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Monday, February 7, 2022

Today's Leasing News Headlines

ZRG Global Summit Conference
    By ZRG CEO Larry Hartmann
Cost of Capital Going Up
    Wheeler Business Consulting
Leasing and Finance Industry Ads
    You Want Benefits? We've Got Them
Contact Information on My Resume—Do’s and Don'ts
    Career Crossroad---By Emily Fitzpatrick/RII
“Lease Here, Pay Here”
  The Solution for Used Car Inflation
    By Nick Markosian, President of Markosian Auto
Leasing News Advisor
    Ken Greene, Attorney
Top Ten Leasing News Read by Readers
    January 31 to February 2
Has Facebook Reached Its Growth Limit?
    Monthly & Daily Active Users Worldwide - Chart
Housing Market Gains $6.9 Trillion in 2021
    By Kyle G. Horst, DS News and MReport
Ascentium Capital LLC Closes Year Strong
    Attaining $1.43 Billion in Funded Volume for 2021
Melissa Vinson named Director of Academies
    Certified Leasing and Finance Professional Foundation
Two Cute Dogs
    Redwood City, California Adopt-a-Dog
deBanked Connect Miami 2022
    March 24th, 2022 JW Marriott Marquis
News Briefs---
Four Utah banks targeted for laundering predatory
    loans of up to 225% APR
Amazon’s North America revenue ticks up 18.4% in 2021
    Net Income was up 56.5% to $33.6 Billion
CDC says boosted people are 97 times less likely
    to die from COVID Tthan the unvaxed

You May have Missed---
These 10 billionaires lost $185 billion
    since the start of the year

Broker/Funder/Industry Lists | Features (wrilter's columns)
Top Ten Stories Chosen by Readers | Top Stories last six months (Be Careful of Doing Business)
Leasing News Icon for Android Mobile Device

Sports Brief----
 California Nuts Brief---
   "Gimme that wine"
    This Day in History
      Daily Puzzle
        Weather, USA or specific area
         Traffic Live----

######## surrounding the article denotes it is a “press release,” it was not written by Leasing News nor has the information been verified. The source noted. When an article is signed by the writer, it is considered a “byline.” It reflects the opinion and research of the writer.


ZRG Global Summit Conference
By ZRG CEO Larry Hartmann

ZRG Partners just completed a global summit in the Bahamas with 150 of the senior leaders.  ZRG had its roots recruiting and consulting in the Equipment Finance space and still does a tremendous amount of senior level executive search work in this area. 

The summit featured Hall of Fame Basketball Legend Bill Walton, who shared some great leadership lessons from his life and time with Coach John Wooden.  Also joining the Conference was James Caan, the founder of Alexander Mann in the UK.  James sold this business and is a billion dollar business today.  James was on the UK version of Shark Tank, called Dragons Den, for several years. James is an investor and board member in ZRG Partners.

ZRG today boasts over 350 teammates around the world and has added many new sectors including a sports practice that does head coaches in the NFL, lots of college work including supporting the USC Football coach search, the commissioner of the PAC12 and ACC.

The firm also does work in entertainment, technology, consumer, industrial, and the financial services practice is active in many Fin Tech sectors to complement the history in conventional lending and equipment leasing.

It’s great to see the firm, which had its start with Larry Hartmann in the equipment finance space with Rockford Industries which was later sold to American Express, has built a new business that is growing and supporting talent in the space.

ZRG is private equity backed, is reporting over $160M a year in revenues, and has expanded from pure search into search, interim and consulting.

Larry Hartmann
ZRG Partners
Global Talent Advisory Firm
O: 201-560-9900 x 222


Cost of Capital Going Up
Wheeler Business Consulting

Scott Wheeler, CLFP

Over the past decade, if not longer, the cost of capital has been historically low for participants in the commercial equipment finance and leasing industry. Low cost of capital provides many benefits and can effectively minimize minor indiscretions. With a possible increase in the cost of capital over the next 12 to 24 months, those minor indiscretions may be amplified and develop into major challenges for many participants. Savvy equipment finance and leasing participants have already started making adjustments to prepare for a rapid increase in the cost of funds even though their expectations (hopes) remain that increases will be incremental over an extended period of time. Below are just a few topics which are once again being addressed in strategic planning meetings throughout the industry:

Limiting terms:  significantly decreasing weighted average terms within a portfolio.

Tightening processes and efficiencies now rather than waiting. Minor inefficiencies become major issues when cost of funds suddenly increases.

  • Match funding
  • Strengthening relationships with primary banks or funding sources
  • Explicitly defining structures and pricing models for the long-term sustainability of the company
  • Having real-time competitive information to monitor changes in the market
  • Identifying core business profiles and strengthening positions within primary channels before pursuing additional channels.

Many of the above topics are always part of a meaningful strategic discussion; they are being emphasized in 2022. The discussions are not panic driven but rather, preparatory and necessary. I have spoken to several executives of banks and independent clients over the past few months who are being proactive to ensure their growth continues while being cognitive of a rising interest rate environment. They rightfully foresee possible challenges as a tremendous opportunity as long as they are well positioned in the market, facing their long-term fiduciary responsibility to shareholders and owners, and providing a superior service to both end-users and vendors.

Scott A. Wheeler, CLFP
Wheeler Business Consulting
Comments, questions and suggestions are welcome.
Phone: 410-877-0428

Wheeler Business Consulting works with banks, independents, captives, origination companies, and investors in the equipment leasing and finance arena. We provide training, strategic planning, and acquisition services. Scott Wheeler is available to discuss your long-term strategy, to assist your staff to maximize outcomes, and to better position your organization in the market.


Help Wanted Ads



Contact Information on My Resume—Do’s and Don'ts

Career Crossroad---By Emily Fitzpatrick/RII

Question:  How should my contact information be laid out on my resume

Answer:  First, as I noted in my column on “Job Boards,” do not put your home address on a resume and think about your telephone, too, if your resume is going to appear online. Using Google, your
home telephone number will bring up your address, map, and even photo of where you live. I recommend only putting down your mobile device number.

Once on the internet, your address and phone number may be copied to other groups and be available for anyone to discover or find.

When listing your phone number, be consistent (xxx) xxx-xxxx on all your correspondence (resume, cover letter, thank you notes).  For resumes directed to employers outside the U.S., be sure to include the correct international prefixes in all phone numbers so you can be reached easily.

