to come down slightly once the Marlin Business Bank becomes fully operational. Leverage, as measured by debt to tangible equity, increased by 76 bps on a sequential basis (to 5.15x). Tangible equity funded 15.6% of assets at period-end, down 124 bps year-over-year and 202 bps sequentially.

“Maintaining above-average growth over the long term is a very difficult task, and we believe MRLN s stock performance is predicated on growth. Competition tends to erode above-average returns over time, and we do not see particularly high barriers to entry in MRLN s business. Since MRLN represents only a tiny portion of the total equipment leasing business at present, the issue is likely manageable in the foreseeable future.

“Credit quality weakened in the current quarter. However, the company tightened its credit scores and curtailed new production in industries exhibiting deteriorating fundamentals. Net charge-offs totaled $4.8 million, or 2.58% of average net investment in lease on annualized basis. The company also increased its allowance for credit losses to $11.0 million, raising the provision as a percentage of total finance receivables to 1.47% from 1.27% in 3Q07. The delinquencies continued to rise during the recent quarter, with the 60-day delinquencies rising by 91 bps sequentially to end the quarter at 95 bps, with the increase mainly in the mortgage brokers and real estate categories. Though MRLN has a relatively small exposure to these categories (about 5% of total portfolio), we expect some deterioration in the credit quality in the coming quarters as the credit crisis expands to other sectors.

“Finally, while roughly two-thirds of MRLN s leases amortize to a $1 residual, the profitability of the other one-third is dependent upon the residual values of leased equipment at the end of the term. Residual values (and earnings) could be compromised by obsolescence and other factors beyond MRLN s control.

“The company reported diluted earnings of $0.25 per share for 4Q07 as compared to $0.32 per share for the same period in 2006. Diluted earnings were $1.49 per share for FY07, down 2.6% from $1.53 per share in FY06. Return on average assets and return on average equity were 2.12% and 12.57% respectively as on December 31, 2007 as compared to 2.54% and 14.95% respectively as on December 31, 2006.

“Net Interest Margin declined by 106 bps to 10.17% in 4Q07 as compared to 11.23% in 4Q06. Credit quality deteriorated with net-charge offs rising to 2.00% in 2007 compared to 1.56% in 2006.
The provision for credit losses increased to $17.2 million from $9.9 million in FY06.”

Their Report:

“This price target equates to 5.4x our 2008 earnings estimate of $1.29 per share or 0.57x our estimated book value six months out (now June 2008). With no dividend to supplement the return, this equates to a 12.6% expected negative total return over the period.

“Additionally, the quantitative Zacks Rank for MRLN is currently 5 (down from 3 on January 28, 2008), indicating downward directional pressure on the shares over the near term. Short interest currently is significantly up to 6.3 days, versus 9.8 days previously.”

Go to for the free full detailed report and two week free trial period. You will find more information on leasing and finance companies at Zacks!!!



Leasing Industry Help Wanted


Lake Success, NY

Full time, entry or jr. level collector, auto and/or equip collection exp. preferred. Resume: fax 718-392-5427
attn: Ed Kaye/Eric Coolbaugh

About the Company: Advantage Funding is the leader in automotive and equipment lease financing, Lake Success, NY.

Document Processor

Documentation Processor

New York, NY.

Mid-Town New York office seeking Documentation Processor with approximately 3 years experience. Click here for details.

Send all resumes in confidence to:

Leasing Sales Representative

Leasing Sales Representative
Long Island, NY

Hiring experienced or new to business sales reps. Transactions in all states / all industries. Send resume to: or fax 631-414-7571.

About the Company: Sterling Capital Leasing, LLC is a national small ticket/middle market leasing company

Special Assets Workout Officer

Special Assets Workout Officer,
San Francisco, CA

5+ years collection experience work-out commercial accts. equip. finance/leasing-
click here for more info

About the Company: Bank of the West and its subsidiaries are equal opportunity/affirmative
action employers.



Harbour Capital joins “Broker/Lessor” List

"Broker/Lessor" List

Third Column: YES - Year Company Started | YELB - Years in equipment Leasing Business

A - City Business License | B- State License | C - Certified Leasing Professional |
D - State(s) sales/use tax license |
E -
Named as "lessor" on 50% or more of lease contract signed. |

City, State
Leasing Association
(see above for meaning)
# of Empl.
Geographic Area
Buisness Reports
Harbour Capital Corporation
Newington, New Hampshire
Jay C. Taylor,
800-609-7778 x 532,
All 50 States and Canada
$3,000 - $5,000,000

To view the complete list, please click here.



Lease One, Lynnfield, Massachusetts

Program Cost: $19,900.00

Since 1989 Lease One has been providing superior training along with unprecedented ongoing support to our broker network. With offices from coast to coast we proudly exhibit the foremost training experience available. Our one time initial investment will provide you with the training and support for the lifetime of your venture with no on-going fees
(Hotel/Airfare/Materials/Leads are all included in this price).

