Wednesday, June 3, 2020
Today's Leasing News Headlines
TODAY: 10:00 am PDT Web Seminar, Free, to Discuss COVID 19
Hidden Costs: BK, Repossessions & Legislation
Wednesday 10:00 AM - 11:00Am PDT June 3
Sales Make it Happen by Christopher "Kit" Menkin
"You become what you attract”
Now is the Time to Take Your Banker to Lunch
Many Restaurants Are Open, Some only Outside Only
ACT Research: CV Production Falls,
Demand for Engines Muted In Tandem
Average new-car APRs drop to levels not seen
since 2013; used stays nearly steady
ELFA Provides Accounting Insights for Lease and Loan
Modifications Amid COVID-19
Critical Customer Concessions Addressed May 27 Webinar
Austin, Texas Adopt a Dog
U.S Police Shootings: Blacks Disproportionately Affected
Chart by Statista
Which States Have Deployed the National Guard
Deployment in Response to Protest (as of June 02, 2020)
Macy's, Nordstrom Face Huge Losses
Due to Urban Unrest
'Our institutions are responsible' for unrest,’
Gov. Newsom says
Wearing Face Masks and Social Distancing Actually Work
to Contain COVID-19, According to a New Study
Apple is tracking iPhones stolen by looters
“We’re watching you."
May Car Sales Crushed, a Threat to Ford and GM
"sales are expected to fall 33% from a year ago"
You May have Missed---
Six Months of Coronavirus:
Here’s Some of What We’ve Learned
Broker/Funder/Industry Lists | Features (wrilter's columns)
Top Ten Stories Chosen by Readers | Top Stories last six months
www.leasingcomplaints.com (Be Careful of Doing Business)
Leasing News Icon for Android Mobile Device
California Nuts Brief---
"Gimme that Wine"
This Day in History
Weather, USA or specific area
######## surrounding the article denotes it is a “press release,” it was not written by Leasing News nor has the information been verified. The source noted. When an article is signed by the writer, it is considered a “byline.” It reflects the opinion and research of the writer.
10:00 AM PDT Today Web Seminar, Free, to Discuss COVID 19
Hidden Costs: BK, Repossessions & Legislation
Wednesday 10:00 AM - 11:00Am PDT June 3
Do your bankruptcy skills measure-up? Are you aware of the challenging legislation in this new COVID-19 business environment? What hidden costs might affect your business? Join the panel to discuss these issues and more to help protect YOU in the new COVID-19 world.
Askounis & Darcy PC
Channel Partners Capital
Vice President, State Government Relations
Brought to you by the Equipment Leasing and Finance Association
To Register: https://register.gotowebinar.com/register/2041391078258423568
Sales Make it Happen
You become what you attract
The title of this article not only applies to those in sales, but to companies themselves, and perhaps to life itself.
In my experience, new sales individuals are attracted mostly to large lease transactions. They get off the track easily, especially if they have set themselves up on a quota or are in a lull. They think one large lease will make up from the lack of "regular" leases they have been advised to pursue.
Sometimes it is the "bragging" or "feeling good about yourself" that you are working on a very large deal. You tell your boss, your colleagues, your spouse, and others about working on the large deal. Maybe it is the idea of the "big money" or in the circle of "top executives" or the perhaps feeling you have arrived because "look at the big deal I am working on."
Most large ticket deals that you first stumble into do process easily as they are either not credit worthy, and thus why you are working on it, or if they not be credit worthy, begging the question, “why you are working on it,” or, if they are credit worthy, by the time they place the order, they have gone with someone who has a much better rate. There is always someone with a better rate. There is no convenience or they are doing the lease because I like you. They will bid it out. Just like the old Wild West, there is always someone who is faster in the draw; especially if you are new to the game. However, most of the time the reason, you are invited to work on the large transaction is they have nowhere else to go and that is also where you will wind up.
This also applies to those in sales who rely on getting ten to fifteen points (or more) on a deal. They are not interested in cultivating a vendor or asking a customer for repeat business or cold calling. They want the deal that is almost impossible to put together but, somehow they do, or find someone who will do the lease. Sometimes it is the challenge but in reality it is "I can make more money." All of a sudden, they find themselves boxed into this market and then it becomes not only the type of customer they find, but the type of customer that finds them.
The vendor who said he will send you all his business if you put this together is sending you is the business because his regular source that pays him a "spiff" can't do it. You have become what you attract, the deals his regular leasing company can't do. Mac Pollock at Key Lease used to say, “You sleep with dogs, you get fleas."
Another failing is visiting or telephoning customers who always have too much time, want to talk a lot, and you certainly enjoy the call. The reason they have a lot of time is business is not that good. If you have too many of these on your route during the day, your business will become as theirs is: not too good.
If you are a company that is making compromises on your credit or what direction you are going, you most likely will wind up there, too.
This also has a positive side: if that is what you are purposely trying to attract and have geared your operation for this "type," it is your goal. You chose it. It didn't' choose you.
You do have the ability to decide to attract a different group. When bank managers were no longer making equipment loans and even car loans or leases as they were being centralized, working with smaller community banks on the growth curve, presidents and senior loan executives, bringing in accounts to them and they reciprocating with customers who they were maxed out or could not do without more current financials, or whatever, you attracted better business and cemented your relationship.
Get out of your comfort zone!
Sales Makes It Happen
Now is the Time to Take Your Banker to Lunch
Many Restaurants Are Open, Some only Outside Only
There are community banks and regional banks, as well as the "Top Twenty" banks where you can make business friends (sometimes personal friends).
It is a two way street: you may be able to refer them business and they do likewise. In addition, to stay ahead of what is happening or what you each can learn from each other, is very important.
I know everyone likes to “text” or “read” what is going on via their digital device but “face-to-face” builds up relationships, too. Don't abandon it and don't abandon the human contact with your bank.
The experience and knowledge of your banker can be very helpful to you as an entrepreneur, a salesman, an officer of your company.
If you are a customer of your bank, start there. Everyone generally has lunch and that is a time of the day your banker may have available.
I also believe in joining your local chamber of commerce, a local charity or service group, as well as a leasing or other business association group. Maybe your business comes from all over the United States or a niche, but you are missing growth in your career by not getting involved locally in the greater community where you live and work.