You will want to include:
Full Name

  • Private email, but be aware many emails wind up in spam/bulk/trash folders.
  • Make sure your address is “professional” and create another if necessary. If this is going to be sent via the internet, I would just use city and state, and not street address. Nothing is private on the internet.
  • Avoid using underlines or spaces between words

LinkedIn Profile
Spell out all street names, e.g. Boulevard rather than Blvd.
City, State (postal abbreviation) Zip
Phone 1
Phone 2
·        Do not use work numbers
·        Provide your cell phone as well as your home number if the resume is not going on the internet or sent via the internet.

Emily Fitzpatrick
Sr. Recruiter
Recruiters International, Inc.
Phone:  954-885-9241
Cell:  954-612-0567
Invite me to connect on LinkedIn
Also follow us on Twitter #RIIINFO

Career Crossroads Previous Columns


“Lease Here, Pay Here”
The Solution for Used Car Inflation
By Nick Markosian, President of Markosian Auto

According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, used car inflation is up an eye-popping 39.8 percent since March of 2020. What's more, the $10,000 and under range has been hit even harder. It can be hard to keep our chins up when trying to figure out how to deal with this unprecedented rise in prices and, more importantly, how to continue our mission to provide affordable transportation to those with less than perfect credit.

Here's the short answer to this problem: leasing.

If you are a typical “Buy Here Pay Here dealer”, the only option to keep cars affordable is to lower margins and increase the term of the loan, thus increasing the risk.

An indisputable fact of the in-house business is the longer the term, the higher the risk. If you’re a Lease Here Pay Here dealer, however, you have one other powerful lever to pull to keep payments in a range of successful outcomes for both you and the customer: the residual. You can, and you should, increase the residual, because the asset is very likely to be worth more at the end of the lease than pre-COVID. It will be years before demand comes in line with supply and, with shorter terms such as three years or less, it is totally justifiable to increase the residual without resorting to lower money factors, increased terms, and other unattractive measures to keep things affordable for our customers.

Now more than ever, leasing is the answer for our customers.

Nick Markosian

Source: NVLA LeaseWire


Lease Here Pay Here.”  It is similar to “Buy Here Pay Here” (BHPH) both are deep subprime auto financing and leasing usually provided by the dealer's own financing or debt. There are some significant benefits to LHPH over BHPH (mostly title control/ownership and tax).

Surprisingly, many new car dealers are starting LHPH programs, mostly due to the supply shortage of used inventory.  They maximize profit by selling the vehicles to their related finance company and leasing them with large profit margins. Profitability is much higher than selling used cars.

This link says it all!

Edward P. Kaye, Esq.
One Rockefeller Plaza
11th Floor
New York, NY 10020
Direct Dial: 212-262-6397
Facsimile:   212-262-6298



Ken Greene
Law Office of Kenneth Charles Greene
5743 Corsa Avenue Suite 208
Westlake Village, California 91362
Tel: 818.575.9095
Fax: 805.435.7464

Ken is an attorney with his own law firm, the Law Office of Kenneth Charles Greene. He was involved in the formation of Leasing News, Inc. and represented it (pro bono) in the early days. Ken is currently based in Southern California. He began his leasing career with BankAmerilease in 1981. Ken has been a partner in several law firms including Ross & Ivanjack, one of the first law firms in the country devoted exclusively to the equipment finance industry.

Ken served as corporate counsel to a leasing company and a real estate development company. He was a partner in a major Universal City law firm before opening his own firm in Westlake Village, California in 2013. The new firm continues representation of equipment finance companies, including lessors and brokers, in litigation, bankruptcy, licensing, compliance and transactions. He also represents small businesses and individuals in litigation, bankruptcy, transactions, contract, and corporate matters, as well as entities and individuals in the entertainment industry.

Ken has been associated with the American Bankruptcy Institute, California Bankruptcy Forum, Eastern Association of Equipment Lessors (“EAEL”), Equipment Leasing and Finance Association (“ELFA”—formerly the Equipment Leasing Association), and National Equipment Finance Association (NEFA) (formerly NAEL, UAEL, and, once upon a time, WAEL). He has served on the Board of Directors of that association and has been its Legal Committee Chairman, Legal Line Editor, Regional Committee Chair, and Conference Chairman. He is currently General Counsel for the American Association of Commercial Finance Brokers (formerly the “National Association of Equipment Leasing Brokers”) and has spoken at conference panels the last four years, and is a member of the American Bar Association. He is also the Legal Editor for Leasing News.

Ken has served on the Board of Directors of Big Brothers Big Sisters of Ventura County, the Mountain Play Association in Marin County, California, and the Marin Symphony Orchestra Association. He has been active in musical theater at the school and community levels. He is the Musical Director at Bogies at the Westlake Village Inn and is very active in the Conejo Valley music community. In 2019, he was featured in Calabasas Style Magazine in the “People to Watch” section. He is now a part owner of and General Counsel to  The Record Factory in Sausalito, California, formerly known as The Record Plant, an iconic and historic recording studio which gave birth to some of the most renowned albums of all time, including Fleetwood Mac’s “Rumors,” Stevie Wonder’s “Songs in the Key of Life,” and many more.

Ken received his B. A, at Brandeis University, located in Waltham, Massachusetts, graduating cum laude. He received his J.D. at Santa Clara University in 1980, also graduating with honors.
Mr. Greene has been a frequent writer and lecturer on matters of leasing law and other related legal issues. He is an acknowledged contributor on bankruptcy issues to Miller & Starr, California Real Estate 2d (Bancroft Whitney). He has lectured on leasing law and documentation, litigation, licensing, and collection matters, and has created and presented seminars to leasing companies on enhancing the attorney-client relationship. He has also taught nationally for Euromoney Lease Training. He currently writes for the AACFB’s “Commercial Break” and the National Association of Commercial Lease Brokers’ “Dealmaker” and other periodicals.

Ken’s passions, besides music, include travel, yoga, cooking, hiking, reading, golf, crossword puzzles, the Yankees, cigars, wine, and more. He lives in Moorpark, California with his wife Barbara and their son Alex, who is a graduate of Cal Lutheran and is pursuing further education in video game design. His daughter, Gigi, graduated UC Irvine and is employed at Service Titan as an event planner and diversity leader. She also has a photography business (PhotoGGraphy). In his “spare” time, Ken plays keyboards with several Los Angeles and San Francisco Bay Area bands, and plays and records with other local artists.


Top Ten Leasing News Read by Readers
January 31 to February 2

(1) Updates: When Do the New Laws Take Effect?
By Kenneth C. Greene, Leasing News Legal Editor

(2) New Hires/Promotions in the Leasing Business
and Related Industries

(3) Feeds Me Every Day...