“The Lease One Opportunity is the only turn key business opportunity that allows you to devote the time necessary to building a business, no need to worry about processing or underwriting your deals; we do it for you, forever! Our unique program is the only one that offers free marketing assistance along with a devoted graphics design department to enable you to creatively attract new customers to your business. Call us today or visit our website ( ) to learn more about this exciting opportunity. We are Lease One; It's the Lease we can do!”

Joseph L. Angelo Jr.
Lease One Corp.
220 Broadway, Suite 102
Lynnfield , MA 01940




Leasing News Advisory Board Member Biography

Armon Mills, Publisher

Armon Mills joined the Leasing News Advisory Board on February 5, 2004. In reality, he was quite instrumental and was the first to give Kit Menkin advice to incorporate, trade mark, and develop what were originally e-mails about what was happening in the equipment leasing industry sent to friends. Kit served on all Armon’s advisory boards; is a personal friend of he and his family. He and Armon often had lunch together often when Armon was located in San Jose, California. They also both served on community non-profit organizations as officers, including chairmen and presidents, working on projects together. Armon has been a mentor to several publishers, many of them across the nation, running the various Business Journals and other media.

One of the first pieces of advice he gave also applies to all industries, not just the news media. He said to not react to your competition. What he meant was yes; keep track of your competition, but concern your operation with your goal and mission. Keep records, statistics, and most of all, don’t try to copy what your competition does or even do the opposite. Don’t react. Don’t let your competition
run your publication. Make a plan, set your goals, and listen to your readers (customers) a lot more than whatever your competition is doing or not doing. Don’t be different, just to be different. As important, don’t be the same, trying to do the “same” better
than your competitor.

You know, it is common sense, that many of us know, but don’t exercise. Be yourself. Often that is very difficult to do. What Armon Mills told me: Don’t let your competition run your company. Do the best you can do, not what your competitor tells you must do.

Armon Mills
President & Publisher
San Diego Business Journal
4909 Murphy Canyon Rd., Suite 200
San Diego, CA 92123
Direct Line: 858.277.6795

In April of 2004, Armon Mills joined The San Diego Business Journal as President and Publisher of the award winning weekly.

Armon began his career in public accounting, earning his CPA certificate in 1967. He went on to work in public accounting at Fox & Company for 20 years. Armon knows the the world of business publishing well, changing his career path and signing on as President and COO of American City Business Journals, Inc. Armon has served as Publisher of the Business Journal in Phoenix, Arizona, the San Jose Silicon Valley Business Journal and Silicon Valley Biz Ink.

Armon has been active in many community organizations, including the Board of Directors of the San Jose/Silicon Valley Chamber of Commerce, San Jose Convention and Visitors Bureau, Boy Scouts of America, YMCA, Salvation Army and the Silicon Valley Chapter of the Commonwealth Club of California. He was also an active member of the San Jose Rotary Club.

Armon is continuing his strong commitment to the community here in San Diego. He is a member of the Rotary Club #33, and has accepted positions on the Board of Directors of Junior Achievement, the Salvation Army, the YMCA and is currently a member of the Finance Committee of the San Diego Convention and Visitors Bureau, the Pacific Life Holiday Bowl Committee, and most recently joined the board of the United Way of San Diego.

Recent Awards Include:
Media Advocate of the Year -1997
U.S. Small Business Administration San Francisco District

Silver Hope Award - 1997
National Multiple Sclerosis Society

Distinguished Citizen Award - 1998
Santa Clara County Council of Boy Scouts of America

Leadership Excellent Award – 1998
San Jose/Silicon Valley Chamber of Commerce

Silver Beaver Award - 2001
Santa Clara County Council of Boy Scouts of America

Southwestern College – Winfield, Kansas
Business Hall of Fame - 2002



News Briefs----

Retailers Post Sluggish Sales in March,0,97850.story

American CEO takes blame for errors, disrupted flights

Latest delay of Boeing 787 pushes back first delivery to third quarter of 2009

Storms pound Midwest with rain, snow

Council votes to cancel commercial salmon fishing off CA, OR

Tourism up in New Jersey

Michael John’s latest to leave American Idol

Katie Couric may leave CBS News, report says



You May have Missed---

Athletes who take Tibet stand 'face Olympic cut'



Sports Briefs----

Rose, Immelman lead; Woods even at Masters



California Nuts Briefs---

Oakland A's all-you-can-eat section can be a contest unto itself



“Gimme that Wine”

Diabetes Patients May Benefit From Wine,1197,4332,00.html

It's a beer vs. wine debate in new book

Good time for wineries to cash in

Beyond Grapes and Wine in Lake County, No. Cal.

A wine label overhaul: Meet the man who'd change your AVA,1,10328.story

Wine Prices by vintage
US/International Wine Events
Winery Atlas
Leasing News Wine & Spirits Page
The London International Vintners Exchange (Liv-ex) is an electronic exchange for fine wine.



Calendar Events This Day

Barbershop Quartet Day
Commemorates the gathering of 26 persons at Tulsa, OK, April 11, 1938, and the founding there of the Society for the Preservation and Encouragement of Barbershop Quarter Singing in America.

