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Wednesday, March 2, 2022

Today's Leasing News Headlines

Your Desk Before Social Media
NMLS Password Requirement Changes Starting March 19
    Announcement for all California Finance License Holders
Gas Embargo Would Hit Russia Hardest
    Estimated Change in Russia's GDP due to Sanctions
Leasing and Finance Industry Ads
    We’re Hiring!  Account Executive Positions
The Fun Factor
    Sales Makes it Happen by Scott Wheeler, CLFP
16 New Certified Lease & Finance Professionals
CLFP Companies with More than 3 Members
    1,113 Total CLFP’s
Academy for Certified Lease & Finance Professionals
    March, April, May, June, and August
Leasing News Wine Reviewer Kevan Wilkinson Wins Award
    from Balboa Capital, a Division of Ameris Bank
Leasing News Advisor
    Hugh Swandel
FDIC-Insured Institutions Report Net Income
    of $63.9 Billion in Fourth Quarter 2021
Labrador Retriever Mix
    Norfolk, Connecticut Adopt-a-Dog
Wednesday, March 12 NEFA Women's Lunch Moved
    to BLK Earth Sea Spirits, Huntington Beach, CA
News Briefs---
Element Reports Fourth Quarter and Full-Year Results,
  Having Achieved 2021 Strategic Growth Objectives and
   Returned $644 Million Cash to Common Shareholders
US and allies agree to release 60 million barrels of oil
   from their reserves as Russian invasion causes price spike
Apple halts product sales in Russia
   “unavailable” for purchase or delivery in the country
Nordstrom stock spikes 35% as retailer makes key strides
   in its off-price Rack business, issues strong guidance
Salesforce reports better-than-expected earnings
   and revenue, issues upbeat guidance
Burning cargo ship carrying Porsches
   Lamborghinis finally sinks
Many states, cities and schools are ditching mask mandates
   this week. But the fate of one big mandate is still up in air

You May have Missed---
US manufacturing growth firms on stronger orders, output
new orders growth and production accelerated.

Broker/Funder/Industry Lists | Features (wrilter's columns)
Top Ten Stories Chosen by Readers | Top Stories last six months (Be Careful of Doing Business)
Leasing News Icon for Android Mobile Device

Sports Brief----
 California Nuts Brief---
   "Gimme that wine"
    This Day in History
      Daily Puzzle
        Weather, USA or specific area
         Traffic Live----

######## surrounding the article denotes it is a “press release,” it was not written by Leasing News nor has the information been verified. The source noted. When an article is signed by the writer, it is considered a “byline.” It reflects the opinion and research of the writer.




NMLS Password Requirement Changes Starting March 19
Announcement for all California Finance License Holders

Beginning Saturday, March 19, the rules for NMLS passwords will be changed to provide more security. Users will only be required to adopt the new password requirements when their current password expires. New passwords created after this change has been implemented will expire after one year.
New password rules are as follows:

  1. Passwords must be a minimum of 20 characters and a maximum of 64 characters.
  2. Passwords must contain at least one English uppercase letter (A to Z) and one English lowercase letter (a to z).
  3. Embedded spaces are allowed. 
  4. Leading and trailing spaces are not allowed.

Users are encouraged to use a passphrase as a password. A passphrase is a sentence-like string of words used for authentication that is easy to remember and difficult to crack.  


The sanctions range from freezing assets of individuals and banning Russian banks from the United Kingdom and the United States to barring Russian investors from trading in EU bonds. In the energy sector, Germany made headlines by putting the certification process of Nord Stream 2 on ice after Russia's aggression. As our chart shows, these types of embargoes would impact the country's economic power the most.

According to simulations by the Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW), Russia's gross domestic product would drop by almost three percent if all imports and exports of gas would come to a halt. In 2020 alone, Russia produced roughly 639 billion cubic meters of natural gas, an amount second only to the United States. Roughly one third or 197 billion cubic meters of this production is exported by the country, which makes it the top exporter of this resource by a wide margin. It's also the third-biggest crude oil producer in the world, which explains the 1.2 percent drop in GDP if a total stop of imports and exports of this resource would be enacted.

Even though gas export stops, in particular, would influence energy prices in the EU in the short term, IfW researchers are confident that the repercussions for the Western world would be minimal in the long run. "Our calculations are exemplary in nature, but they clearly show that the medium-term economic consequences of trade embargoes would hit Russia much harder than the Western allies," said Hendrik Mahlkow, a trade researcher at IfW Kiel.

By Florian Zandt, Statista



Help Wanted Ads


The Fun Factor

Sales Makes it Happen
by Scott Wheeler, CLFP

Successful originators in the commercial equipment finance and leasing industry know what it means to have fun. They enjoy the process of finding, winning, and funding new transactions. They enjoy meeting new people and building life-long relationships. They enjoy working with their fellow employees, partners, and clients.

A relatively new originator asked the following questions:

1) Do successful originators have fun because they are making lots of money?


2) Do successful originators make lots of money because they are having fun?

My answer was simple. It is always fun to make money, but those who enjoy their work will always be more successful than others who are less enthusiastic. Vendors and end-users can instinctively detect originators who possess the "fun factor." These originators enjoy their work, always have a smile, and sincerely enjoy helping vendors and end-users complete an equipment acquisition. It is always a better buying experience when professionals enthusiastically provide their services.