(4) Best Seller at the ELFA Book Store

(5) Tom Brady’s $15 million bonus
— what happens to it?, Saint-Bruno

(6) Companies Who Notify Lessee
in Advance of Lease Expiration

(7) Female Leasing/Finance Association Presidents
Year of Office

(8)  Tesla's Side Business is Losing its Charge
Chart in Millions Gross Profit in Q4 2021

(9) Bank Branch Closures Hit Record:
269 In California Shuttered

(10) Walmart-backed FinTech is building a super-app
complete with a neobank



We’ve been hearing variations of the same story for years: "Facebook is no longer cool," "people are leaving Facebook behind", "teenagers are over Facebook", and so on. Yet, the world’s largest social network continued to grow, adding nearly 600 million monthly active users over the past three years alone. Until now that is. According to its latest earnings release, Facebook's user growth plateaued in the last three months of 2021, a first in the platform's 18-year history.

In Q4 2021, Facebook had 2,912 million monthly active users, practically unchanged from 2,910 million in the previous quarter. The same trend was visible in the platform's most engaged users, as the number of those logging in daily declined from 1,930 million in Q3 2021 to 1,929 million in the last three months of the year.

So have we officially reached "Peak Facebook"? For now, it's too early to tell but if the trend continues in the next quarter, it would be an ominous sign, suggesting that all the surveys pointing towards declining Facebook usage may have had a point after all.

By Felix Richter, Statista


Housing Market Gains $6.9 Trillion in 2021
By Kyle G. Horst, DS News and MReport

$43 trillion: that is the new value of the housing market as a whole, now double what it was since the lows of the post-recession market and the corresponding building slump of the early 2010s.

According to Zillow, the housing market gained $6.9 trillion in value in 2021, increasing to $43.4 trillion throughout the year. It was found that the market hit the $40 trillion mark in June and continued increasing at a rate of at least a half-trillion per month.

For reference, the market hit the $10 trillion mark in 1994, the $20 trillion mark in 2004, and $30 trillion in July 2017.

How did the market hit the $40 trillion mark then sail past it so quickly? Strong demand faced record lows of inventory, increasing real estate values by an average of 16.9% last year, a record seen by Zillow.

Zillow Senior Economist Jeff Tucker, noted, "Even in the context of a year in which several housing records were topped, the scale of the housing market's growth in 2021 is eye-popping.

 "Not only did prices rise faster than ever, but more homes were built than in any year since 2007 as builders raced to meet demand. Skyrocketing home values may be celebrated by longtime homeowners, but are daunting for those trying to buy their first home. This year is likely to be less competitive for buyers, but it will continue to be a sellers’ market."  

As a whole, when dividing the total number of houses by price into thirds, the top third of the most expensive homes now makes up 60.8% of the market, the middle third makes up 26.4%, while the bottom third of homes accounts for only 12.8% of the market. Putting that another way, a top-tier home is on average worth five times more than the lowest tier.

The real estate market in California also put up strong numbers throughout the year.

In total, the value of the California real estate market is now worth over one-fifth, or 21.3%, of the total U.S. real estate market. Its market increased by $1.4 trillion last year and is now worth $9.4 trillion, more than the bottom 30 states, combined.

Other states performed better than California when comparing the amount they added to the market in 2021 compared to their market share. Those states are: Idaho (+64.1%), Utah (+49.2%), Montana (+46.3%), Arizona (+40.0%), Colorado (+34.5%), and Florida (+30.9%).

Among metropolitan areas, New York City remains the nation’s most valuable, clocking in at $3.51 trillion, but the second place market, Los Angeles, is quickly closing the gap, coming in at $3.27 trillion.

Los Angeles also contributed more to the total growth this year than any other city. The city is responsible for adding $431 billion in value, or 6.3% of total gains. This is followed by New York City (5.0%), San Francisco (3.3%), San Diego (2.9%), and Phoenix (2.5%).

“This list is heavily influenced by the overall size of the market – a larger market means more homes means more value, all else equal—but there were some notable exceptions,” Tucker wrote in his report. “Phoenix, for example, is the nation’s 14th-largest metro area by population, but was in the top 5 of this list. Growth in Austin, the nation’s 35th-largest metro area, matched the value added in Houston—the nation’s sixth-largest metro.



##### Press Release ############################

Ascentium Capital LLC Closes Year Strong
Attaining $1.43 Billion in Funded Volume for 2021

Ascentium Capital LLC, a national commercial lender, exceeded projections, reporting fourth quarter funding volume of $374.6M. Fueled by strong performance in the quarter, the company ended the year at $1.43 billion, up 14% over the prior year.

Tom Depping, Executive Vice President and Ascentium Group Manager, said, “Business owners and managers are working every day to build successful strategies for the future, and Ascentium Capital is proud to be on the front lines with these companies, connecting them with financial solutions that can help them not only meet their financial objectives but also grow and thrive in a competitive environment.

“Certainly, the pandemic has prompted many industries to reassess their financial needs, and constant innovation means the equipment needs of companies from many sectors will continue to evolve. We are proud to have delivered strong results for our clients in 2021 based on our experience and insights.

“Additionally, we are proud to be part of Regions Bank, a company dedicated to meeting the holistic needs of business clients. We look forward to building on our progress in 2022 by taking a client-focused, team-based approach toward helping customers access the equipment and tools they need in an effective and efficient manner.”
Since its inception in 2011, Ascentium Capital has provided $8.9 billion in specialized equipment financing and business loans to commercial entities nationwide. The company offers customized finance programs for equipment manufacturers and distributors with simplified application procedures to help businesses in a broad array of industries including commercial vehicles, energy, franchise, healthcare, industrial, and technology.

David Lyder, Senior Vice President of Ascentium Sales and Marketing, commented, “I’m very proud of everything this team accomplished coming off a year characterized by unprecedented market disruption.

“We’ve played a key role in helping our customers build their businesses. To ensure we’re supporting our constituents to the best of our ability, we continue to invest in new offers, technology and operational efficiencies. Additionally, we are building our sales teams to deliver more personalized service.”

About Ascentium Capital LLC
Ascentium Capital LLC, a subsidiary of Regions Bank, specializes in providing a broad range of business equipment financing, leasing, and loans across the United States. The Company’s offering is designed to benefit equipment manufacturers and distributors as well as direct to businesses nationwide. For additional information about Ascentium and its business financing products and services, please visit

About Regions Financial Corporation
Regions Financial Corporation (NYSE:RF), with $163 billion in assets, is a member of the S&P 500 Index and is one of the nation’s largest full-service providers of consumer and commercial banking, wealth management, and mortgage products and services. Regions serves customers across the South, Midwest and Texas, and through its subsidiary, Regions Bank, operates approximately 1,300 banking offices and more than 2,000 ATMs. Regions Bank is an Equal Housing Lender and Member FDIC. Additional information about Regions and its full line of products and services can be found at

### Press Release ############################


### Press Release ############################

Melissa Vinson named Director of Academies
Certified Leasing and Finance Professional Foundation

The Certified Lease & Finance Professional “CLFP” Foundation, the preeminent education and certifying body created to raise the industry standards among equipment leasing and financing professionals, is pleased to announce the appointment of Melissa “Mel” Vinson, CLFP, as Director of Academies beginning immediately.