Cheese Fondue Day

Costa Rica: Juan Santamaria Day
National holiday. Commemorates the 1856 Battle of Rivas

Dandelion Day

Eight Track Tape Day

International “Louie Louie” Day
Provides an annual opportunity to celebrate the song that has been called the greatest party song of all time, has been recorded more times than any other rock son in history and was very nearly declared the official state song of Washington.

Uganda: Liberation Day
Republic of Uganda celebrates anniversary of overthrow of Idi Aminin’s dictatorship in 1979.

Saint feast Days



George Harrison, with "My Sweet Lord," was the first Beatle to have a Number 1 hit single following the group's breakup.



Today's Top Event in History

  1963- Jack Nicklaus, 23 year old, shot an even par 27 in the final round to finish a 2-under-par 286 and win the Masters by one stroke over Tony Lema. Nicklaus’s green jacket was his first of a record six, with his other victories coming in 1965, 1966, 1972, 1975 and1986.


This Day in American History

    1617 -- Pocahontas, the daughter of Native American King Powhatan, dies on a ship returning from England to Virginia. She leaves an infant son. School children are fed the romantic tale of Pocahontas' encounter with Captain John Smith. But the truth is that English settlers in Jamestown held her captive to force concessions from her father. Then Colonist John Rolfe married the captive Pocahontas, changed her name to Rebecca Rolfe, dressed her in English finery, and took her to England for Queen Elizabeth's amusement. He invented the story that the Indian woman had saved him, which made her the toast of the town. The myth was then propagated to promote the welcome of the white man to the Indian world.
    1783--- After receiving a copy of the provisional treaty on 13 March, Congress proclaims a formal end to hostilities with Great Britain.
    1803- In one of the great surprises in diplomatic history, French Foreign Minister Charles Maurice de Talleyrand makes an offer to sell all of Louisiana Territory to the United States. Talleyrand was no fool. As the foreign minister to French Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte, he was one of the most powerful men in the world. Three years earlier, Talleyrand had convinced Napoléon that he could create a new French Empire in North America. The French had long had a tenuous claim to the vast area west of the Mississippi River known as Louisiana Territory. In 1800, Napoléon secretly signed a treaty with Spain that officially gave France full control of the territory. Then he began to prepare France's mighty army to occupy New Orleans and bolster French dominion. When President Thomas Jefferson learned of Napoléon's plans in 1802, he was understandably alarmed. Jefferson had long hoped the US would expand westward beyond the Mississippi, but the young American republic was in no position militarily to challenge France for the territory. Jefferson hoped that his minister in France, Robert Livingston, might at least be able to negotiate an agreement whereby Napoléon would give the US control of New Orleans, the gateway to the Mississippi River. Napolean seeing a war with England about to happen and not wanting to divide his navy to the United States, told his emissary to sell it all. After months of having fruitlessly negotiated over the fate of New Orleans, Livingston again met with Talleyrand on this day in 1803. To Livingston's immense surprise, this time the cagey French minister coolly asked, "What will you give for the whole?" He meant not the whole of New Orleans, but the whole of Louisiana Territory. Quickly recognizing that this was an offer of potentially immense significance for the US , Livingston and Monroe began to discuss France's proposed cost for the territory. Several weeks later, on 30 April 1803, the American emissaries signed a treaty with France for a purchase of the vast territory for $11'250'000. A little more than two weeks later, Great Britain declared war on France. With the sale of the Louisiana Territory, Napoléon abandoned his dreams of a North American empire, but he also achieved a goal that he thought more important. "The sale [of Louisiana] assures forever the power of the United States," Napoléon later wrote, "and I have given England a rival who, sooner or later, will humble her pride."
    1816-Richard Allen became the first African American Methodist Episcopal Bishop being elected at the church’s founding convention in Philadelphia, PA, when 16 delegates from five independent churches met to form an African-American denomination based on the principles of Methodism. The earliest African-American Methodist organization, the African Union Methodist Church, was founded in 1813 by the Reverend Peter Spencer in Wilmington, DE.
    1841 - a big April snowstorm in the northeast dropped 12 inches at New York City, 24 inches in New Jersey, and 18 inches in Massachusetts. The "Tippecanoe and Tyler, too" victory parade was impeded and the Marshall died of pneumonia. people went to the New York City polls through snow on the 13th.
    1864-Birthday of Lizzie “Lillie” Bliss, born at Bsoton, MA. She was one of the three foundrs (all women) of the Museum of Modern Art at New York City in 1929. She died March 12, 1931, at New York City.
    1865---Birthday of Mary White Ovington, white woman who helped found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), served as chair of its board from 1919-1932 and became its treasurer. Acting many times as a mediator between factions within the organization, she found herself in later years at odds with W. E. B. Du Bois who favored limited integration while Ovington favored full integration and was active in the fight for school desegregation. She wrote several books on black leaders and several novels.