Banks of all sizes approach leasing as an extension of lending, rarely take residuals and prefer leases with $1 purchase options. They do not like to look for leasing but on occasion one of their customers may ask for one. After they try and talk them out of it, they may search for alternatives. Therefore, one of the best markets for middle and small leasing companies is to get close to as many banks as you can for leads and funding. This is not only important for you, but the bank may not like smaller transactions or the type of business and/or equipment.
The reason most community banks shy away from leasing is the high cost of setting up a back office. In addition, they do not understand the documentation, don’t like the liability that exposes them as “lessor”, and many customers have complained about extra payments, deposits not returned, and being hit with “fair market value” when they thought it was a $1.00 purchase option. Bankers are particularly not interested in reconciling the difference in an operating lease between a tax lease payoff and a book payoff. They prefer "Capital Leases" or "Capital Finance."
To gain a bank’s trust you need to explain your procedures and request that a bank loan officer accompany you on a few calls. They need to see how you react with their customers before they will allow you to contact a customer with their blessing. It is also a good idea to bring your leasing customer or vendor to the bank as a depositor or for other types of business besides leasing. It is an opportunity for you as well as the bank to create new business.
And most of all, don’t look for an immediate uptick in business. It often takes time to develop both a personal and trusting relationship.
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ACT Research: CV Production Falls,
Demand for Engines Muted In Tandem
COLUMBUS, IN – According to the recently released N.A. Commercial Vehicle On-Highway Engine OUTLOOK, published by ACT Research and Rhein Associates, truck and tractor production volumes are forecast to fall precipitously in 2020, and with them the demand for engines.
Kenny Vieth, President and Senior Analyst at ACT Research, noted, “Coming off the peak of 2019, we expect North American Class 8 heavy commercial vehicle production to drop an eye-watering 66% this year.” He added, “Retail sales will show a smaller reduction, but only because high inventory levels must be reduced to levels in-line with lower demand.”
Vieth elaborated, “Freight demand has fallen, global supply chains have been severely disrupted, and even before COVID-19, the world was shifting toward increased e-commerce. The pandemic’s impact has only hastened that trend; in March, e-commerce recorded a 50% increase in home goods sales, and a more than 200% jump in on-line food deliveries.”
He concluded, “All this has a direct correlation to the number and types of commercial vehicles needed, buffered currently by the industry’s ability to adjust production amid lock downs and shutdowns.”
Andrew Wrobel, Global Market Intelligence Commercial Vehicle and Off-Highway Forecasts of Rhein Associates, commented, “It is anticipated that trucks will increase use of smaller displacement engines, while the forecast predicts a gradual reduction in favor of the 12-14L category for use in tractors, as opposed to the over 14L category. We expect the 12-14L engine segment to dominate in tractor-use demand by 2024.” Regarding Classes 5-7.
“In this market, the current metric of interest is gasoline penetration, which continues to gain share, and is forecast to hit nearly 24% of the market by 2024.”
When asked about alternative fuels, Wrobel commented, “Last-mile delivery companies have taken the lead in requiring alternative fuel vehicles due to their proximity to consumers, favorable economics, and the enhancement of brand image. That said, oil prices have plummeted and fleets welcome the lower diesel costs, but we still see committed CNG users striving to meet corporate green initiatives with that fuel
” About non-fossil fuel alternatives, he explained, “Transit buses have seen the greatest application of electric medium and heavy-duty vehicles to date, but major truck OEMs and new entrant programs are underway. Electric medium and heavy trucks are coming, albeit slowly.”
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Average new-car APRs drop to levels not seen
since 2013; used stays nearly steady
IRVINE and SANTA MONICA, Calif. - Edmunds discovered interest rates for new vehicles financed in May dropped to the lowest level seen by the industry in nearly seven years.
Meanwhile, Edmunds indicated that rates for used-vehicle financing remain nearly steady compared to both this time last year as well as five years ago.
Edmunds reported on Tuesday that the annual percentage rate (APR) on new financed vehicles averaged 4% in May, compared to 4.3% in April and 6.1% a year ago. Analysts said this reading is the lowest average interest rate since August 2013 and the third-lowest Edmunds has on record dating back to 2002.
On the used-vehicle side, Edmunds determined that ARP came in at 8.3% in May, slightly lower than the year-ago reading (8.7%) and a bit above what analysts spotted back in May 2015 (7.6%).
Edmunds analysts also mentioned that zero-percent finance offers for new models dipped slightly in May compared to April, but still remained at near-record levels. The firm said these deals constituted 24% of all new financed purchases, compared to 25.8% last month.
Furthermore, Edmunds data also revealed that 47% of all financed purchases received an APR below 3% in May, compared to 41.5% in April.
Edmunds Executive Director of Insights Jessica Caldwell said in a news release, “Consumers who purchased a car in May got to take advantage of some of the best deals we’ve ever seen, thanks to a combination of Memorial Day weekend sales and generous incentives offered by automakers to spur demand during the pandemic,”. “Even with 0% finance deals down slightly, more car shoppers got better financing rates than usual.”
Edmunds went on to note that contract term lengths sustained near-record highs in May. The average term length for a new vehicle was 71.4 months, which is the second-highest Edmunds has on record, compared to last month’s average of 73.4 months.
“Car shoppers are showing that they’re comfortable committing to longer loans to get the vehicles that they want right now, especially with the ongoing availability of 0% deals,” Caldwell said. “But these incentives aren’t going to last forever. It’s going to get tougher for car shoppers to find good deals as inventory declines over the new few months.”
Likely sparking the stretching of those new-vehicle terms is the cost of those models.
ALG, a subsidiary of TrueCar, projected average transaction prices (ATP) in May to be up 4.6% or $1,607 from a year ago but down 1.7% or $639 from April.
ALG Chief Industry Analyst Eric Lyman said in a news release,
“Every brand, with the exception of Kia, has increased their average transaction price year-over-year in May mainly attributed to ongoing 0% interest rates. Kia is down likely due to lower inventory levels on their popular Telluride model, which carries one of the highest MSRPs in their lineup,” ALG chief industry analyst Eric Lyman said in a news release.
“It’s important to note that while average transaction prices have increased year-over-year, they are down month-over-month,” Lyman continued. “We can expect a trend of lower inventory on popular models across automakers as production stoppages and higher than expected demand are taking shape based on geography. As a result, we expect automakers to continue to not only pull back, but also shift their incentive strategies from nationally based to regionally and locally based in order to offset those supply shortages.
“We expect the highly incentivized and in-demand SUVs and trucks to be affected more than other segments,” he added.