It is important that we enjoy what we do. The commercial equipment finance and leasing industry offers excitement on a daily basis. I believe that most originators enjoy their work - they have fun. Top originators lead the industry because they have a passion for enjoyment as they serve the needs of their vendors and end-users. As a successful originator, enjoy the process, smile, win your fair share, celebrate your successes, and learn from your mistakes.


Scott A. Wheeler, CLFP
Wheeler Business Consulting
1314 Marquis Ct.
Fallston, Maryland 21047
Phone: 410 877 0428
Fax: 410 877 8161


16 New Certified Lease & Finance Professionals

The Certified Lease & Finance Professional (CLFP) Foundation is pleased to announce that 16 individuals who recently sat through the 8-hour online CLFP exam have passed. 

The CLFP designation identifies an individual as a knowledgeable professional to employers, clients, customers, and peers in the equipment finance industry. There are currently 1,113 active Certified Lease & Finance Professionals and Associates in the United States (including Puerto Rico), Canada, India, Africa, and Australia.


José Albertorio Matos, CLFP

Relationship Manager
Commercial Equipment Finance, Inc.

Cheryl Baker, CLFP

Director, Commercial Finance Operations,
Crestmark, a division of MetaBank

Janine Benson, CLFP

Vice President
Key Equipment Finance

Nicholas Bromberek, CLFP

Regional Sales Manager
Crossroads Equipment Lease & Finance LLC

Michael Cohen, CLFP

Chief Risk Officer
Crossroads Equipment Lease & Finance LLC

Kristin Coster, CLFP

Vice President, Operations
North Mill Equipment Finance

Taylor Dannar, CLFP

Sr. Funding Manager
Alliance Funding Group

Jack Elenbaas, CLFP

Credit Manager
Crossroads Equipment Lease & Finance

Tanner Evans, CLFP

Federal Sales Associate
Key Equipment Finance

Mark Hoffman, CLFP

Vice President
Key Equipment Finance

Jennifer Martin, CLFP

SVP, Sales Enablement and Enterprise Support
Key Equipment Finance

Richard McAuliffe, CLFP

Financial Services Executive & Executive Board Member
and Past Chair
Canadian Finance & Leasing Association

Naya Montoya, CLFP

Vice President
Key Equipment Finance

Timothy Stickney, CLFP

VP Sales – Bank Channel
Key Equipment Finance

Joshua Utke, CLFP

Business Development Manager
Crossroads Equipment Lease & Finance LLC

Denise Zeise, CLFP

Contract Manager
Key Equipment Finance

Mr. McAuliffe, representing the Canadian Finance & Leasing Association stated, “Building a strong North American equipment leasing and finance industry is a crucial goal in these ever-changing times. Becoming a CLFP is something I knew I needed to do to help achieve this goal.

“The CLFP designation assists individuals and our industry to achieve exceptional standards of professional conduct, technical expertise, and exemplary ethics. It is truly a privilege and pleasure to be a Certified Lease & Finance Professional.”



CLFP Companies with More than 3 Members
1,113 Total CLFP’s

First American Equipment Finance 141
U.S. Bank Equipment Finance 51
Ascentium Capital LLC 47
Key Equipment Finance 44
DLL 31
Financial Pacific Leasing, Inc. 29
Amur Equipment Finance 25
Stearns Bank NA-Equipment Finance Division 24
Oakmont Capital Holdings 23
AP Equipment Financing 21
The Huntington National Bank 21
Arvest Equipment Finance 20
KLC Financial, Inc. 17
Orion First Financial LLC 14
Channel 13
1st Source Bank 12
Ivory Consulting Corporation 12
Odessa 12
Fleet Advantage, LLC 11
Navitas Credit Corp. 11
Wintrust 11
Alliance Funding Group 10
Canon Financial Services, Inc. 10
ECS Financial Services, Inc. 10
Lease Corporation of America 10
North Mill Equipment Finance 10
Stryker 10
Great American Insurance 9
BancorpSouth Equipment Finance 8
BMO Harris Equipment Finance Company 8
LTi Technology Solutions 8
Truist 8
Beacon Funding Corporation 7
Northland Capital Financial Services, LLC 7
Celtic Commercial Finance 6
Crossroads Equipment Lease & Finance LLC 6
GreatAmerica Financial Services 6
BankFinancial, NA 5
CoreTech Leasing, Inc. 5
First Foundation Bank 5
Nexseer Capital 5
Univest Capital, Inc. 5
Cisco Systems Capital Corporation 4
Global Financial & Leasing Services LLC 4
Hanmi Bank 4
Quality Leasing Co., Inc. 4
UniFi Equipment Finance, Inc. 4
Bank of the West 3
Commerce Bank 3
Commercial Capital Company, LLC 3
Commercial Equipment Finance, Inc. 3
ENGS Commercial Finance Co. 3
Falcon Equipment Finance 3
First Commonwealth Bank 3
First National Capital Corporation 3
NCMIC Finance Corporation 3
Northpoint Commercial Credit, LLC 3
Northteq, Inc. 3
Partners Capital Group, Inc. 3
Taycor Financial 3
Thermo Fisher Financial Services 3
Western Equipment Finance 3


Academy for Certified Lease & Finance Professionals
  March, April, May, June, and August

The Academy for Lease and Finance Professionals (ALFP) is a three-day event designed to fully prepare an individual to sit for the CLFP exam assuming the attendee has already self-studied. A trend has begun in having virtual online sessions.