((The CLFP designation identifies an individual as a knowledgeable professional to employers, clients, customers, and peers in the commercial equipment finance industry. There are currently 1,099 active Certified Lease & Finance Professionals and Associates in the United States (including Puerto Rico), Canada, Australia, India and Africa.))

Reid Raykovich, CLFP, CEO of the CLFP Foundation shared, “With the rapid growth in demand for our Academies for Lease & Finance Professionals ( ‘ALFPs) we knew that it was time to hire someone to run the entire ALFP experience, including traveling to in-person classes once permitted.

“After gaining her designation in May of 2020, Mel jumped in and began teaching right away and has shown a dedication to the Foundation, and our mission.  Her passion and enthusiasm for what we do, and her desire to help others makes her a natural fit and we are ecstatic to have joined the team.”

Mel Vinson, CLFP, stated, “I am humbled and honored but most of all delighted to take on the role of the Director of Academies with the CLFP Foundation. I have always had great joy in roles that allow me to help and mentor others, and I feel this position will be a perfect fit for supporting others in their desire to take their careers to the next level. I had such a positive experience obtaining my own CLFP certification that I hoped others would feel the same - and was eager to give back right away.

“I am grateful that I can now use my energy and positivity to help certify many more CLFPs to come and help grow this organization. I can’t wait to get started!”

From: CLFP Foundation website:
“Mel is a native of Portland, Oregon and a graduate of Oregon State University. She began her career in banking with U.S. Bank back in 2012 and found that this was a great path for her – there was so much to learn and so many avenues for growth in the industry. Shel started in consumer banking where her passion to help her customers better understand the ins and outs of finance yielded great success and built many positive relationships. This quickly blossomed into eagerness to help business customers succeed financially. She moved into the Equipment Finance division of U.S. Bank a few years later and found that Leasing and Finance was truly where she belonged.

“After becoming CLFP certified, she was ready to give back and support future CLFPs obtain their certifications and immediately began volunteering to teach ALFP courses. Mel’s joy to help others and enthusiasm for education helped launch her into the new Director role with the CLFP foundation.

“In her spare time, Mel loves hiking, exploring the Pacific Northwest, photography, and running races including the world’s largest relay, Hood to Coast.”


#### Press Release #############################


Two Cute Dogs
Redwood City, California   Adopt a Dog

Timmy & Tobias
Estimated age:
Timmy 4 years, Tobias 1 Year
12 lbs. and 18 lbs.

These two boys are a bonded pair. Timmy is very shy and will take some time and patience as he gets to know you at his own pace. His buddy Tobias is even a bit shyer, He watches his friend and most likely will follow his lead. Once these two warm up and feel comfortable with their new family they will be great companions. Several meet and greets may be needed for them to warm up to you but we promise the wait is worth it with these guys!

Pets in Need
Redwood City Animal Shelter
871 5th Avenue
Redwood City, Ca 94063
(650) 367-1405, press 1

Tuesday-Saturday: Noon-5:00 pm
Sunday-Monday: Closed

Adoption Process:


About the Event

  • deBanked is bringing its annual half-day CONNECT event back to Miami on March 24th.
  • For the first time ever, this event will be in Downtown Miami at the JW Marriott Marquis.
  • Tickets are on sale now! Early Bird pricing is currently available for a limited time!
  • Sponsor Opportunities will be available soon.

Questions? Email:



News Briefs---

Four Utah banks targeted for laundering predatory
    loans of up to 225% APR

Amazon’s North America revenue ticks up 18.4% in 2021
Net Income was up 56.5% to $33.6 Billion

CDC Says Boosted People are 97 Times Less Likely
to Die From COVID than the Unvaxed


You May Have Missed---

These 10 billionaires lost $185 billion
since the start of the year



Sports Briefs---

49ers’ special teams’ coordinator Richard Hightower
    has taken the same position with the Chicago Bears

49ers to hire Anthony Lynn as Assistant Head Coach

Dolphins working toward deal to
Dolphins working toward deal to hire Mike McDaniel
as new head coach

Apparent beating of 49ers fan was kept secret for days,
raising questions as Super Bowl nears

Lakers' LeBron James returns after five-game absence,
notches triple-double in overtime win vs. Knicks

U.S. women’s hockey remains unbeaten
with 8-0 win over Switzerland

US-born figure skater Zhu Yi under attack
after fall on Olympic debut for China

Olympics Highlights: Julia Marino Wins First U.S. Medal;
Russia’s Skaters Lead in Team Event

Freestyle skiing-Jakara Anthony wins Australia's
first Winter Games gold in over a decade


California Nuts Briefs---

Fight over rooftop solar threatens California’s climate goals

Exhausted’: In rural California, the unvaccinated
and ill overwhelm hospital staff

Several Starbucks have temporarily closed
in S.F. and Oakland. Here’s why



"Gimme that wine"

Healdsburg Winery Launches
    Unique Immersive Experience

There's Interest in Bulk Cabernet Sauvignon but
the North Coast's "hottest" variety is Sauvignon Blanc

“Gimme that Wine”