And finally, the valuation analysts at Kelley Blue Book reported the estimated average transaction price for a light vehicle in the United States came in at $38,940 in May. KBB computed new-vehicle prices increased $1,618 (up 4.3%) year-over-year, while prices dropped $244 (down 0.6%) from last month.
Kelley Blue Book Analyst Tim Fleming said in a news release.
“Though new-car sales will be down significantly for the third month in a row, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, average transaction prices have actually strengthened over this period for several reasons.
“Incentives, deferred payments, and low APR deals are helping consumers stretch out their monthly payments over longer terms.
“Inventory levels have tightened as the economic recovery has begun, but little new supply has arrived yet from the factories that restarted in May,” Fleming continued. “Finally, the share of pickup trucks has spiked recently, reaching an all-time high in April.”
KBB reiterated these factors all contributed to the 4% increase in transaction prices in. However, KBB predicted gains at these levels are not sustainable.
“If factories are slow to restart and new-vehicle inventories remain low, manufacturers will pare back their incentives, placing pressure on new-vehicle prices,” KBB said. “While trucks have been remarkably resilient, their big spike in market share was the result of sales losses in mid-size cars, compact SUVs and minivans.
“When the market sees sales of these family haulers return will depend on the shape of the economic recovery, but in the meantime, truck manufacturers are likely pushing to get capacity back up quickly to restock their inventories,” KBB went on to say.
By SubPrime Auto Finance News Staff
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ELFA Provides Accounting Insights for Lease and Loan
Modifications Amid COVID-19
Critical Customer Concessions Addressed During May 27 Webinar
WASHINGTON, D.C. – In the difficult business environment caused by the impact of COVID-19, many lessors and lenders are receiving requests from their customers for some form of payment accommodation. Navigating modification accounting, application of the Financial Accounting Standards Board’s (FASB) COVID-19 related relief and operational considerations when modifying contracts were among the topics addressed during the Equipment Leasing and Finance Association’s May 27 webinar, “Lease and Loan Modifications and Restructurings in the COVID-19 Environment.”
A total of 508 industry executives participated in the detailed online event presented by Mamta Shori, Chief Operating Officer, Wells Fargo Equipment Finance; Tim Kolber, Managing Director, National Accounting Office Services, Deloitte, LLP; and Shawn Halladay, Chief Financial and Operations Officer, The Pitney Bowes Bank and moderated by John Bober, IXL Lease Advisory Services, LLC and Chair of ELFA’s Financial Accounting Committee. They offered considerations and approaches to account for customer concessions and responded to participants’ questions.
As equipment finance companies provide their customers with the contract modifications critical to preserving their cash flow and their businesses, below are five highlights from the range of information presented during the webinar.
- Businesses should decide what type of concessions they will provide and how. At the outset lessors should determine their approach to concessions. A broad-based offer to customers could result in a lot of extra work and a drop in cash flow for lessors. Whether offered or requested, lessors should determine the nature and structure of the change to lease payments, such as 30-, 45- or 90-day concession terms, and any other changes to the contract terms. Factors that might impact the decision to a lease concession include credit quality, current account status and overall history and customer relationship.
- Providing concessions changes how to account for them. Under ASC 842, simple term extensions, changes in consideration or other payment restructures not contemplated in the original contract would qualify as a lease modification. Reassessment of lease classification would require updated fair value of equipment as of the effective date of the modification. Most equipment leases are considered non-cancellable and do not typically include force majeure clauses. It’s important to note that current fair values of equipment are not typically updated on a regular basis in leasing systems.
- FASB acted expediently at the onset of the pandemic to provide relief. FASB’s board and staff convened and observed that companies were reaching out to their lessors and suppliers to ask for rent concessions and different payment structures. FASB issued a staff Q&A including of a series of four Q&As that effectively outline a framework in which certain relief can be provided. Broadly speaking, the relief will allow an organization without having to go through each of its leases to simply either account for the lease payment change as a modification or account for it using the alternative relief.
- FASB’s relief entails two primary scoping criteria. To be considered under the scope of FASB relief, the concession must be related to the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and it must result in total payments in the modified contract that are substantially the same as or less than total payments required by the original contract. The relief applies to both lessees and lessors equally and can be applied to current and future concessions, rent forgiveness and deferral scenarios, and rent deferral with term extension scenarios.
- The relief is not an all-or-none requirement though companies must provide relief consistently to leases with similar characteristics. Reasonable judgment comes into play when categorizing how the relief will be applied, whether by type of concession, role in the arrangement (lessor or lessee) or underlying asset class.
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a pervasive impact on businesses throughout the U.S. and many lessors are, or will be, providing lease concessions to lessees for a significant number of lease contracts. As Tim Kolber noted, cash is king at this point because companies need to think of ways to preserve their organizations, pay their employees and “live to fight another day.”
A recording of the webinar, webinar slides, and a handout, “FASB Staff Q&A” are available at www.elfaonline.org/events/2020/WW052720.
About ELFA Wednesday Webinars
The May 27 webinar was part of ELFA’s “Wednesday Webinar” series designed to help equipment finance professionals navigate the current market and regulatory landscape and anticipate the changing environment in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. The free webinars include live Q&A sessions so participants can connect with experts and colleagues on the issues they are grappling with. To register for upcoming webinars or view recordings of past events, go to www.elfaonline.org/events/elearning/web-seminars.
The Equipment Leasing and Finance Association (ELFA) is the trade association that represents companies in the nearly $1 trillion equipment finance sector, which includes financial services companies and manufacturers engaged in financing capital goods. ELFA members are the driving force behind the growth in the commercial equipment finance market and contribute to capital formation in the U.S. and abroad. Its 575 members include independent and captive leasing and finance companies, banks, financial services corporations, broker/packagers and investment banks, as well as manufacturers and service providers. For more information, please visit www.elfaonline.org.
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Austin, Texas Adopt a Dog
8 years, 8 months
Location: Foster Home
Adoption Fee: $0
Meet Cricket, a sassy senior who has been living it up in an APA foster home but is now ready to move into yours!
Cricket has very good manners and should be able to make an easy transition into your home. She doesn't mind a crate but has been fine roaming the house when left alone - mainly because she usually uses the opportunity to catch up on sleep! Cricket also loves to chew on her bones or her plush toys, and she'll play fetch or tug of war. She keeps a very chill and relaxed mood in the house. Sometimes she'll get a burst of energy, but a quick walk will calm her right down.