    1873- Captain Jack and his Modocs lure General Canby and others to their encampment to discuss peaceful surrender. The truth is that the Modocs had lost all faith in the U.S. negotiators and were hearing rumors about the whites planning to kill them. The Modocs surprise and kill General Canby, the only U.S. General killed during an Indian War, and also kill Reverend Eleasar Thomas who was part of Canby's peace commission
    1881-.Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia was opened in 1881 with the funding from the Rockefeller family " with the purpose of educating young African-American women." This college was to become known as "the Radcliff for Negro Women."
    1899-Drumer/Bandleaer Nick LaRocca birthday
    1899—African-American Percy L. Julian, born, chemist who research helped create drugs for the treatment of arthritis.
    1908-Birthday of Jane Matilda Bolin, born at Pourghkeepsie, NY, the first black woman to graduate from the Yale School of Law(1931) and went on to become
the first black woman judge in the United States. She served as assistant corporation counsel for the city of New York before being appoi8nted to the city’s Domestic Relations Court and the Family Court of the State of New York.
    1911—The U.S. Navy acquires its firs submarine.
    1933-The Dorsey Brother Orchestra along with the Boswell Sisters, record “Shuffle Off to Buffalo.”
    1935-birthday of vocalist and song writer Richard Berry, Extension,LA
    1935-birthday of guitarist Johnnie Billington, Crowder,MS
    1944---MICHAEL, EDWARD S. (Air Mission) Medal of Honor
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army Air Corps, 364th Bomber Squadron, 305th Bomber Group. Place and date: Over Germany, 11 April 1944. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Born: 2 May 1918, Chicago, Ill. G.O. No.: 5, 15 January 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as pilot of a B17 aircraft on a heavy-bombardment mission to Germany, 11 April 1944. The group in which 1st Lt. Michael was flying was attacked by a swarm of fighters. His plane was singled out and the fighters pressed their attacks home recklessly, completely disregarding the Allied fighter escort and their own intense flak. His plane was riddled from nose to tail with exploding cannon shells and knocked out of formation, with a large number of fighters following it down, blasting it with cannon fire as it descended. A cannon shell exploded in the cockpit, wounded the copilot, wrecked the instruments, and blew out the side window. 1st Lt. Michael was seriously and painfully wounded in the right thigh. Hydraulic fluid filmed over the windshield making visibility impossible, and smoke filled the cockpit. The controls failed to respond and 3,000 feet were lost before he succeeded in leveling off. The radio operator informed him that the whole bomb bay was in flames as a result of the explosion of 3 cannon shells, which had ignited the incendiaries. With a full load of incendiaries in the bomb bay and a considerable gas load in the tanks, the danger of fire enveloping the plane and the tanks exploding seemed imminent. When the emergency release lever failed to function, 1st Lt. Michael at once gave the order to bail out and 7 of the crew left the plane. Seeing the bombardier firing the navigator's gun at the enemy planes, 1st Lt. Michael ordered him to bail out as the plane was liable to explode any minute. When the bombardier looked for his parachute he found that it had been riddled with 20mm. fragments and was useless. 1st Lt. Michael, seeing the ruined parachute, realized that if the plane was abandoned the bombardier would perish and decided that the only chance would be a crash landing. Completely disregarding his own painful and profusely bleeding wounds, but thinking only of the safety of the remaining crewmembers, he gallantly evaded the enemy, using violent evasive action despite the battered condition of his plane. After the plane had been under sustained enemy attack for fully 45 minutes, 1st Lt. Michael finally lost the persistent fighters in a cloud bank. Upon emerging, an accurate barrage of flak caused him to come down to treetop level where flak towers poured a continuous rain of fire on the plane. He continued into France, realizing that at any moment a crash landing might have to be attempted, but trying to get as far as possible to increase the escape possibilities if a safe landing could be achieved. 1st Lt. Michael flew the plane until he became exhausted from the loss of blood, which had formed on the floor in pools, and he lost consciousness. The copilot succeeded in reaching England and sighted an RAF field near the coast. 1st Lt. Michael finally regained consciousness and insisted upon taking over the controls to land the plane. The undercarriage was useless; the bomb bay doors were jammed open; the hydraulic system and altimeter were shot out. In addition, there was no airspeed indicator, the ball turret was jammed with the guns pointing downward, and the flaps would not respond. Despite these apparently insurmountable obstacles, he landed the plane without mishap.
    1945- Allied Troops entered Buchenwald, north of Weimar, Germany. It was the first of the Nazi concentration camps to be liberated. It had been established in 1937, and about 56,000 people died there. The camp held thousands of prisoners, mostly slave laborers. There were no gas chambers, but hundreds, sometimes thousands, died monthly from disease, malnutrition, beatings, and executions. Doctors performed medical experiments on inmates, testing the effects of viral infections and vaccines. Among the camp's most gruesome characters was Ilse Koch, wife of the camp commandant, who was infamous for her sadism. She often beat prisoners with a riding crop, and collected lampshades, book covers, and gloves made from the skin of camp victims.