During the first two days, all of the required sections of the CLFP exam are covered in-depth. On the third day, the exam is offered but is not mandatory and may be taken on another day.

Students are strongly advised to have read and studied The Certified Lease & Finance Professionals' Handbook prior to attending the class in order to ensure success.

Channel Host - Virtual
March 1 – March 4
Public ALFP
April 7 - April 8

2022 Online Public ALFP Hosted by Northland Capital
Mar 21 – 23, 2022
Monday – 9:00 a.m. – 1:30 p.m. Central Time
Tuesday – 9:00 a.m. – 1:15 p.m. Central Time
Wednesday – 9:00 a.m. – 1:00 p.m.  Central Time
This online ALFP will require attendees to have access to WebEx
Exam is proctored online, therefore, it may be taken at any time
To Register: This online ALFP will require attendees to have access to WebEx

Huntington Equipment Finance - Virtual
April 7 - April 8

April 7 – April 8

Arvest Equipment Finance Host – In Person
April 20 - 23, 2022
Private ALFP

May 2 - May 5

AP Equipment Finance - Virtual
June 8 - June 10

Great American Insurance Host – In Person
August 18 - 19
Public ALFP

About Academy

If you are interested in attending, please contact Reid Raykovich, Executive Director:


Leasing News Wine Reviewer Kevan Wilkinson Wins Award
from Balboa Capital, a Division of Ameris Bank

“Outstanding Achievement Award – 2021”

This is the second year in a row he has won the award and the 4th time overall at Balboa Capital.

Kevan R. Wilkinson | Digital Content Manager | BALBOA CAPITAL |

His wine reviews appear most Fridays in Leasing News, primarily recommending inexpensive wines that taste like expensive wines:


Leasing News Advisor
Hugh Swandel

Hugh Swandel | President
Meridian OneCap Credit Corp
204 – 3185 Willingdon Green
Burnaby, B.C.  V5G 4P3
T: 604-646-2254  | 888-735-2201, extension 8298 (toll-free)
C: 236-888-9031

Mr. Swandel joined the Advisory Board July 6, 2011.

Hugh Swandel has been active in the commercial equipment finance industry for 30 years in a variety of roles.  Mr. Swandel is the President of Meridian OneCap Commercial Credit (MOCC). MOCC is a market leader in the Canadian equipment financing sector with offices across Canada. Previously, Hugh was the Senior Managing Director of The Alta Group in Canada and worked for clients in both United States and Canada. During his time with The Alta Group, Hugh Swandel assisted many top North American firms on a variety of projects including market entry studies, acquisitions, due diligence, funding and strategic planning.

Hugh is an executive member of Canadian Finance and Leasing Association (CFLA) board of directors, is Chairman of the CFLA research committee, and is a past President of the National Equipment Financing Association (NEFA, USA). He also is a member of the Equipment Leasing and Finance Association of America (ELFA). He has reported on many events and conferences for Leasing News and is an active participant on the Advisory Board.

In 2006, 2010 and in 2018, Hugh received the Canadian leasing industry’s highest honor when he was named “CFLA Member of the Year.” He is one of a small group of industry professionals to receive the award on three separate occasions.

Prior to founding his consulting firm, Swandel and Associates, in 2001, Hugh served as president and chief operations officer of Electronic Financial Group (EFG). EFG was a Canadian company that launched a multi lender web-based credit system that was one of the earliest platforms of its kind in the equipment finance industry. Earlier, Hugh spent 10 years with National Leasing Group in a variety of senior positions. National Leasing Group is now known as CWB National and is a Canadian lessor that has won numerous awards for excellence in management and innovation.

Mr. Swandel resides in Vancouver, British Columbia.


##### Press Release ############################

FDIC-Insured Institutions Report Net Income
of $63.9 Billion in Fourth Quarter 2021

  • Negative Provision Expense Drove Increased Full-Year 2021 Net Income
  • Quarterly Net Income Continued to Increase Year Over Year
  • Net Interest Margin Remained Stable Quarter Over Quarter
  • Quarterly Loan Growth Was Broad-Based
  • Asset Quality Continued to Improve
  • Community Banks Reported an Increase in Quarterly Net Income and Full-Year Net Income FDIC-Insured Institutions

Martin J. Gruenberg FDIC Acting Chairman noted, “With strong capital and liquidity levels to support lending and protect against potential losses, the banking industry continued to meet the country’s credit needs while navigating the economic effects of the pandemic.  Still, challenges remain, as rising interest rates and geopolitical uncertainty could negatively affect bank profitability, credit quality, and loan growth going forward.”