Speaking of walks, Cricket is leash trained and knows all the basic commands. She'll make a great partner when you're in the mood to go for a stroll!
Cricket loves people and warms up to strangers very quickly. And if you have a treat for her, she will instantly become your best friend. Cricket loves to be in the same room as her favorite people,
preferably cuddled up lying next to them. She'll especially enjoy helping you catch up on your favorite TV shows!
Cricket would prefer to be the only dog in the home. She previously lived in a home with children and was good with them. We love her calm nature and human-like personality. She doesn't need a great deal of exercise - she'd prefer belly rubs! She'd like a family who spends a lot of time in the house, so she can spend plenty of time with everyone. And remember that when you adopt from APA you're not only giving Cricket a home, you're also allowing a second dog to join us.
Austin Pets Alive
1156 West Cesar Chavez
Austin, Texas 78703
Not currently accepting walk-in visitors; adoptions by appointment only.
A Washington Post analysis has found that black Americans are disproportionately affected by police violence. The data focuses specifically on police shootings and it mainly relies on police reports, news accounts and social media postings. Since the start of 2015, 4,728 people across the country have died in police shootings and approximately half - 2,385 - were white. Out of the remainder, 1,252 were black, 877 were Hispanic and 214 were from other racial groups. The data looks different as a share of the population, however. Black Americans account for less than 13 percent of the population but they are shot and killed by the police at a rate that's over twice as high as for white Americans.
By Niall McCarthy, Statista
As protests continue across the United States, the National Guard has been activated in 23 states to support local law enforcement. 17,000 members had been deployed as of Monday morning according to a CNN report, a three-fold increase in just over a day and roughly the same number as active-duty troops serving in Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan. Approximately 45,000 members of the National Guard have already been deployed across the country in response to the coronavirus outbreak, bringing the total number activated to 66,700.
In a statement, Air Force Gen. Joseph Lengyel, chief of the National Guard Bureau, said that "the hardest mission we do is responding in times of civil unrest" and that “Guard personnel assigned to these missions are trained, equipped and prepared to assist law enforcement authorities and first responders." As the following map shows, the National Guard has been activated in nearly half of U.S. states and D.C. with the list including Michigan, Minnesota, North Carolina, Nevada, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington and Wisconsin.
By Niall McCarthy, Statista
This Day in History
1539 - Hernando De Soto claimed Florida for Spain.
1540 – De Soto became the first European to cross the Appalachian Mountains.
1621 - The Dutch West India Company received a charter for New Netherlands, now known as New York.
1770 - Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo was founded as the second California mission to the Indians.
1781 - Jack Jouett (1754-1822) made a heroic 45-mile ride on horseback during the night of June 3-4, to warn Virginia Governor Thomas Jefferson and the legislature that the British were coming. Jouett rode from a tavern in Louisa County to Charlottesville, VA, in about 6½ hours, arriving at Jefferson's home at dawn on June 4. Lieutenant Colonel Tarleton's British forces raided Charlottesville, but Jouett's warning gave the Americans time to escape.
1784 - Congress formally created the United States Army to replace the disbanded Continental Army. On June 14, 1775, the Second Continental Congress had created the Continental Army for purposes of common defense and this event is considered to be the birth of the United States Army.
1800 - John Adams, the second president of the United States, becomes the first president to reside in Washington, D.C., when he takes up residence at Union Tavern in Georgetown. The city of Washington was created to replace Philadelphia as the nation's capital because of its geographical position in the center of the existing new republic. The states of Maryland and Virginia ceded land around the Potomac River to form the District of Columbia, and work began on Washington in 1791. French architect Charles L'Enfant designed the city's radical layout, full of dozens of circles, crisscross avenues, and plentiful parks.
1808 - Birthday of Jefferson Davis (1808-89) at Todd County, KY. American statesman, US Senator, and only president of the Confederate States of America. Imprisoned May 10, 1865-May 13, 1867, but never brought to trial, deprived of rights of citizenship after the Civil War. His citizenship was restored, posthumously, October 17, 1978, when President Carter signed an Amnesty Bill. This bill, he said, “officially completes the long process of reconciliation that has reunited our people following the tragic conflict between the states. “ Davis' birthday anniversary is observed in Florida, Kentucky, and South Carolina on this day, in Alabama on the first Monday in June and in Mississippi on the last Monday in May. Davis's birth anniversary is observed as Confederate Memorial Day in Tennessee. US highway 1 is Jefferson Davis Highway in Alexandria, VA.
1851 - First Baseball Uniforms: The Knickerbocker Base Ball Club of New York City donned the sport's first uniforms: straw hats, blue full-length trousers and white shirts.
1856 - Cullen Whipple of Providence, RI obtained a patent for a screw machine to make pointed screws. Prior to this invention, screws were blunt on their threaded ends, and it was necessary to bore a hole in order to insert them.
1856 - Gov. Johnson proclaimed San Francisco in a state of insurrection because of Committee of Vigilance activities and ordered all persons subject to military duty to report to Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman to quell the insurrection.
1860 - The Great Comanche Tornado began its deadly trek near Cedar Rapids, Iowa, and ended its journey over Lake Michigan. 175 people lost their lives and 329 were injured. The town of Comanche, Iowa, on the Mississippi River, was destroyed. Total damage was 945,000 dollars (note - 1860 dollars).
1861 – In the first Civil War land battle, the Union defeated the Confederacy at Philippi, WV. The First Battle of Bull Run occurred on July 21.
1862 - Haiti and Liberia were recognized as nations by the United States.
1863 - Gen. Lee, with 75,000 Confederates, launched a second invasion of the North. Lee led his troops into Maryland and then Pennsylvania, to meet the Army of the Potomac again, this time around a small town called Gettysburg.
1864 – Birthday of Ransom Olds (1864-1950) in Geneva, OH. A pioneer of the automotive industry for whom both the Oldsmobile and REO brands were named, he claimed to have built his first steam car as early as 1894 and his first gasoline–powered car in 1896. The modern assembly line and its basic concept are credited to Olds, who used it to build the first mass-produced automobile, the Oldsmobile Curved Dashboard, beginning in 1901.