Soon after the takeover, General Dwight Eisenhower, commander of the Allied Forces in Europe, arrived. "I have never felt able to describe my emotional reaction when I came face to face with indisputable evidence of Nazi brutality and ruthless disregard of every shred of human decency," he wrote. "Up to that moment I had only known about it generally, or through secondary sources. I am certain, however, that I have never at any time experienced an equal sense of shock.
    1947- Jackie Robinson became the first African-American to play in major league baseball on this day when he played first base in a exhibition game as a Brooklyn Dodger against the New York Yankees. In the course of the season, he hit 12 home runs, stole 29 bases, and was voted Rookie of the Year. He won the Most Valuable Player in 1949. His success opened the racial integration of other baseball teams.
    1949---Top Hits
Cruising Down the River - The Blue Barron Orchestra (vocal: ensemble)
Sunflower - The Russ Morgan Orchestra (vocal: The Skylarks)
Red Roses for a Blue Lady - Vaughn Monroe
Candy Kisses - George Morgan
    1951 -- General Douglas MacArthur is removed from his command for unauthorized policy statements. The dismissal followed MacArthur's public disclosure of Truman's refusal to allow him to bomb Chinese bases in Manchuria. MacArthur returned to the United States to a hero's welcome. Parades were held in his honor, and he was asked to speak before Congress (where, on 19 April 1951, he gave his famous "Old soldiers never die, they just fade away" speech). Public opinion was strongly against Truman's actions, but the president stuck to his decision without regret or apology. Eventually, MacArthur did "just fade away," and the American people began to understand that his policies and recommendations might have led to a massively expanded war in Asia. Though the concept of a "limited war," as opposed to the traditional American policy of unconditional victory, was new and initially unsettling to many Americans, the idea came to define the US Cold War military strategy.
    1956 - Elvis Presley reached the top spot on the "Billboard" music chart with his first double-sided hit. The disk featured "Heartbreak Hotel" and "I Was the One." The RCA Victor record stayed at number one for eight weeks. Elvis also made the country and R&B charts, as well.
    1956 -- The man later known as Soul Brother Number One, James Brown, has his first chart entry when "Please, Please, Please" debuts on the R&B chart.
    1957 - No. 1 Billboard Pop Hit: ``All Shook Up,'' Elvis Presley. Billboard ranks the single as the No. 1 song of 1957, the second year in a row that Elvis has the top single of the year.
    1957---Top Hits
All Shook Up - Elvis Presley
Little Darlin’ - The Diamonds
Party Doll - Buddy Knox
Gone - Ferlin Husky
    1961 - Carl Yastrzemski replaced Ted Williams in left field for the Boston Red Sox. The ‘Yaz’ was just 21 years old and had but two years experience in the minor leagues when he was called. In his first at-bat, he got a hit off Kansas City’s Ray Herbert. Yastrzemski retired in 1984, having played his entire major-league career in a Boston Red Sox uniform.
    1961-the Los Angeles Angels, an American League expansion team, played their first regular season game, beating the Orioles in Baltimore, 7-2. The Angels finished the 1961 season in eight place with a record of 70-92. Renamed the California Angels in 1966, they won their first division title in 1979.
    1961-- Bob Dylan made his first professional appearance at Gerde's Folk City in New York's Greenwich Village, sharing the bill with bluesman John Lee Hooker. Dylan sang an arrangement of "House of the Rising Sun" and his own composition, "Song to Woody," a tribute to Woody Guthrie. Dylan took much of his inspiration from Guthrie, whom he had visited in a New Jersey hospital soon after he arrived in the New York area in early 1961. From his traditional folk music beginnings, Dylan went on to become one of rock music's superstars.
    1962- The New York Mets, a National League expansion team, played their first regular season game, losing 11-4, to the Cardinals in St. Louis. The Mets lost eight more games before winning one, and they finished the year in 10th place with a record of 40-120.The Mets won their first division title in 1969 and went on to stun the Baltimore Orioles in the World Series.
    1963- Jack Nicklaus, 23 year old, shot an even par 27 in the final round to finish a 2-under-par 286 and win the Masters by one stroke over Tony Lema. Nicklaus’s green jacket was his first of a record six, with his other victories coming in 1965, 1966, 1972, 1975 and1986.
    1965---Top Hits
I’m Telling You Now - Freddie & The Dreamers
The Birds and the Bees - Jewel Akens
Game of Love - Wayne Fontana & The Mindbenders
King of the Road - Roger Miller
    1965-President Lyndon Baines Johnson signed the Federal aid program for primary and secondary schools. This act allocated $1.34 billion for school districts according to the number of needy children they contained and included fund for parochial and private schools.
    1965 - the "Palm Sunday tornadoes", a particularly vicious outbreak, tore paths of devastation through Iowa, Wisconsin, Illinois, Michigan, Indiana, and Ohio. 255 people were killed and 3331 were injured. 37 tornadoes were rated F2 or greater with 18 rated F4 and 2 maximum intensity F5 tornadoes.
    1966---*PITSENBARGER WILLIAM H. Medal of Honor