Free Wine App

Wine Prices by vintage


This Day in History

      1795 – The 11th Amendment to the US Constitution was ratified, affirming the powers of the States and their sovereign immunity.  Although the Eleventh Amendment grants immunity to states from suit for money damages or equitable relief without their consent, in ‘Ex parte Young, 209 US 123’ (1908), the Supreme Court ruled that federal courts may enjoin state officials from violating federal law. 
    1804 – John Deere (d. 1886) was born in Rutland, VT.  He founded the Deere & Company in 1837 after developing and manufacturing the first commercially successful cast-steel plow. 
    1812 – An 8.2 earthquake rattled New Madrid, MO.  The 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes were an intense series beginning with an initial earthquake of magnitude 7.5–7.9 on December 16, 1811, followed by a 7.4 aftershock on the same day. They remain the most powerful earthquakes to hit the contiguous United States east of the Rocky Mountains in recorded history. At the time, New Madrid was in Louisiana Territory, on the Mississippi River.
    1812 – Charles Dickens (d. 1870) was born in England.  He created some of the world's best-known fictional characters and is regarded by many as the greatest novelist of the Victorian era.  His works enjoyed unprecedented popularity during his lifetime, and by the 20th century critics and scholars had recognized him as a literary genius. His novels and short stories enjoy lasting popularity.  Dickens's literary success began with the 1836 serial publication of “The Pickwick Papers.” Then a succession of famous works: “David Copperfield,” “A Christmas Carol,” “Oliver Twist,” and “Great Expectations” are also frequently adapted, and, like many of his novels, evoke images of early Victorian London. His 1859 novel, “A Tale of Two Cities” set in London and Paris, is his best-known work of historical fiction.
    1817 - Frederick Douglass, the American abolitionist leader, was born Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey (d. 1895) in Talbott County, MD.  An African-American social reformer, abolitionist, orator, writer, and statesman after escaping from slavery in Maryland, he became a national leader of the abolitionist movement in Massachusetts and New York.  He gained note for his dazzling oratory and incisive antislavery writings. In his time, he was described by abolitionists as a living counter-example to slaveholders' arguments that slaves lacked the intellectual capacity to function as independent American citizens.  Northerners at the time found it hard to believe that such a great orator had once been a slave.  Douglass was a firm believer in the equality of all peoples, whether black, female, Native American or recent immigrant.  He was also a believer in dialogue and in making alliances across racial and ideological divides, and in the liberal values of the U.S. Constitution. When radical abolitionists, under the motto "No Union with Slaveholders," criticized Douglass' willingness to dialogue with slave owners, he famously replied: "I would unite with anybody to do right and with nobody to do wrong."
    1820 - The first American to set foot on Antarctica was John Davis, a seal hunter, who went ashore at Hughes Bay. Antarctica had already been seen from a distance by the English explorer James Cook and the crew of his ship, the Endeavor, which circumnavigated the continent between 1773 and 1775.
    1827 - Ballet was introduced to the United States by renowned French danseuse Mme. Francisquy Hutin with a performance of “The Deserter,” staged at the Bowery Theater, New York, NY. A minor scandal erupted when the ladies in the lower boxes left the theater upon viewing the light and scanty attire of Mme. Hutin and her troupe.
    1839 – Henry Clay declared in the Senate, “I had rather be right than president.”
    1861 - A dramatic drop in temperature took place. The temperature at Gouverneur, New York plunged 70 degrees in one day, from 30 degrees above zero to 40 degrees below zero. Hanover, New Hampshire plummeted 69 degrees in 18 hours, from 37 degrees at 1 PM on the 7th to 32 degrees below zero at 7 am on the 8th. West Cummingham, Massachusetts dropped 80 degrees, from 48 degrees to 32 degrees below zero, and Boston, Massachusetts plunged 60 degrees, from 46 degrees to 14 degrees below zero.
    1867 - Birthday of author Laura Elizabeth Ingalls (d. 1957), Dakota Territory, now Lake Pepin, Wisconsin. Known for the “Little House on the Prairie” series of children's books released from 1932 to 1943 which were based on her childhood in a settler and pioneer family.
    1882 - John L. Sullivan won the bare-knuckle heavyweight championship of the world by defeating Paddy Ryan in a nine-round fight in Mississippi City, MS. Sullivan was the last bare-knuckles champion. He held the title until 1892 when he lost to James J. Corbett in a fight conducted under the Marquees of Queensbury Rules.
    1883 - Songwriter/composer/pianist/organist Eubie Blake birthday, born James Hubert Blake (d. 1983), Baltimore.
    1885 - Birthday of Sinclair Lewis, born Harry Sinclair Lewis (d. 1951) at Sauk Center, MN.  American novelist and social critic. Recipient of Nobel Prize for Literature (1930). Among his novels: “Main Street,” “Babbitt” and “It Can't Happen Here.”
    1893 - Elisha Gray, of Highland Park, Illinois, patented the telautograph which automatically signed autographs on documents, freeing up the autographer to do other things.
    1904 - The biggest fire in the United States since the great Chicago blaze of 1871 broke out in Baltimore, destroying more than 2,600 buildings.  
    1908 - Clarence Linden Crabbe II (d. 1983), commonly known by his stage name Buster Crabbe, was born in Oakland, CA.  An American two-time Olympic swimmer and movie actor, he won the 1932 Olympic gold medal for 400-meter freestyle swimming event before breaking into acting. He starred in a number of popular films in the 1930s and 1940s and played the title role in the serials, “Tarzan the Fearless,” “Flash Gordon” and “Buck Rogers.” Crabbe is the only actor to play Tarzan, Flash Gordon and Buck Rogers – the top three syndicated comic strip heroes of the 1930s.
    1914 - Charlie Chaplin, vaudeville star-turned comedic actor, debuted a new character in “Kid Auto Races” at Venice,” a Keystone Studios short released on this date. The mischievous but romantic “Tramp” sporting a tiny mustache, twirling a cane and wearing a little derby, a tight-fitting jacket, baggy trousers and floppy shows, was an immediate success with audiences and soon mass-produced Tramp dolls were selling all over the US and the world.
    1916 – The upstart Federal League’s year-old suit charging antitrust violations by organized baseball was dismissed by mutual consent in U.S. District Court in Chicago by Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis. No appellate decision was written and it was not until 1922 when the courts ruled on antitrust in another suit stemming from the Federal League.  The league played its first season in 1913 and operated as a "third major league,” in competition with the established National and American Leagues, from 1914 to 1915.  Playing in what detractors called the "outlaw" league allowed players to avoid the restrictions of the organized leagues' reserve clause. The competition of another, better paying league caused players' salaries to skyrocket, demonstrating the bargaining potential of free agency for the first time.  In 1922, the Supreme Court ruled that Major League Baseball and its constituent leagues were primarily entertainment, not conventional interstate commerce, and thus were exempt from the Sherman Antitrust Act. Though significantly weakened in the 1970s, this exemption remains intact 98 years later; however it has been eroded by subsequent court rulings and legislation regarding issues specific to Major League Baseball.