1864 - Battle of Cold Harbor. Although Confederate General Robert E. Lee had placed his troops behind considerable breastworks, Union General Ulysses S. Grant launched an all-out attack on the Southern army. More than 7,000 Federal troops were killed within a half hour of the battle on the first attack. General Lee won his last victory over Union forces, numbering 108,000 against 59,000. 1500 Confederate troops were also killed. In an eight–minute period, more men fell in an assault on entrenched Confederate troops than in any other like period of time. After a second unsuccessful attack, Grant's orders for a third assault were all but ignored. Grant had new and ill-trained troops, and his battle plan was not carried out by his officers. Compounding this was the battlefield tradition held that the first commander who sought a truce in order to tend to the wounded was the loser. Grant refused to admit defeat by seeking such a truce and the wounded were left on the ground for three days following the battle. General Lee also refused to be the first to go after his wounded, and therefore thousands of wounded men from both sides died either from their wounds, hunger, thirst or exposure. Between May 7 and June 3, federal losses were 50,000 men, Confederate 32,000. The North could replace its losses fully, especially paying for troops, many of them immigrants from Europe, but the South could not.
(Bottom half of http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jun03.html ) http://saints.css.edu/mkelsey/cold.html
1877 - Elizabeth Fires Lummis Ellet (1818-77) died in NYC. She was an author and historian who used primary and direct research for her monumental three-volume “Women of the American Revolution” (1848), and the “Pioneers of the American West” (1852) as well as other books about women. http://chnm.gmu.edu/dimenovels/authors/fleming.html
1884 - The first national political convention of a major party that was presided over by an African-American, met in the Exposition Building, Chicago, IL. John Roy Lynch, an African-American politician who has served three terms as a congressman from Mississippi, was nominated for temporary chairman of the Republican Party by Henry Cabot Lodge. The nomination was supported by Theodore Roosevelt and George William Curtis, and was carried by a vote of 424 for Lynch to 384 for Powell Clayton. The convention nominated James Gillespie Blaine for President and General John Alexander Logan for Vice President. On November 4th, Grover Cleveland was elected President of the United Sates and Thomas A. Hendricks was elected Vice-President. The electoral vote was Cleveland, 219, James G. Blaine, Republican of Maine, 182. The popular vote was Cleveland, 4,911,017 and Blaine 4,848,224. A very interesting presidential election as it was fought mainly with attacks on the reputation of the rival candidates. The Republican candidate, James G. Blaine, on the basis of letters he had written, was accused of having profited from the Credit Moblier scandal involving the building of the Union Pacific Railroad. His opponents sang: “Blaine, Blaine, James G. Blaine, the continual liar from the state of Maine.” The Democratic candidate, Grover Cleveland, was accused of having fathered an illegitimate child, which in his forthright manner, he admitted. The turning point of the election was a remark made on October 9 by the Rev. Samuel D. Burchard in New York, in the presence of Blaine, that the Democrats were the party of “Rum, Romanism and Rebellion.” Blaine did not disavow the remark, and the Irish-American Roman Catholics of New York were outraged. Cleveland carried the state by 1149 votes and thereby won the election. In 1888, President Grover Cleveland did not campaign, saying it was beneath the dignity of the office of the president. Benjamin Harrison, the Republican candidate, brought the front porch campaign to its peak, and won.
1871 – Jesse James and his gang robbed the Obocock Bank, Corydon, Iowa of $15,000.
1880 - Alexander Graham Bell transmitted the first wireless telephone message on his newly-invented "photophone.” The photophone functioned similarly to the telephone, except the photophone used light as a means of projecting the information, while the telephone relied on electricity. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jun03.html
1886 - Grover Cleveland became the first U.S. President to get married in the White House. He exchanged vows with his bride, Florence Folsom. His bride was 27 years his junior. While he ran for a second term, he did not campaign, but stayed in the White House with his young bride. He lost. But he ran again in 1892, this time, he campaigned, and he won. The only president to lose his office and then win it back again.
1888 - "Casey at the Bat," by Ernest Lawrence Thayer, first appears in print, in the San Francisco Examiner. Thayer and the Examiner’s owner, William Randolph Hearst, were Harvard classmates.
1889 - The first long-distance electric power transmission line in the United States was completed, running 14 miles between a generator at Willamette Falls and downtown Portland, OR.
1902 – St. Louis Cardinals P Mike O’Neill hit the first pinch grand slam ever in the Majors, against the Boston Beaneaters. He also becomes the first pitcher in the National League to hit a grand slam in the 20th century.
1904 - Birthday of Charles Drew (1904-50) at Washington, DC. Physician who discovered how to store blood plasma and who organized the blood bank system in the US and UK during World War II. He was killed in an automobile accident near Burlington, NC, April 1, 1950.
1906 - Birthday of Josephine Baker (1906-75), born Freda Josephine McDonald in St. Louis, Missouri. She moved to France because she was a black Lesbian and received better acceptance in Europe. The very popular Parisian chanteuse known as "Le Jazz Hot" was a heroine of French resistance in World War II. She received Legion d'Honneur and the rarer Medaille de la Resistance from French President Charles de Gaulle for her work during World War II on behalf of France. She acted as a courier when she toured North Africa and other places as she sang and performed for Allied troops. She adopted 19 children, all from different nationalities. In later life, when her money ran out and she was evicted from her home in France, Princess Grace of Monaco (formerly Grace Kelly of Philadelphia and Hollywood) gave her a villa in Monaco and financed her new act “Josephine '75” to celebrate her 50 years in Paris. She died in her sleep after 14 performances. After the war, she had returned to the U.S. to try again but faced such racial discrimination for her act at the Stork Club that she returned to France where she was an honored entertainer and admired hero.
1910 – Paulette Goddard (1910-90) was born in Queens or Long Island. A Ziegfeld Girl, she became a major star of Paramount in the 1940s. Her most notable films were her first major role, as Charlie Chaplin’s leading lady in “Modern Times”, and Chaplin's subsequent film “The Great Dictator”. She was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her performance in “So Proudly We Hail” (1943).
1911 - Jean Harlow (1911-37) was born Harlean Harlow Carpenter in Kansas City, MO. She was the original blond sex-queen of Hollywood who was haunted by a chaotic private life. She died when her mother, as an abiding by Christian Scientist, refused to send her to a hospital for kidney failure. Her kidneys had been injured by a former husband who then shot himself. Her persona in the movies was a wise-cracking blond bombshell with a heart of gold.
1911 - Birthday of trumpet player Yank Lawson (1911-95), Trenton, Mo.
1911 - "Come Josephine in My Flying Machine" hit #1.