For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Airman First Class Pitsenbarger distinguished himself by extreme valor on 11 April 1966 near Cam My, Republic of Vietnam, while assigned as a Pararescue Crew Member, Detachment 6, 38th Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Squadron. On that date, Airman Pitsenbarger was aboard a rescue helicopter responding to a call for evacuation of casualties incurred in an ongoing firefight between elements of the United States Army's 1st Infantry Division and a sizeable enemy force approximately 35 miles east of Saigon. With complete disregard for personal safety, Airman Pitsenbarger volunteered to ride a hoist more than one hundred feet through the jungle, to the ground. On the ground, he organized and coordinated rescue efforts, cared for the wounded, prepared casualties for evacuation, and insured that the recovery operation continued in a smooth and orderly fashion. Through his personal efforts, the evacuation of the wounded was greatly expedited. As each of the nine casualties evacuated that day was recovered, Airman Pitsenbarger refused evacuation in order to get more wounded soldiers to safety. After several pick-ups, one of the two rescue helicopters involved in the evacuation was struck by heavy enemy ground fire and was forced to leave the scene for an emergency landing. Airman Pitsenbarger stayed behind on the ground to perform medical duties. Shortly thereafter, the area came under sniper and mortar fire. During a subsequent attempt to evacuate the site, American forces came under heavy assault by a large Viet Cong force. When the enemy launched the assault, the evacuation was called off and Airman Pitsenbarger took up arms with the besieged infantrymen. He courageously resisted the enemy, braving intense gunfire to gather and distribute vital ammunition to American defenders. As the battle raged on, he repeatedly exposed himself to enemy fire to care for the wounded, pull them out of the line of fire, and return fire whenever he could, during which time he was wounded three times. Despite his wounds, he valiantly fought on, simultaneously treating as many wounded as possible. In the vicious fighting that followed, the American forces suffered 80 percent casualties as their perimeter was breached, and Airman Pitsenbarger was fatally wounded. Airman Pitsenbarger exposed himself to almost certain death by staying on the ground, and perished while saving the lives of wounded infantrymen. His bravery and determination exemplify the highest professional standards and traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the United States Air Force.
    1966--*ROBINSON, JAMES W., JR. Medal of Honor
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company D, 2d Battalion, 16th Infantry, 1st Infantry Division. Place and date: Republic of Vietnam, 11 April 1966. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Born: 30 August 1940, Hinsdale, Ill. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Company C was engaged in fierce combat with a Viet Cong battalion. Despite the heavy fire, Sgt. Robinson moved among the men of his fire team, instructing and inspiring them, and placing them in advantageous positions. Enemy snipers located in nearby trees were inflicting heavy casualties on forward elements of Sgt. Robinson's unit. Upon locating the enemy sniper whose fire was taking the heaviest toll, he took a grenade launcher and eliminated the sniper. Seeing a medic hit while administering aid to a wounded sergeant in front of his position and aware that now the 2 wounded men were at the mercy of the enemy, he charged through a withering hail of fire and dragged his comrades to safety, where he rendered first aid and saved their lives. As the battle continued and casualties mounted, Sgt. Robinson moved about under intense fire to collect from the wounded their weapons and ammunition and redistribute them to able-bodied soldiers. Adding his fire to that of his men, he assisted in eliminating a major enemy threat. Seeing another wounded comrade in front of his position, Sgt. Robinson again defied the enemy's fire to effect a rescue. In so doing he was himself wounded in the shoulder and leg. Despite his painful wounds, he dragged the soldier to shelter and saved his life by administering first aid. While patching his own wounds, he spotted an enemy machinegun which had inflicted a number of casualties on the American force. His rifle ammunition expended, he seized 2 grenades and, in an act of unsurpassed heroism, charged toward the entrenched enemy weapon. Hit again in the leg, this time with a tracer round which set fire to his clothing, Sgt. Robinson ripped the burning clothing from his body and staggered indomitably through the enemy fire, now concentrated solely on him, to within grenade range of the enemy machinegun position. Sustaining 2 additional chest wounds, he marshaled his fleeting physical strength and hurled the 2 grenades, thus destroying the enemy gun position, as he fell dead upon the battlefield. His magnificent display of leadership and bravery saved several lives and inspired his soldiers to defeat the numerically superior enemy force. Sgt. Robinson's conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity, at the cost of his life, are in keeping with the finest traditions of the U.S. Army and reflect great credit upon the 1st Infantry Division and the U.S. Armed Forces.
    1968 -Major call-up of reserves for duty in Vietnam
    1967-The Philadelphia 76ers defeated the Boston Celtics in Game 5 of the Easter Conference Finals, 140-116, to advance to the NBA finals. Philadelphia thus ended Boston’s eight –year streak of NBA titles and went on to beat the San Francisco Warriors for the championship, four games to two. The 76ers had won 68 games in the regular season and in 1980 were voted the greatest team in NBA history.