    1920 - A great 4-day snow and sleet storm came to an end over New England and southeastern New York. Accumulations of 15 to 20 inches of ice, sleet, and snow were common, stalling traffic for weeks.
    1922 - For the first time, DeWitt and Lila Acheson Wallace offered 5,000 copies of their magazine for sale. Today, "Reader’s Digest" continues to be widely read all over the world. According to Mediamark Research (2006), "Reader’s Digest" reaches more readers with household incomes of $100,000+ than ‘Fortune,’ ‘The Wall Street Journal,’ ‘Business Week’ and ‘Inc.’ combined.  Global editions of "Reader’s Digest" reach an additional 40 million people in more than 70 countries, via 49 editions in 21 languages. The periodical has a global circulation of 10.5 million, making it the largest paid circulation magazine in the world.
    1926 - Negro History Week, originated by Carter G. Woodson, is observed for the first time.
    1931 - In New York City, the American opera, "Peter Ibbetson," by Deems Taylor premiered at the Metropolitan Opera House.
    1932 – Author Gay Talese was born in Ocean City, NJ.
    1934 - A deep freeze made it possible to drive from Bay Shore to Fire Island, NY.
    1936 - An executive order established the United States Vice President’s flag.
    1940 - Walt Disney's animation, "Pinocchio," premiered at the Center Theatre in Manhattan, New York. The showing was the second feature-length film for Disney, following "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs." One critic called the show, "The happiest event since the war."
    1941 - UCLA forward, Jackie Robinson, scored 20 points in a losing cause, as the USC Trojans beat the Bruins 43-41, marking the 34th straight loss UCLA had suffered to USC since 1932. In the 1970s, the Bruins made up for those losses when coach John Wooden arrived.
    1941 - On Victor Records, the Tommy Dorsey Orchestra and Frank Sinatra teamed up to record "Everything Happens to Me." The session was held in the New York City studios of Victor.
    1943 – The Japanese Navy completed the evacuation of the Japanese Army from Guadalcanal, ending Japanese attempts to retake the island from Allied forces. 
    1944 - The Nazis launch a second attack against the Allied beachhead at Anzio, Italy. They hoped to push the Allies back into the sea.
    1944 – Bing Crosby recorded “Swinging on a Star" for Decca Records.
    1949 - The New York Yankees rewarded Joe DiMaggio by making him the first baseball player to earn $100,000 a year.  In 1948, DiMaggio batted .320, while leading the AL in home runs and RBI.
    1949 - No. 1 Billboard Pop Hit:  “A Little Bird Told Me,'' Evelyn Knight & the Stardusters.
    1950 - The United States recognizes Vietnam under the leadership of Emperor Bao Dai, not Ho Chi Minh who is recognized by the Soviets.
    1950 - Top Hits
“Dear Hearts and Gentle People” - Dinah Shore
“A Dreamer’s Holiday” - Perry Como
“The Old Master Painter” - Snooky Lanson
“Chattanooga Shoe Shine Boy” - Red Foley
    1951 - MILLETT, LEWIS L., Medal of Honor
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army, Company E, 27th Infantry Regiment. Place and date: Vicinity of Soam-Ni, Korea, 7 February 1951. Entered service at: Mechanic Falls, Maine. Born: 15 December 1920, Mechanic Falls, Maine. G.O. No.: 69, 2 August 1951. Citation: Capt. Millett, Company E, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action. While personally leading his company in an attack against a strongly held position he noted that the 1st Platoon was pinned down by small-arms, automatic, and antitank fire. Capt. Millett ordered the 3d Platoon forward, placed himself at the head of the 2 platoons, and, with fixed bayonet, led the assault up the fire-swept hill. In the fierce charge Capt. Millett bayoneted 2 enemy soldiers and boldly continued on, throwing grenades, clubbing and bayoneting the enemy, while urging his men forward by shouting encouragement. Despite vicious opposing fire, the whirlwind hand-to-hand assault carried to the crest of the hill. His dauntless leadership and personal courage so inspired his men that they stormed into the hostile position and used their bayonets with such lethal effect that the enemy fled in wild disorder. During this fierce onslaught Capt. Millett was wounded by grenade fragments but refused evacuation until the objective was taken and firmly secured. The superb leadership, conspicuous courage, and consummate devotion to duty demonstrated by Capt. Millett were directly responsible for the successful accomplishment of a hazardous mission and reflect the highest credit on himself and the heroic traditions of the military service.
    1956 - Ella Fitzgerald cuts first session of “Cole Porter Songbook.”
    1956 - McGAHA, CHARLES L., Medal of Honor
Rank and organization: Master Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company G, 35th Infantry, 25th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Lupao, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 7 February 1945. Entered service at: Crosby, Tenn. Birth: Crosby, Tenn. G.O. No.: 30, 2 April 1946. Citation: He displayed conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity. His platoon and 1 other from Company G were pinned down in a roadside ditch by heavy fire from 5 Japanese tanks supported by 10 machineguns and a platoon of riflemen. When 1 of his men fell wounded 40 yards away, he unhesitatingly crossed the road under a hail of bullets and moved the man 75 yards to safety. Although he had suffered a deep arm wound, he returned to his post. Finding the platoon leader seriously wounded, he assumed command and rallied his men. Once more he braved the enemy fire to go to the aid of a litter party removing another wounded soldier. A shell exploded in their midst, wounding him in the shoulder and killing 2 of the party. He picked up the remaining man, carried him to cover, and then moved out in front deliberately to draw the enemy fire while the American forces, thus protected, withdrew to safety. When the last man had gained the new position, he rejoined his command and there collapsed from loss of blood and exhaustion. M/Sgt. McGaha set an example of courage and leadership in keeping with the highest traditions of the service.
    1958 - Top Hits
“Don’t/I Beg of You” - Elvis Presley
“Get a Job” - The Silhouettes
“Sail Along Silvery Moon” - Billy Vaughn
“Ballad of a Teenage Queen” - Johnny Cash
    1959 - Buddy Holly's funeral is held at the Tabernacle Baptist Church in Lubbock, TX, drawing over a thousand mourners. Holly's widow did not attend. On the same day, Ritchie Valens is buried in San Fernando Mission Cemetery, Mission Hills, CA.
    1960 - Barrett Strong's "Money" enters the pop chart where it tops out at #23. On the R&B chart it climbs to #2. The song will be covered by the likes of the Beatles, Kingsmen, Flying Lizards and Jr. Walker and the All Stars.