1916 - Gloria Martin (1916-95) was born. Seattle author and militant socialist-feminist who attempted to weld the two into one movement through “Radical Women” (1967). The working mother of eight, she fought for poor women, women of color, abortion rights, etc., in an unabashed manner that called for women to train and organize to get their needs taken care of. http://www.socialism.com/library/glormatr.html
1916 – The National Defense Act established the Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC) and increased the size of the National Guard by 450,000 men.
1916 - The first Jewish Supreme Court Justice, Louis Dembitz Brandeis of Boston, MA, was sworn in two days after receiving Senate confirmation. He served until 1939. http://www.library.brandeis.edu/SpecialCollections/SpecialEvents/Brandeis/
1916 – One of the Bowery Boys, Leo Gorcey (1916-69), was born in NYC. He became famous for portraying on film the leader of the group of young hooligans known variously as the Dead End Kids, The East Side Kids, and The Bowery Boys.
1918 – The Supreme Court, in Hammer v. Dagenhart, ruled child labor laws unconstitutional.
1920 - John Lewis’ (1920-2001) birthday in LaGrange, IL. Jazz pianist, composer and arranger, best known as the musical director of the Modern Jazz Quartet.
1921 - A cloudburst near Pikes Peak, CO killed 120 people. Pueblo, CO was flooded by a twenty-five foot crest of the Arkansas River, killing 70 persons. Fourteen inches of rain was reported at Boggs Flat, where a hard surface road through nearly level country was washed out to a depth of seven feet
1924 – Jimmy Rogers (1924-97) was born in Ruleville, MS. A Chicago blues singer, guitarist and harmonica player, he is best known for his work as a member of Muddy Waters’' band of the 1950s. He also had solo hits on the R&B chart with "That's All Right" in 1950 and "Walking by Myself" in 1954.
1925 – Tony Curtis (1925-2010) was born Bernard Schwartz in The Bronx. A film actor whose career spanned six decades, he had his greatest popularity during the 1950s and early 1960s. He acted in more than 100 films in roles covering a wide range of genres, from light comedy to serious drama. In his later years, Curtis made numerous television appearances. Among his work: “The Sweet Smell of Success,” “The Defiant Ones,” “Some Like It Hot,” “Spartacus,” “The Boston Strangler.” Among his children is actress Jamie Lee Curtis, born to Curtis and then-wife Janet Leigh.
1925 – Eddie Collins became the sixth Major Leaguer to get 3,000 hits.
1925 - Goodyear airship "Pilgrim" made its first flight, the first with an enclosed cabin.
1926 - Birthday of Allen Ginsberg (1926-97), Newark, NJ. Poet of the Beat Generation (“Howl”).
1927 - Birthday of tenor saxophonist Boots Randolph (1927-2007), Paducah, KY. Best known for his 1963 saxophone hit "Yakety Sax," which became Benny Hill’s signature tune, Randolph was a major part of the "Nashville Sound" for most of his professional career.
1929 – Chuck Barris (d. 2017) was born in Philadelphia. He is best known for hosting “The Gong Show” and creating “The Dating Game” and “The Newlywed Game.” He was also a songwriter who wrote the hit "Palisades Park” for Freddy ‘Boom-Boom’ Cannon, and the author of “Confessions of a Dangerous Mind,” his autobiography, which became a film directed by George Clooney.
1932 - Birthday of vocalist Dakota Staton (d. 2007), Pittsburgh, Pa
1932 - Lou Gehrig became the first American League player to hit four home runs in one game, doing so in a 20-13 New York Yankees victory over the Philadelphia Athletics. Gehrig hit his homers in four consecutive at bats and narrowly missed a fifth. His teammate, Tony Lazzeri, hit for the cycle.
1936 - Bestselling novelist Larry McMurtry was born in Archer City, Texas. He is known for his 1975 novel “Terms of Endearment”, his 1985 Pulitzer Prize-winning novel “Lonesome Dove”, a historical saga that follows ex-Texas Rangers as they drive their cattle from the Rio Grande to a new home in the frontier of Montana. He also co-wrote the adapted screenplay for “Brokeback Mountain”. “Lonesome Dove” was adapted into a television miniseries and both the films of “Term of Endearment” and “Brokeback Mountain” won Academy awards.
1937 – Negro Leaguer and Baseball Hall of Fame catcher Josh Gibson almost hit one out of Yankee Stadium, coming within 2 feet of the roof.
1942 - Curtis Mayfield (1942-99), a driving force in black music as singer, writer, producer and record company owner, was born in Chicago. Mayfield formed the Impressions in the late 1950's with singer Jerry Butler. When their first single, "For Your Precious Love," was a huge hit in 1958, Butler left for a solo career and Mayfield joined him as a guitarist. Mayfield reformed the Impressions in 1961, and led the group during its greatest years. He wrote many of their hits, including their biggest, "It's All Right," in 1963. Mayfield left the Impressions in 1970 and formed his own record and publishing company, Curtom. He had the biggest hit of his career in 1972 with the soundtrack to the film "Superfly." It made number one on the Billboard chart. Mayfield was paralyzed in 1990 when a light standard fell on him before a concert.
1943 - A mob of 60 from the Los Angeles Naval Reserve Armory beat up everyone perceived to be Hispanic, starting the week-long Zoot Suit Riots.
1944 - *JOHNSON, ELDEN H., Medal of Honor
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, 15th Infantry, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Valmontone, Italy, 3 June 1944. Entered service at: East Weymouth, Mass. Birth: Bivalve, N.J. G.O. No.: 38, 16 May 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty. Pvt. Johnson elected to sacrifice his life in order that his comrades might extricate themselves from an ambush. Braving the massed fire of about 60 riflemen, 3 machineguns, and 3 tanks from positions only 25 yards distant, he stood erect and signaled his patrol leader to withdraw. The whole area was brightly illuminated by enemy flares. Then, despite 20mm. machineguns, machine pistol, and rifle fire directed at him, Pvt. Johnson advanced beyond the enemy in a slow deliberate walk. Firing his automatic rifle from the hip, he succeeded in distracting the enemy and enabled his 12 comrades to escape. Advancing to within 5 yards of a machinegun, emptying his weapon, Pvt. Johnson killed its crew. Standing in full view of the enemy he reloaded and turned on the riflemen to the left, firing directly into their positions. He either killed or wounded 4 of them. A burst of machinegun fire tore into Pvt. Johnson and he dropped to his knees. Fighting to the very last, he steadied himself on his knees and sent a final burst of fire crashing into another German. With that he slumped forward dead. Pvt. Johnson had willingly given his life in order that his comrades might live. These acts on the part of Pvt. Johnson were an inspiration to the entire command and are in keeping with the highest traditions of the armed forces .