    1968- The Civil Rights Act of 1968 was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson, one week after the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Criticized for the Viet Nam war effort that he was confused by the military, Johnson was a great national president who achieved many reform measures. Upon signing this law into effect, he said, "...the proudest moments of my presidency have been times such as this when I have signed into law the promises of a century."
    1969-The Seattle Pilots, an American League expansion team, played their first regular season game, defeating the Chicago White Sox, 7-0, at Seattle’s Stick’s Stadium. The pilots finished the year in sixth place in the AL West and left Seattle in 1970 to become the Milwaukee Brewers.
    1970-Apollo 13, the third manned lunar landing mission, was successfully launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, carrying astronauts James A. Lovell, John L. Swigert, and Fred W. Haise. Two days later, on 13 April, disaster struck 300'000 km from earth when liquid oxygen tank No. 2 exploded, disabling the normal supply of oxygen, electricity, light, and water. A moment later Swigert reported to mission control: "Houston, we've had a problem," and minutes later the lunar landing was aborted. The crippled spacecraft continued to the moon, circled it, and began a long, cold journey back to earth.The astronauts and mission control were faced with enormous logistical problems in stabilizing the spacecraft and its oxygen supply, and providing enough energy to the damaged fuel cells to allow successful re-entry into the earth's atmosphere. n 17 April, with the world anxiously watching, tragedy turned to triumph as the Apollo 13 astronauts touched down safely in the Pacific Ocean.
    1970- Paul McCartney announced what he called a temporary break with the Beatles. But the split proved to be permanent. McCartney cited personal differences, which were later revealed to be disapproval of Yoko Ono, John Lennon's wife, and of Beatles' financial adviser Allen Klein. A week after McCartney's announcement, he released his first solo album, spelling the end of the Beatles.
    1970- guitarist and vocalist Peter Green, one of the founders of Fleetwood Mac, announced he was leaving the group to follow his religious beliefs. Green's departure put an end to Fleetwood Mac's blues leanings, and the band turned to a more melodic rock sound. Green stayed out of music until the late '70s, when he made two solo LP's.
    1973---Top Hits
The Night the Lights Went Out in Georgia - Vicki Lawrence
Neither One of Us (Wants to Be the First to Say Goodbye) - Gladys Knight & The Pips
Ain’t No Woman (Like the One I’ve Got) - Four Tops
Super Kind of Woman - Freddie Hart & The Heartbeats
    1979-- Idi Amin overthrown: In Uganda, Tanzanian troops and forces of the Uganda National Liberation Front (with alleged support and supplies from the United States) captured the capital of Kampala, driving Ugandan dictator Idi Amin into a permanent exile. In 1971, Major General Idi Amin, commander-in-chief of Uganda's armed forces since 1966, staged a successful military coup against Ugandan President Milton Obote. Amin's regime initially faced substantial opposition within the army by officers and troops loyal to Obote, but by the end of 1971, he was in firm control of both the army and the country. During 1972, Amin, a Muslim, strengthened ties with Libya and other Arab nations and launched a genocidal program to purge Uganda of its Lango and Acholi ethnic groups.It is estimated that up to three hundred thousand Ugandans were killed during Idi Amin's eight years of rule. Amin found sanctuary in Saudi Arabia.
    1981 - Eddie Van Halen and actress, Valerie Bertinelli of "One Day at a Time" (CBS-TV) were married in Los Angeles, California. Van Halen, who was born in Nijmegen, The Netherlands, moved to Pasadena, CA in 1968. David Lee Roth was a member of the group, as was rocker, Sammy Hagar, who replaced Roth in 1981. The group was founded in 1974. On the Van Halen hit list, these toe tappers: "Jump", "Dance the Night Away", "(Oh) Pretty Woman", "Why Can’t This Be Love", "Dreams" and "When It’s Love".
    1981---Top Hits
Kiss on My List - Daryl Hall & John Oates
Just the Two of Us - Grover Washington, Jr./Bill Withers
Morning Train (Nine to Five) - Sheena Easton
You’re the Reason God Made Oklahoma - David Frizzell & Shelly West
    1983- Harold Washington was elected the first black mayor of Chicago. Of the city's 1.6 million voters, a record 82 percent voted. Washington won 51%, was reelected in April, 1987, and unfortunately died seven months later while in office.
    1983 – The 55th Annual American Academy Awards were held at Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in Los Angeles. Hosts were Liza Minnelli, Dudley Moore, Richard Pryor, and Walter Matthau. Those who voted for Best Picture had to choose between "E.T.: the Extra-Terrestrial", "Missing", "Tootsie", "The Verdict" and "Gandhi". "Gandhi" (Richard Attenborough, producer) was the winner of this Oscar and seven more including Best Director Richard Attenborough; Best Actor Ben Kingsley; Best Art Direction/Set Decoration (Stuart Craig, Robert W. Laing, Michael Seirton); Best Cinematography (Ronnie Taylor, Billy Williams); Best Costume Design (Bhanu Athaiya, John Mollo); Best Film Editing (John Bloom); Best Writing/Screenplay Written Directly for the Screen (John Briley). Believe it or not there were some Oscars leftover for other deserving folks. The Best Actress golden statuette was awarded to Meryl Streep for "Sophie’s Choice"; while Jessica Lange received her Best Supporting Actress award for "Tootsie" and Louis Gossett, Jr. picked up his Best Supporting Actor award for "An Officer and a Gentleman". "An Officer and a Gentleman" was honored again for Best Music/Song: "Up Where We Belong" (Jack Nitzsche and Buffy Sainte-Marie [music], Will Jennings [lyrics], with "Victor/Victoria" winning the category of Best Music/Original Song Score and Its Adaptation or Best Adaptation Score (Henry Mancini, Leslie Bricusse). Other movies mentioned were"Poltergeist", "Annie", "Rocky III", "Blade Runner", "Das Boot", "Diner", "The World According to Garp",.