WASHINGTON— Reports from 4,839 commercial banks and savings institutions insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) reflect aggregate net income of $63.9 billion in fourth quarter 2021, an increase of $4.4 billion (7.4 percent) from a year ago.  This increase was driven by further economic growth and improved credit conditions, which led to expanded net interest income and a fourth consecutive quarter of aggregate negative provision expense.  These and other financial results for fourth quarter and full-year 2021 are included in the FDIC’s latest Quarterly Banking Profile released today.

“In the fourth quarter, revenue has increased from the year ago quarter, along with stronger economic growth, higher loan demand, and improved credit conditions,” Gruenberg said.

Highlights from the Fourth Quarter 2021
Quarterly Banking Profile

Net Income Increased in 2021: The banking industry reported full-year 2021 net income of $279.1 billion, up $132.0 billion (89.7 percent) from 2020.  The increase was primarily attributable to negative provision expenses, supported by continued economic growth and further improvements in credit quality. The average return-on-assets (ROA) ratio increased from 0.72 percent in 2020 to 1.23 percent in 2021.

Quarterly Net Income Continued to Increase Year Over Year:

Quarterly net income totaled $63.9 billion, an increase of $4.4 billion (7.4 percent) from the same quarter a year ago, primarily due to a $5.8 billion increase in net interest income and a $4.0 billion decline in provision expense.  A majority of banks (52.1 percent) reported annual improvements in quarterly net income.  However, net income declined $5.6 billion (8.1 percent) from third quarter 2021, driven by a quarter-to-quarter increase in provision expense (up $4.5 billion to negative $742.4 million).

The banking industry reported an aggregate ROA ratio of 1.09 percent, on par with the 1.10 percent ROA ratio reported in fourth quarter 2020, but down from 1.21 percent reported in third quarter 2021. 

Net Interest Margin Remained Stable Quarter Over Quarter:

The net interest margin (NIM) was unchanged from the prior quarter at 2.56 percent, 6 basis points higher than the recent record low in the second quarter 2021 but down 12 basis points from the previous year.  While improvements in net interest income were widespread, as nearly two-thirds of banks (65.6 percent) reported higher net interest income compared with a year ago, earning asset growth outpaced net interest income growth.

The yield on earning assets declined slightly to 2.71 percent (down 2 basis points quarter-over-quarter and 21 basis points year-over-year).  The growth rate in average earning assets outpaced the growth rate in interest income.  Average funding costs declined 2 basis points from the previous quarter to a new record low of 0.15 percent. 

Community Banks Reported an Increase in Quarterly Net Income Year:

 Over Year: Community banks reported net income growth of $511.6 million from the year-ago quarter, supported by an increase in net interest income and a decline in provision expense.  Net interest income was up $1.3 billion (6.7 percent) from the year-ago quarter due to a decline in interest expense ($910.9 million or 35.1 percent) and increase in interest income ($384.5 million, or 1.8 percent). Net interest income, however, declined slightly ($165.8 million, or 0.8 percent) from third quarter 2021.  Provision expenses declined $914.9 million (74 percent) from a year ago and increased $39.2 million (13.9 percent) from the previous quarter.  Just over half (51.2 percent) of 4,391 FDIC-insured community banks reported higher quarterly net income. 

The net interest margin for community banks narrowed 11 basis points from the year-ago quarter to 3.22 percent, as growth in earning assets outpaced growth in net interest income.

Loan Balances Increased from the Previous Quarter and a Year Ago:

Total loan and lease balances increased $326.0 billion (3.0 percent) from the previous quarter.  Several portfolios contributed meaningfully to the industry’s loan growth, including consumer loans (up $84.9 billion, or 4.7 percent), commercial and industrial (C&I) loans (up $70.8 billion, or 3.2 percent), and loans to nondepository institutions (up $59.0 billion, or 9.1 percent).

Annually, total loan and lease balances increased $383.2 billion (3.5 percent), as growth in consumer loans (up $137.8 billion, or 7.9 percent), loans to nondepository institutions (up $124.5 billion, or 21.5 percent), and nonfarm nonresidential commercial real estate (CRE) loan balances (up $77.0 billion, or 4.9 percent) helped offset declines in C&I loans (down $126.7 billion, or 5.2 percent).  The annual decline in C&I loan balances was driven by Paycheck Protection Program loan forgiveness and repayment.

Community banks reported a 1.4 percent increase in loan balances from the previous quarter, and a 2.0 percent increase from the prior year.  Growth in nonfarm nonresidential CRE loan balances drove the increases. 

Credit Quality Continued to Improve:

The outstanding balance of loans that were 90 days or more past due or in nonaccrual status (i.e., noncurrent loans) continued to decline (down $3.1 billion, or 3.0 percent, from third quarter 2021).  The noncurrent rate for total loans declined 5 basis points from the previous quarter to 0.89 percent.  The net charge-off balance also continued to decline (down $5.6 billion, or 49.5 percent) from a year ago.  The total net charge-off rate dropped 21 basis points to 0.21 percent—just above last quarter’s record low. 

The Reserve Ratio for the Deposit Insurance Fund Was Unchanged at 1.27 Percent:

The Deposit Insurance Fund balance was $123.1 billion as of December 31, up $1.2 billion from the end of the third quarter.  Due to continued strong growth in insured deposits, the reserve ratio remained the same at 1.27 percent.