1945 - Captured maps of German minefields are distributed to all Allied governments, in Europe, by SHAEF. These maps are from the collection of approximately 4 tons of such maps captured by US 7th Army in Bavaria.
1945 - CHRISTIAN, HERBERT F., Medal of Honor
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, 15th Infantry, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Valmontone, Italy, 2-3 June 1944. Entered service at: Steubenville, Ohio. Birth: Byersville, Ohio. G.O. No.: 43, 30 May 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty. On 2-3 June 1944, at 1 a.m., Pvt. Christian elected to sacrifice his life in order that his comrades might extricate themselves from an ambush. Braving massed fire of about 60 riflemen, 3 machineguns, and 3 tanks from positions only 30 yards distant, he stood erect and signaled to the patrol to withdraw. The whole area was brightly illuminated by enemy flares. Although his right leg was severed above the knee by cannon fire, Pvt. Christian advanced on his left knee and the bloody stump of his right thigh, firing his submachinegun. Despite excruciating pain, Pvt. Christian continued on his self-assigned mission. He succeeded in distracting the enemy and enabled his 12 comrades to escape. He killed 3 enemy soldiers almost at once. Leaving a trail of blood behind him, he made his way forward 20 yards, halted at a point within 10 yards of the enemy, and despite intense fire killed a machine-pistol man. Reloading his weapon, he fired directly into the enemy position. The enemy appeared enraged at the success of his ruse, concentrated 20-mm. machinegun, machine-pistol and rifle fire on him, yet he refused to seek cover. Maintaining his erect position, Pvt. Christian fired his weapon to the very last. Just as he emptied his submachine gun, the enemy bullets found their mark and Pvt. Christian slumped forward dead. The courage and spirit of self-sacrifice displayed by this soldier were an inspiration to his comrades and are in keeping with the highest traditions of the armed forces.
1945 - Top Hits
“Laura” - The Woody Herman Orchestra
“Dream” - The Pied Pipers
“Sentimental Journey” - The Les Brown Orchestra (vocal: Doris Day)
“At Mail Call Today” - Gene Autry
1946 - Supreme Court bans segregation on interstate buses.
The court rules that Negro passengers cannot be forced to sit at the back of buses. In 1947, April 9-23, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) sponsors an interstate bus ride to test the ruling — Bayard Rustin, Fellowship of Reconciliation, Igal Roodenko, Joseph Felmet get arrested and serve 30 days on a chain gang. This is a particularly dangerous period in the US: lynchings in the south approach 1918 levels as Negro G.I.s return and talk of getting the rights they fought for.
1946 – In Paris, the first bikini was displayed.
1946 – The International Military Tribunal opened in Tokyo against 28 Japanese war criminals.
1949 - The first African-American Naval Academy graduate was Ensign Wesley Anthony Brown of Washington, DC.
1949 – “Dragnet” was first broadcast on radio station KFI, Los Angeles.
1949 - Elvis Presley, still an 8th grader, received his final grades for the year at Humes High School, including an "A" in language but only a "C" in music. Four years later to the day, he would graduate.
1952 – Hoping to make a comeback, Frank Sinatra recorded the classic "Birth of the Blues" for Columbia Records. It would not be until he went to Capital Records and recorded with Nelson Riddle, among others, as Eddie Fisher was the pop idol of the day.
1953 – Alexander Joy Cartwright was officially credited by Congress as the founder of baseball.
1953 - Top Hits
“Song from Moulin Rouge” - The Percy Faith Orchestra
“I Believe” - Frankie Laine
“April in Portugal” - The Les Baxter Orchestra
“Take These Chains from My Heart” - Hank Williams
1956 - Buddy Holly sees the John Wayne movie “The Searchers” and gains some song writing inspiration when Wayne utters the line "that'll be the day."
1957 – At Forbes Field in Pittsburgh, one of Willie Mays’ greatest catches came at the expense of his rival, Roberto Clemente. Clemente hit a ball that seemed headed towards a light tower in left center more than 440 feet from home plate. Mays leapt high against the screen and made a glove-twisting catch. Most observers thought the ball had bounced off the screen.
1959 - Billboard Magazine splits its album chart into two separate sections: Best Selling Stereophonic LPs and Best Selling Monophonic LPs.
1959 – The first US Air Force Academy graduation in Colorado Springs, Colorado. In 1919, Congressman Charles F. Curry introduced legislation providing for an Academy, but concerns about cost, curriculum and location led to its demise. In 1925, air power pioneer General Billy Mitchell testified that it was necessary "to have an air academy to form a basis for the permanent backbone of your air service and to attend to the ... organizational part of it, very much the same way that West Point does for the Army or that Annapolis does for the Navy." Support for an air academy got a boost with the National Security Act of 1947, which provided for the establishment of a separate air force within the United States military. Following the recommendation of the board, Congress passed legislation in 1954 to begin the construction of the Air Force Academy, and President Eisenhower signed it into law on 1 April of that year. The academy's permanent site had not yet been completed when the first class entered, so the 306 cadets from the Class of 1959 were sworn in at a temporary site at Lowry AFB in Denver on 11 July 1955. While at Lowry, they were housed in renovated World War II barracks. On 26 June 1976, 157 women entered the Air Force Academy with the Class of 1980.
1960 - Clarence Gideon is arrested and charged with breaking into a poolroom in Florida. The appeal of Gideon's subsequent conviction led to the establishment of one of the chief principles of American criminal justice. Due to Gideon's perseverance, every criminal suspect is entitled to representation by a lawyer. Now incorporated into what are known as our Miranda rights-"You have the right to speak to an attorney. If you can't afford one, one will be provided for you"-this information must be announced by every officer while making an arrest. When Florida decided to retry Gideon for the poolroom burglary in 1963, he had an experienced lawyer at his trial. The attorney easily poked holes in the prosecution's flimsy case, and Gideon was acquitted. New York Times writer Anthony Lewis wrote the stirring account of how one poor man changed the entire system in his 1965 book, “Gideon's Trumpet”, which later became a movie starring Henry Fonda.