    1962 – The first U.S. Army support companies arrive in Saigon. Weapons were still M-1's and BAR's; no preparation for jungle warfare. The
military has not changed in all these years, still: SNAFU. Ask
any vet who was there.
    1962 - Birthday of singer Garth Brooks, Yukon, Oklahoma. The biggest star to emerge from the "new country" movement of the 1990s, he blended rock and country influences and his highly theatrical stage shows stemmed from his admiration for such groups as Queen and Kiss. Since his self-titled debut in 1989, sales of Brooks’ albums have surpassed 50 million. His 1991 release "Ropin' the Wind" was the first album ever to debut at number one on both Billboard's pop and country album charts, a feat repeated by his 1993 album "In Pieces."
    1962 – Notable San Francisco attorney Melvin Belli obtained a writ laying claim to Willie Mays, among other assets, unless the San Francisco Giants pay him the judgment awarded by a jury in January. Belli claimed the club failed to file a motion for a new trial before the deadline.
    1962 – President Kennedy imposed a full trade embargo on Cuba.
    1964 - Cassius Clay becomes a Black Muslim.
    1964 - The Beatles arrive at New York's Kennedy Airport for their first appearance on "The Ed Sullivan Show." They are greeted by thousands of screaming fans in what is the first demonstration of Beatlemania in America. It was also the day that Baskin-Robbins introduced "Beatle-Nut" ice-cream.
    1965 - US Air force begins systematic saturation bombing and strafing of North Vietnam — as opposed to their special "festive" bombing and strafing — coinciding with Soviet Premier Kosygin’s visit to Hanoi.
    1966 - The Beatles' "Nowhere Man" is released.
    1966 - Birthday of Chris Rock, actor, comedian, born Brooklyn, New York.
    1966 - Top Hits
“My Love” - Petula Clark
“Barbara Ann” - The Beach Boys
“No Matter What Shape (Your Stomach’s In)” - The T-Bones
“Giddyup Go” - Red Sovine
    1966 - The Beach Boys album, "Summer Days" goes gold, their sixth album to do so.
    1967 - SISLER, GEORGE K., Medal of Honor
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 5th Special Forces Group (Airborne), 1st Special Forces. Place and date: Republic of Vietnam. 7 February 1967. Entered service at: Dexter, Mo. Born: 19 September 1937, Dexter, Mo. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life and above and beyond the call of duty. 1st Lt. Sisler was the platoon leader/adviser to a Special United States/Vietnam exploitation force. While on patrol deep within enemy dominated territory, 1st Lt. Sisler's platoon was attacked from 3 sides by a company sized enemy force. 1st Lt. Sisler quickly rallied his men, deployed them to a better defensive position, called for air strikes, and moved among his men to encourage and direct their efforts. Learning that 2 men had been wounded and were unable to pull back to the perimeter, 1st Lt. Sisler charged from the position through intense enemy fire to assist them. He reached the men and began carrying 1 of them back to the perimeter, when he was taken under more intensive weapons fire by the enemy. Laying down his wounded comrade, he killed 3 onrushing enemy soldiers by firing his rifle and silenced the enemy machinegun with a grenade. As he returned the wounded man to the perimeter, the left flank of the position came under extremely heavy attack by the superior enemy force and several additional men of his platoon were quickly wounded. Realizing the need for instant action to prevent his position from being overrun, 1st Lt. Sisler picked up some grenades and charged single-handedly into the enemy onslaught, firing his weapon and throwing grenades. This singularly heroic action broke up the vicious assault and forced the enemy to begin withdrawing. Despite the continuing enemy fire, 1st Lt. Sisler was moving about the battlefield directing force and several additional men of his platoon were quickly wounded. His extraordinary leadership, infinite courage, and selfless concern for his men saved the lives of a number of his comrades. His actions reflect great credit upon himself and uphold the highest traditions of the military service.
    1968 - After American and South Vietnamese air and artillery strikes level the city of Bentre, South Vietnam (pop. 50,000), a US Army major explains that "it became necessary to destroy the town to save it."
    1969 - Diane Crump became the first woman jockey to ride in a pari-mutuel race at a US Track. Crump finished tenth in a field of 12 at Hialeah.
    1969 - The weekly TV music variety show, “This Is Tom Jones'' premieres on ABC-TV.
    1970 - Johnny Cash's album, "Hello, I'm Johnny Cash" goes gold. His label, Columbia, report his LPs "At Folsom Prison" and "At San Quentin" have sold over 2 million copies each and his "Greatest Hits" album has sold over a million copies.
    1970 - Joe Cocker's version of the Beatles classic "She Came In Through The Bathroom Window" peaks at #30 on the pop chart.
    1971 - Tracks from The Beatles “The White Album” (including 'Helter Skelter’), were played in the courtroom at the Sharon Tate murder trial to find out if any songs could have influenced Charles Manson and his followers to commit murder. Actress Sharon Tate who was married to film director Roman Polanski, was eight and a half months pregnant when she was murdered in her home, along with four others, by followers of Charles Manson.
    1974 - Soul artist Barry White receives four gold records on this date: for the singles "Never, Never Gonna Give Ya Up" (#7), "Love's Theme" (Number One by the Love Unlimited Orchestra, conducted by White), and the album's "Under the Influence of Love Unlimited" (#3) and "Sonte Gon'" (#20).
    1974 - Top Hits
“The Way We Were” - Barbra Streisand
“Love’s Theme” - Love Unlimited Orchestra
“Americans” - Byron MacGregor
“Jolene” - Dolly Parton
    1974 - Mel Brooks' "Blazing Saddles" opens in movie theaters.
    1976 - Paul Simon's "50 Ways To Leave Your Lover" peaks at #1 on the chart.
    1978 - The worst winter storm of record struck coastal New England. The storm produced 27.5 inches of snow at Boston, and nearly 50 inches in northeastern Rhode Island. The fourteen-foot tide at Portland, ME was probably the highest of the century. Winds gusted to 79 mph at Boston, and reached 92 mph at Chatham, MA. A hurricane size surf caused 75 deaths and $500 million damage.
    1979 - The Toronto Maple Leafs’ Darryl Sittler set an NHL record for most points in a game when he scored six goals and earned four assists in an 11-4 victory over the Boston Bruins.    
    1979 - No. 1 Billboard Pop Hit: “Da Ya Think I'm Sexy?'' Rod Stewart. The song is an international success, reaching No. 1 in 11 countries.
    1980 - Pink Floyd begins one of the more unusual coast-to-coast tours in rock history, playing the first of only 14 shows in Los Angeles. The only other city they played was New York. The stage, to promote the band's latest album "The Wall," features a 120 by 60-foot wall made of Styrofoam blocks, which gradually envelops the group as the show goes on.