Mergers Continued in the Fourth Quarter: Seventy-two institutions merged and no banks failed in fourth quarter 2021.

#$## Press Release ############################


Labrador Retriever Mix
Norfolk, Connecticut  Adopt-a-Dog


4 Months Old
When Grown: Medium 25-60 lbs.

He is a very sweet boy with lots of energy!

PAWS (Pet Animal Welfare Society
504 Main Avenue
Norwalk, Connecticut 06951
Contact Alexa Montegari
(203)750 -9572, ext. 109

Ask about Casper:

Donations for dogs includes them being spayed or neutered, up to date on vaccines, 4DX tested, and microchipped. Adult dogs are $375 and puppies are $475


 Wednesday, March 12 NEFA Women's Lunch Moved
to BLK Earth Sea Spirits, Huntington Beach, CA

BLK Earth Sea Spirits, 300 Pacific Coast Highway
Huntington Beach, CA 92658

Wed, March 23, 2022
12:00 PM – 2:00 PM PDT

“2022 Here we come! We hope you can join us for lunch on Wednesday, March 23rd just before the NEFA Finance Summit.

“The luncheon is co-hosted by ECS Financial Services, Inc. and Financial Pacific, an Umpqua Bank Company.

“The cost is $50 per person. Please register by Wednesday, March 16th, to guarantee your seat at this fun-filled event!!

“Oh and by the way, feel free to forward this invite to a Woman In Leasing, Finance, or Banking that you think might be interested in attending, even if they are not registered for the NEFA Funding Symposium.

“Thank you in advance and we hope you can make it!”

Shari L. Lipski, CLFP
ECS Financial Services, Inc.

To Register: Please go to Tickets and then click take-out, as this
is an Eventbrite form:

Please contact Shari Lipski at
or call 847-897-1711.


News Briefs---

Element Reports Fourth Quarter and Full-Year Results,
  Having Achieved 2021 Strategic Growth Objectives and
    Returned $644 Million Cash to Common Shareholders

US and allies agree to release 60 million barrels of oil
    from their reserves as Russian invasion causes price spike

Apple halts product sales in Russia
    “unavailable” for purchase or delivery in the country

Nordstrom stock spikes 35% as retailer makes key strides
    in its off-price Rack business, issues strong guidance

Salesforce reports better-than-expected earnings
    and revenue, issues upbeat guidance

Burning cargo ship carrying Porsches,
    Lamborghinis finally sinks

Many states, cities and schools are ditching mask mandates
    this week. But the fate of one big mandate is still up in air


You May Have Missed---

U.S. Manufacturing Growth Firms on Stronger Orders, Output



Sports Briefs---

MLB cancels games with no new deal in baseball disaster

Sources - San Francisco 49ers QB Jimmy Garoppolo
to have shoulder surgery; will be out until summer

 Cowboys reveal QB Dak Prescott underwent
offseason shoulder surgery

Defending champion Stanford gears up for Pac-12 Tournament

Russia suspended from international soccer over Ukraine war

Raiders, Jaguars to open NFL preseason in Hall of Fame game

Photos: Ex-Raiders coach Jon Gruden selling
Las Vegas mansion for $7.5M

Bucs coach Bruce Arians on if Tom Brady left door open
on playing again: 'He slammed it shut'


California Nuts Briefs---

San Francisco public schools won’t drop masks
    despite California lifting mandate

'What a DISGRACE!!': California trucker convoy disbands,
angry supporters vent on Facebook    

Paltry Sierra snowpack spells prolonged drought in California

Santa Clara University announces
history-making new president

Google village in downtown San Jose
could achieve $19 billion value



"Gimme that wine"

Feds say bogus wine collection duped investors
     to tune of $99 million

Wine of the week: BARRA of Mendocino,
2018 Mendocino Petite Sirah

Wente Vineyards Launches New Website

Mayacamas Announces Release of 2020 Chardonnay
   & 2019 Merlot

How the Internet Has Left Its Mark on Terroir

2,000 m² of photovoltaic panels set to cover
   vineyards in Bordeaux

“Gimme that Wine”