1961 - Top Hits
“Travelin' Man” - Ricky Nelson
“Daddy's Home” - Shep & The Limelites
“Running Scared” - Roy Orbison
“Hello Walls” - Faron Young
1965 - The first Astronaut to walk in space was Major Edward Higgins White, II, who opened the hatch of Gemini 4 at 3:42pm this day, stepped out into space at a 1230-mile altitude at 3:45pm and remained outside for 20 minutes until 4:05pm, attached to the craft by a 25-0foot tether. A hand-held 7.5 oxygen jet propulsion gun operated by pressure on a trigger gave him control over his movements. (The first human to walk in space was cosmonaut Aleksie A. Leonov, who stepped out of the Vokshad 2 spacecraft on March 18, 1965).
1967 - Aretha Franklin scores her first No. 1 hit with "Respect." She quickly followed it up with six more Top 10 singles, including "Chain of Fools" and "A Natural Woman." Franklin, the daughter of a Detroit minister, grew up singing gospel. She signed with Columbia Records in her early 20s. However, Columbia ignored her gospel roots and recorded her singing show tunes with large orchestras. Franklin broke through when she switched to Atlantic Records and began singing gospel-influenced blues, or soul, winning her the sobriquet, "Lady Soul." A hit on the pop charts as well as the R&B lists, she became one of the most influential singers in contemporary music.
1968 - Poor People's Campaign March on Washington, DC, begins.
1969 - Top Hits
“Get Back” - The Beatles
“Love (Can Make You Happy)” - Mercy
“Oh Happy Day” - The Edwin Hawkins' Singers
“Singing My Song” - Tammy Wynette
1972 – The Eagles released “Take It Easy” written by Jackson Browne and Glenn Frey. It was the band's first single, released on May 1, 1972. It peaked at No. 12 on the July 22, 1972, Billboard Hot 100 chart. It also was the opening track on the band's debut album, “Eagles,” and it has become one of their signature songs, included on all of their live and compilation albums. It is listed as one of The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame’s 500 Songs that Shaped Rock and Roll.
1977 - Top Hits
Sir Duke - Stevie Wonder
I'm Your Boogie Man - KC & The Sunshine Band
Dreams - Fleetwood Mac
Luckenbach, Texas (Back to the Basics of Love) - Waylon Jennings
1978 - Johnny Mathis and Deniece Williams combined their singing talents to reach the number one spot on the nation's pop music charts with "Too Much, Too Little, Too Late".
1978 – Davey Johnson became the first Major Leaguer to hit two pinch grand slams in a season as the Phillies beat the Dodgers, 5 - 1.
1980 - A slow moving supercell thunderstorm produced 7 tornadoes in and around the Grand Island, Nebraska area in less than 3 hours. There was one tornado of F4 intensity and 3 were rated F3. 5 people were killed, 193 were injured, and total damage was 300 million dollars.
1982 – Graceland was opened to the public.
1985 - Apple Computer announced that chairman and cofounder Steve Jobs would no longer control the manufacturing and marketing of the Macintosh computer. The thirty-year-old Jobs had led the development team that designed the machine. He would become very successful on his own, then came back to Apple and helped turn the company around.
1985 - A group headed by Tom Benson, Jr., was approved to purchase the NFL New Orleans Saints from John W. Mecom, Jr.
1985 - "American Health" magazine released a survey that indicated 52 percent of doctors claimed that no one really should need to eat red meat more than once or twice a week, and 72 percent said that a vegetarian diet was a passing fad. Walking and running, plus working out was also considered a fad.
1985 - Top Hits
“Everything She Wants” - Wham!
“Everybody Wants to Rule the World” - Tears for Fears
“Axel F” - Harold Faltermeyer
“Don't Call Him a Cowboy” - Conway Twitty
1987 - The Rock ‘n’ Roll Hall of Fame inducted its first female artist, Aretha Franklin.
1989 - Longest NL Night Game: The Houston Astros defeated the Los Angeles Dodgers, 5-4, in 22 innings at the Astrodome. The longest night game by time in National League history, it lasted seven hours, 22 minutes.
1995 - The first female West Point cadet to graduate at the top of her class was 21-year old Rebecca Marier of New Orleans, LA. She topped a class of 858 men and 130 women.
1995 – Pedro Martinez of the Montreal Expos pitched nine perfect innings against San Diego before giving up a leadoff double to Bip Roberts in the 10th inning of the Expos' 1-0 win. Martinez became the second pitcher in history, after Harvey Haddix, to have a perfect game broken up in extra innings.
2003 - Yankees shortstop Derek Jeter is named the 11th captain in club history. The 28-year old joins Hal Chase (1912), Roger Peckinpaugh (1914-21), Babe Ruth (1922), Everett Scott (1922), Lou Gehrig (1935-41), Thurman Munson (1976-79), Graig Nettles (1982-84), co-captains Willie Randolph and Ron Guidry (1986-89), and Don Mattingly (1991-95). Jeter retired after the 2014 season, completing a 20-year career. He came one vote shy of a unanimous Hall of Fame selection in 2020, to be inducted in 2021 due to the coronavirus.
2003 - Slugger Sammy Sosa is ejected from the game during the first inning after he shatters his bat and the broken remains exposes cork. The Cub outfielder will be suspended by MLB for 8 games (will be reduced to 7) his offense.
2004 – Must be a great day for grand slams! At Atlanta’s Turner Field, the 45-year old Julio Franco hit a grand slam to become the oldest player in Major League history to do so as the Braves beat the Phillies, 8 - 4.
2005 – WCBS-FM in New York, one of the nation’s first all-oldies stations, changed its format to the more current genre and became known as “JACK.”
2008 - Barack Obama clinched the Democratic presidential nomination.
2008 – Randy Johnson moved into second place on the all-time Major League strikeout leaderboard, passing Roger Clemens for second place with 4,673. The 44-year-old "Big Unit" trails only Nolan Ryan, with 4,875 for his career.
2013 - The trial of Army private Chelsea Manning for leaking classified material to WikiLeaks begins in Ft. Meade, MD. Born Bradley Edward Manning, she was convicted in July 2013 of violations of the Espionage Act and other offenses, after disclosing to Wiki nearly 750,000 classified, or unclassified but sensitive, military and diplomatic documents. She was imprisoned from 2010 until 2017 when her sentence was commuted. A trans woman, Manning stated in 2013 that she had a female gender identity since childhood and wanted to be known as Chelsea Manning. She also expressed a desire to begin hormone replacement therapy. in 2018, Manning challenged incumbent Senator Ben Cardin for the Democratic nomination for the US Senate in her home state of Maryland. Manning received 5.7% of the votes.
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