    1982 - Outfielder George Foster became baseball’s highest-paid player and the first $2 million man when he signed a five-year contract worth $10 million with the New York Mets. Free agent Foster left the Cincinnati Reds’ fabled “Big Red Machine,” but his offensive production with the Mets never reached expectations. New York released him before the last year of his contract expired.
    1982 - Top Hits
“Centerfold” - The J. Geils Band
“Harden My Heart” - Quarterflash
“Turn Your Love Around” - George Benson
“Lonely Nights” - Mickey Gilley
    1984 - Navy Captain Bruce McCandless was the first and Army Lieutenant Colonel Robert Stewart were the second astronaut to fly free in space. While in orbit over the earth, McCandless exited Space Shuttle Challenger and maneuvered freely, without a tether, using a rocket pack on his own design. Stewart also sued the rocket pack to fly untethered later that day.
    1985 - "Sports Illustrated" released its annual swimsuit edition. This issue was the biggest regular edition in the magazine’s history, with 218 pages. On the cover, Paulina Porizkova joined Cheryl Tiegs and Christie Brinkley as the only models to that time to make the cover more than once.
    1985 - "New York, New York" became the Big Apple's official anthem. Mayor Ed Koch made the announcement.  The song, sung by Sinatra, is also played after every New York Yankees home game
    1986 - Haiti: After huge popular protests, dictator "Baby Doc" Duvalier (President-for-Life) flees the country, ending 35 years of this U.S.-sponsored terrorist dictatorship
    1987 - Madonna’s "Open Your Heart" hit #1 in the U.S. It was the third straight number-one single from her "True Blue" album.
    1988 - Twenty-two cities in the eastern U.S. reported record low temperatures for the date, including Binghamton, NY with a reading of 5 degrees below zero. Snow blanketed southern Louisiana, with three inches reported at Cameron.
    1988 - One of the longest running shows in television history, “America’s Most Wanted” premiers, asking viewers for help finding fugitives from the law by airing dramatic reenactments of crimes and interviewing law enforcement officials for insight. It also highlighted cases of missing children. The show hassled to more than 1,100 arrests. Popular host John Walsh closes by addressing viewers “And remember, you can make a difference.” The 1,000th episode aired March 6, 2010. In summer 2011, FOX canceled the show and moved to a quarterly specials format.
    1989 - Twenty-five cities in the western U.S. reported record low temperatures for the date. Lows of 16 at Las Vegas, NV, 26 at Bakersfield, CA, -29 degrees at Milford, UT, and -16 degrees at Reno, NV were February records. The low of 43 degrees below zero at Boca, CA was a state record for the month of February. In Utah, lows of -32 degrees at Bryce Canyon, -27 degrees at Delta, -29 degrees at Dugway, and -38 degrees at Vernal were all-time records for those locations.
    1989 - No. 1 Billboard Pop Hit:  “Straight Up,'' Paula Abdul.
    1990 - The Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party agrees to give up its monopoly on power, effectively dissolving the Soviet Union.
    1990 - Lisa Leslie of Morningside HS, Inglewood, CA, scored 101 points in the first half of a game against South Torrance HS. the game ended at the half with the score at 102-24 as the South Torrance coach refused to let his team finish the game.
    1990 – Top Hits
“How Am I Supposed to Live Without You” - Michael Bolton
“Opposites Attract” - Paula Abdul with The Wild Pair
“Downtown Train” - Rod Stewart
“Nobody’s Home” - Clint Black
    1994 - Whitney Houston dominated the 21st annual American Music Awards, winning seven honors on the strength of "The Bodyguard" soundtrack and her version of Dolly Parton's "I Will Always Love You." During the taping of the show in Los Angeles, Blind Melon lead singer Richard Shannon Hoon began mouthing off, then struck a security guard in the face. He was arrested and put in a police car, where he tried to kick out the partition between the front and back seats. After a further altercation at the police station, Hoon was charged with assault and battery. Blind Melon was a nominee for best new artist but lost to Stone Temple Pilots.
    1994 - Paul Anka was honored at the French music industry's annual awards in Paris for his song "My Way." It was in 1968 that Anka wrote new lyrics to the melody of a French pop hit "Comme d'habitude," which means "As Usual." Anka called his version "My Way," and it became Frank Sinatra's signature song.
    1994 – Recently-retired NBA star Michael Jordan signed a minor league contract with the Chicago White Sox. Jordan reported to spring training before being assigned to the Class-AA Birmingham Barons where his manager was Terry Francona.  After one middling season in the minors, Jordan returned to the NBA and another three-peat with the Bulls.
    1998 - The XVIIIth Winter Olympic games opened at Nagano, Japan. Wind, rain, fog and lightning, with a mild earthquake thrown in, played havoc with Alpine skiing during the first five days. Then, good weather moved in and, when the games ended, the Japanese were hailed for their excellent show.
    1998 - NHL's Dallas Stars retire Neal Broten's #7
    1999 - Jordan's King Hussein died at age 63.
    2010 – Iranian President Ahmadinejad commanded Iran’s atomic energy to start enriching uranium at a higher level.
    2010 – Super Bowl XLIV, Dolphin Stadium (currently Hard Rock Stadium), FL.  The New Orleans Saints defeated the Indianapolis Colts, 31–17, earning their first Super Bowl win. The game was played on the latest calendar date for a Super Bowl yet.  This was the Saints' first Super Bowl appearance and the fourth for the Colts franchise, their second appearance in four seasons.  Trailing 17-13 with 6:31 remaining in the third quarter, the Saints then scored 18 unanswered points to clinch the victory. New Orleans quarterback Drew Brees, who completed 32 of 39 passes for 288 yards and two touchdowns, was named the MVP.  His 32 completions tied a Super Bowl record set by Tom Brady.  The live broadcast of the game on CBS was watched by an average U.S. audience of 106.5 million viewers, making it then the most-watched Super Bowl.
    2011 - AOL Inc. announced the $315 million purchase of The Huffington Post website.
    2012 - A federal appeals court ruled California's ban on same-sex marriage unconstitutional.
    2013 – Mississippi officially certified the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, becoming the last state to approve the abolition of slavery. The Thirteenth Amendment was formally ratified by Mississippi in 1995. It was passed by the Senate on April 8, 1864, and by the House on January 31, 1865. The amendment was ratified by the required number of States on December 6, 1865.
    2014 – Jay Leno, host of “The Tonight Show,” said goodbye after 22 years.  He was replaced with Jimmy Fallon who remains.
    2016 - Super Bowl L, Levi's Stadium, Santa Clara, CA: Denver Broncos beat Carolina Panthers, 24–10; MVP: Von Miller, Denver, LB
    2021 – Super Bowl LV, Raymond James Stadium, Tampa:  Tampa Bay Buccaneers dominated defending champs Kansas City Chief, 31-9; MVP Tom Brady, Bucs QB won his record 7th Super Bowl and record 5th Super Bowl MVP.

Super Bowl Champions:
2010 - New Orleans Saints - 31, Indianapolis Colts – 17
2016 – Denver Broncos – 24, Carolina Panthers – 10
2021 – Tampa Bay Buccaneers – 31, Kansas City Chiefs - 9



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