Free Wine App

Wine Prices by vintage


This Day in History

     1769 - DeWitt Clinton (d. 1828) was born in Little Britain in the New York colony.  Clinton was the 6th Governor of New York, a NY Assemblyman and Senator, a US Senator, and the Mayor of New York City.  As Governor, he presided over construction of the Erie Canal that gave the US a water route to the Atlantic Ocean by connecting Lake Erie with the Hudson River.  The only other route, the St. Lawrence River, was controlled by the English at that time.  The westward expansion of the US was enabled greatly by the Erie Canal.   
    1776 - Charleston, South Carolina, set up an independent government under a temporary local constitution that was to be in effect until an agreement with England could be reached. John Rutledge was chosen President on March 17. The government, said to be the first independent government within the recognized borders of the colonies, successfully defended Charleston against the British army and fleet on June 28, 1776, thus freeing the South from attack for nearly three years.
    1776 - Americans begin shelling British troops in Boston. On March 17, the British evacuated Boston after American forces seized and fortified Dorchester Heights on March 4. British General Howe sailed for Halifax, Nova Scotia, to await reinforcements.
    1776 - The Battle of the Rice Boats, around the Savannah River on the border between the Province of Georgia and the Province of South Carolina, was fought on March 2 and 3, 1776. The battle pitted the Patriot militia from Georgia and South Carolina against a small fleet of the Royal Navy. A group of boats containing rice are the target of a British attack on March 2, 1776. The Council of Safety reacts quickly, ordering the local militia to set boats on fire and drive the British away. The Inverness, loaded with rice and deerskins, is set on fire and cut loose, drifting into the brig Nelly. While some 500 Whigs from South Carolina join the 600 Georgia rebels, the two ships drift downstream, setting three more ships on fire. Royal Governor Wright, who has fled to the relative safety of the British vessels barely escapes.
    1789 - Pennsylvania ended the prohibition of theatrical performances.
    1791 - Long-distance communication sped up with the unveiling of a semaphore machine in Paris.
    1793 - Birthday of Sam Houston (d. 1863) in Rockbridge County, VA.  A famed American patriot and the first President of the Republic of Texas, Houston was a congressman (1823-27) and governor (1827-29) of Tennessee. He resigned his office as governor in 1829 and rejoined the Cherokee Indians (with whom he had lived for several years as a teenage runaway), who accepted him as a member of their tribe. Houston went to Texas in 1832 and became commander of the Texas army in the War for Texas Independence, which was secured when Houston routed the much larger Mexican forces led by Santa Ana, April 21, 1836, at the Battle of San Jacinto. After Texas’ admission to the Union, Houston served as US senator and later as governor of the state. He was deposed in 1861 when he refused to swear allegiance to the Confederacy.
    1799 - Congress standardized US weights and measures.
    1807 - The African slave trade was prohibited after January 1, 1808 by an act of Congress, which outlawed importation of slaves into any place within the jurisdiction of the U.S.
    1815 - To put an end to robberies by the Barbary pirates, the United States declares war on Algiers.
    1819 – Shooting squirrels becomes popular sport out West. The eastern U.S. was slowly becoming urbanized, but the frontier, moving ever westward, was still the place for the vigorous outdoor activities associated with newly settled rural areas. Marksmanship was highly prized and involved such sports as squirrel shooting by four-man teams. On one occasion, a team shot 152 squirrels by nightfall and the other, 141. Considered a brutal sport was the rough-and tumble fight. There were no rules and the two contestants were free to bite off ears or gouge out eyes until a fighter gave up or was knocked unconscious. By the way squirrel shooting is still popular today in many regions.
    1819 - The first immigration law enacted by Congress established rules and procedures for passenger ships bringing immigrants to the U.S. The most important procedure was the numerical registry of immigrations, which made it possible to compile accurate statistics on immigrations in later years.
    1824 - Interstate commerce was brought under federal control
    1825 – The first grand opera in US sung in English was performed in NYC.
    1828 - Melissa Burton Coray (d. 1903) was born at Mersey, Ontario, Canada. At the age of 18, she accompanied her Mormon Battalion soldier husband, William Coray, on a 2,000-mile military march on foot from Council Bluffs, IA, to San Diego, CA, then 1,500 more miles across the Sierra Nevada Mountains and the Nevada desert to Salt Lake City, UT, the only woman to make the entire trip. On July 30, 1994, a mountain peak near Carson Pass was named for her, the 2nd peak in California to be named for a woman.
    1829 - Birthday of Carl Schurz (d. 1906), near Cologne, Germany. American journalist, political reformer and army officer.
    1829 - New England Asylum for the Blind, the first in the US, incorporated in Boston.
    1836 - Texas adopted its Declaration of Independence from Mexico.
    1846 - A great storm hit Virginia and the Carolinas. The storm caused half a million dollars damage, and in North Carolina, drowned fifty families and a thousand cattle on Notts Island.
    1850 - First masquerade ball in San Francisco with 600 guests at the National Theater. In 1998, it moved to the Palace of Fine Arts with 2,000 guests.
    1853 - Territory of Washington organized after separating from Oregon Territory.
    1861 - The US Congress creates Dakota and Nevada Territories out of the Nebraska and Utah territories. One of the many things leading up to the Civil War were territories and states being created that would become “free states” and thus the “slave states” would lose their leverage in Congress, and the fear that “slavery” would be abolished. On February 4, the Confederacy was formed and earlier in the year states started seceding from the Union. The creation of these territories was signed by President James Buchanan.  Abraham Lincoln would be inaugurated as President in two days; Hannibal Hamlin was his Vice-President.
    1861 - Government Printing Office purchased its first printing plant in Washington, DC.
    1865 - Freedman's Bureau was founded for the education of Black Americans
    1865 - Confederate General Jubal Early's army was defeated at the Battle of Waynesboro, VA during the Civil War.
    1866 – The first US company to make sewing needles by machine incorporated in Connecticut.  A former Vermont toolmaker, Orrin L. Hopson, and his associate, Herman P. Brooks, developed and patented a machine that could compress a section of steel. The two designers of the wire-compressing machine decided to leave Waterbury to find a market for their invention. Hopson and Brooks, who reacted to their discovery with a decided entrepreneurial bent, had settled by 1866 in Wolcottville, Connecticut, by which time they had determined that the marketability of their invention was not the machine itself but the products it could manufacture: sewing machine needle blanks…and you thought it was Singer!
    1867 – Congress passed the first Reconstruction Act.  The Reconstruction Acts, or Military Reconstruction Acts, were four statutes passed during the Reconstruction Era by the 40th Congress. The actual title of the initial legislation was "An act to provide for the more efficient government of the Rebel States" and it was passed on March 2, 1867. Fulfillment of the requirements of the Acts was necessary for the former Confederate States to be re-admitted to the Union. The Acts excluded Tennessee which had already ratified the 14th Amendment and had been readmitted to the Union.
    1867 - Jesse James gang attempts to rob bank in Savannah, MO, 1 dead. The attempted robbery on a private bank occurred 2:30 pm, east of St. Joseph, Missouri in Andrew County. There were five men in the gang, four men dismounted and entered the bank. Judge John McClain refused to be robbed and put up an admirable defense. During the attempt, McClain was shot but lived. No money was stolen.
    1867 - Congress created the Department of Education
    1868 – The University of Illinois opened.
    1874 – Baseball adopted the batter’s box for the first time.
    1877 - A United States electoral commission declared Rutherford B. Hayes President, the only American President to be elected this way. The original result had been too close to call, with several disputed ballots. The nation had never before faced a dispute over the results of a presidential election, although elections had been decided by congress several times due to electoral procedure results. A candidate needed 185 electoral votes to win and Samuel J. Tilden, the Democratic candidate, clearly had 184. In dispute were the 19 electoral votes of three states still under carpetbag rule, Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina, plus one vote in Oregon. In Congress, both parties agreed on January 29 to establish an electoral commission to decide the issue. The commission, with five members from each house of Congress and five members from the Supreme Court, was made up of eight Republicans and seven Democrats. All the commission’s decisions were to fall along party lines. On March 2, Congress accepted the commission’s decision, which awarded all the disputed votes to the Republican candidate Rutherford B. Hayes, who thus received 185 electoral votes to Tilden’s 184. The Republicans were accused of offering southern Democrats economic favors for their region if they supported Hayes’s claim. In any event, the new President showed a conciliatory attitude toward the South: the last Federal troops were withdrawn and there was no further effort to protect the rights of blacks. Reconstruction was over.
    1888 - The Grand Fountain Savings Bank, also known as the True Reformers Savings Bank, was chartered. It was the first bank for African-Americans operated by African-Americans. It began operations on April 3, with a paid-in capital of $4,000. The first day’s deposits were $1,268.69. The board of directors was elected by the society of the United Order of True Reformers, a group founded by William W. Browne.