    1987 - Ten days of flooding in the northeastern U.S. finally came to an end. Damage from flooding due to rain and snow melt ran into the billions of dollars. The collapse of the New York State Thruway Bridge over Schoharie Creek claimed ten lives.
    1988 - 16 cities in the western part of the country, including 9 in California, reported new record high temperatures for the date. Afternoon highs of 95 degrees at Sacramento, California and 96 degrees at Bakersfield, California were their warmest of record for so early in the season.
    1988 - the 60th Annual Academy Awards were held at the Los Angeles Shrine Auditorium. Chevy Chase was the host. Cher won the Oscar for Best Actress ("Moonstruck"), over the likes of Meryl Streep, Glenn Close, Sally Kirkland, and Holly Hunter. "Moonstruck" struck gold again as Olympia Dukakis picked up the Oscar for Best Supporting Actress, and John Patrick Shanley won for Best Writing/Screenplay Written Directly for the Screen. Almost all of the other awards (9) that evening were won by "The Last Emperor" (Jeremy Thomas, producer) including Best Picture, and Best Director (Bernardo Bertolucci), except for Michael Douglas who received the Best Actor award for his performance in "Wall Street", Sean Connery for his Best Supporting Actor role in "The Untouchables", and "Dirty Dancing" which had the winning Music/Song, "(I’ve Had) The Time of My Life" (music: Frank Previte, John DeNicola and Donald Markowitz, lyrics: Frank Previte). Funny man hosted the fun-filled event. Note: "The Last Emperor" won in every category in which it was nominated.
    1989-Goalie Ron Hextall of the Philadelphia Flyers scored an empty-net goal against the Washington Capitals as the flyers won, 8-5,. For Hestall, it was the second goal of his career and the first scored by any goalie in a Stanley Cup playoff game.
    1989---Top Hits
The Look - Roxette
She Drives Me Crazy - Fine Young cannibals
Like a Prayer - Madonna
I’m No Stranger to the Rain - Keith Whitley
    1989 - Forty-four cities in the south central and eastern U.S. reported new record low temperatures for the date. Lows of 25 degrees at Conway AR, 29 degrees at Dallas/Fort Worth TX, and 22 degrees at Ozark AR, were April records. Lows of 26 degrees at Hot Springs AR and 31 degrees at Shreveport LA equaled April records.
    1990 - While showers produced heavy rain over much of the northeastern U.S., heavy snow blanketed northern Maine, with 13 inches reported at Telos Lake. Strong southwesterly winds accompanying the rain and snow gusted to 68 mph at the Blue Hill Observatory in Massachusetts. Rainfall totals of 1.04 inch at Pittsburgh PA and 1.52 inch at Buffalo NY on the 10th were records for the date.
    1991-Persian Gulf War ends. United Nations Security Council Resolution 687, calling for an official cease-fire in Iraq, was declared in effect by the Security Council five days after Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein reluctantly accepted its terms. On 02 August 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait, its tiny, oil-rich neighbor, and within hours Iraqi forces had occupied most strategic positions in the country. One week later, Operation Shield, the American defense of Saudi Arabia, began as US forces raced to the Persian Gulf. On 29 November, 1990, the UN Security Council passed a resolution authorizing the use of force against Iraq if it failed to withdraw from Kuwait by 15 January 1991. At 16:30 Eastern Standard Time on 16 January 1991, Operation Desert Storm, a massive US -led offensive against Iraq, began as the first fighter aircraft were launched from Saudi Arabia and off of US and British aircraft carriers in the Persian Gulf. On 06 April, Iraq accepted the resolution, and on 11 April, the Security Council declared it in effect; although in later years Saddam Hussein frequently violated the terms of the peace agreement. One hundred and twenty-five American soldiers were killed in the Persian Gulf War, with another twenty-one reported as missing in action.
    1991- Broadway's most expensive musical, "Miss Saigon," opened at the Broadway Theatre in New York. The budget was a record $10-million and front-row seats went for $100, also a Broadway first. "Miss Saigon" had already played in London for two years, and its success led to $35-million in advance sales in New York, another Broadway record. The show, which tells the love story of an American Marine and a Vietnamese prostitute, prompted protests by Asian-American groups and Actors Equity. They were upset with producer Cameron McIntosh's decision to cast British actor Jonathan Pryce in a Eurasian role. McIntosh threatened to cancel the Broadway run, and the actors' union relented.
    1995 - Peter, Paul and Mary release their 17th album, ``LifeLines.''
    1998 - History's great thumb picking guitarists have their day when Grandpa Jones, Merle Travis, Chet Atkins, Ike Everly, Kennedy Jones, Arnold Shultz, Lightnin' Chance, Mose Rager and Laverda Rager are named charter inductees in the National Thumb Pickers Hall of Fame.

Stanley Cup Champions This Date
    1936---Detroit Red Wings



Spring Poem

Spring Vow

    by Larissa Shmailo

We will love like dogwood.
Kiss like cranes.
Die like moths.
I promise.




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