    1889 - Kansas passed the nation’s first anti-trust legislation.
    1893 – The first federal railroad legislation passed, requiring safety features
    1899 - Mt. Rainier National Park established, located in the Cascade Mountains of Washington state.  This is the fourth oldest national park.
    1900 - Kurt Weill (d. 1950) was born in Dessau, Germany.  A talented composer, he was active from the 1920s and, in his later years, in the United States. His best-known work is “The Threepenny Opera” (1928), written in collaboration with Bertolt Brecht, from which the hit song, “Mack the Knife” was recorded in 1958 by Bobby Darin. Having fled Nazi Germany in 1933 for Paris, where he worked once more with Brecht on the ballet “The Seven Deadly Sins,” he then landed in NYC where his musical of “The Threepenny Opera” was given its premiere on Broadway, but closed after 13 performances to mixed reviews. 
    1901 - Congress passed the Platt Amendment, limiting the autonomy of Cuba as a condition for the withdrawal of American troops.
    1901 – United States Steel Corporation was founded as a result of a merger between Carnegie Steel Company and Federal Steel Company, becoming the first corporation in the world with a market capital over $1 billion.
    1903 – In NYC, The Martha Washington Hotel opened, becoming the first hotel exclusively for women.
    1904 - Theodor Seuss Geisel (d. 1991), the creator of “The Cat in the Hat” and “How the Grinch Stole Christmas,” was born at Springfield, MA. Known to children and parents as Dr. Seuss, his books have sold more than 200 million copies and have been translated into 20 languages. His career began with “And to Think That I Saw It on Mulberry Street,” which was turned down by 27 publishing houses before being published by Vanguard Press. His books included many messages, from environmental consciousness in “The Lorax” to the dangers of pacifism in “Horton Hatches the Egg” and Yertel the Turtle's thinly veiled references to Hitler as the title character. He was awarded a Pulitzer Prize in 1984 "for his contribution over nearly half a century to the education and enjoyment of America's children and their parents."
    1904 - "Official Playing Rules of Professional Base Ball Clubs" were adopted.
    1907 - After a crowded and contentious session, California Assembly members voted 58 to 19 to move the state capital from Sacramento to Berkeley.   As a result of the vote on the bill, California voters were given an opportunity to decide the question in January, 1908.
    1909 - Melvin “Mel” Ott (d. 1958), New York Giants’ Baseball Hall of Fame outfielder, was born at Gretna, LA.  Ott hit 511 home runs, a National League record until Willie Mays surpassed it in 1966. Inducted into the Hall of Fame in 1951.
    1910 - Two trains crashed in a snowstorm in Wellington, Washington, 118 die.
    1912 - Drummer Red Saunders (d. 1981) was born in Memphis TN
    1914 - Martin Ritt’s (d. 1990) birthday at New York, NY. American film and television director.  His best-known films are “Hud” (1963), “Sounder” (1972), and “Norma Rae” (1979). He is perhaps best known
for his innovative television dramas in the 50’s and 60’s. During the 1950’s he was blacklisted by McCarthy’s anti-Communist crusade.
    1917 - Congress passes the Jones Act making Puerto Rico a territory of the United States and makes the inhabitants U.S. citizens.
    1917 - Desi Arnaz’s birthday, at Santiago, Cuba, born Desidero Alberto Arnaz y Acha III (d. 1986), to a wealthy family. The 1933 revolution sent them to Miami, FL, and the young Arnaz sought a music career. Arnaz led his own band and introduced the conga line to America. He had several musical hits including “Babalu.” He moved into acting, meeting his future wife, Lucille Ball, at RKO. Ball and Arnaz created one of the great TV comedies, “I Love Lucy” (1951-1957) and started the innovative Desilu TV production company. Karl Freund, the cameraman on “I Love Lucy,” and Arnaz himself have been credited with the development of the linked multi-film camera setup using adjacent sets in front of a live audience that became the standard production method for situation comedies. Ball and Arnaz divorced in 1960. In November, 1962, Arnaz resigned as president when his holdings in the company were bought out by Ball, who succeeded him as president.  This made her the first woman to head a major studio, and one of the most powerful women in Hollywood at the time.
    1917 – Reliever Jim Konstanty was born Casimir James Konstanty (d. 1976) in Strykersville, NY.  Over most of his 11-year Major League career, Konstanty was a relief pitcher at a time when the job usually fell to pitchers on their last legs and when most starters went all nine innings.  He was so effective in this role that during the 1950 season of the Philadelphia Phillies’ Whiz Kids who won the National League pennant, Konstanty won the MVP award.  The Cy Young Award for the outstanding pitcher of the year would not be created until 1956.  To date, he is the only National League relief pitcher to achieve such an honor. He appeared in 74 games (then a Major League record), winning 16 games with a National League leading 22 saves, which at the time was not a stat that existed.
    1918 – The Yankees purchased 1B George Burns from the Detroit Tigers and immediately traded him to the Philadelphia A's.
    1923 - Arthel “Doc” Watson (d. 2012) was born in Deep Gap, NC.  Singer and musician (“Riding the Midnight Train,” “Then and Now”), he first gained notice in 1961 with an engagement at Gerde's Folk City in New York's Greenwich Village.  His reputation was solidified with an appearance at the 1963 Newport Folk Festival. Watson relied heavily on traditional material - songs such as "Tom Dooley" and "Shady Grove." He recorded for Folkways and Vanguard records in the '60s. In the early '70s, Doc Watson's career was revived by a guest appearance on the Nitty Gritty Dirt Band's three-album set, "Will the Circle Be Unbroken."
    1923 - Orrin Keepnews (d. 2015), co-founder of Riverside Records, jazz writer and reviewer, was born in The Bronx.

    1924 - Harmonica player Alexander “Papa George” Lightfoot (d. 1971) was born in Natchez, MS.
    1924 – Jazz tenor saxophonist Eddie “Lockjaw” Davis’ (d. 1986) birthday in NYC.  Davis was a gutsy hard-driving swinger who displayed raw lyricism and real energy in his playing. Admired by all his fellow musicians, he was for a while closely associated with the Count Basie Band, but also formed small bands with fellow tenor player Johnny Griffin in the 60s and Roy Eldridge in the 70s.,,420939,00.html?artist=Eddie+%22Lockjaw%22+Davis
    1925 - Highway Numbers introduced.  The Joint Board on Interstate Highways, recommended by the American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO), worked to form a national numbering system to rationalize the nation’s roads. Standardized road signs in the shape of a shield, identifying the routes were also introduced. Later, the system would be improved with the use of odd and even numbers that distinguish between north-south and east-west routes, respectively.  For the most part, these US Highways sought to link major population areas to speed movement of goods and people from place to place.  The Interstate Highway System that would follow generally speeds travel around major populations.
    1927 - Raleigh, North Carolina was buried under 17.8 inches of snow in 24 hours to establish a record snowfall for the city. Nashville, North Carolina received 31 inches of snow.
    1927 – Babe Ruth became highest paid baseball player in history, signing a contract for $70,000 per year.  Then he went out and established a new HR record with 60 in the 1927 season.
    1929 - Chicago Blackhawks were shut-out for a NHL record 8th straight game.
    1930 – Author D.H. Lawrence died in France.  English by birth, Lawrence’s writings broke ground on then-hushed subjects of homosexuality, adultery, sex, and obscenity.  His novels include ”Sons and Lovers,” “The Rainbow,” “Women in Love,” and “Lady Chatterley’s Lover.”  He arrived in the US in 1922 and settled in New Mexico at what is now called the D.H. Lawrence Ranch.
    1931 – Author and journalist Tom Wolfe (d. 2018) was born in Richmond, VA.  “The Bonfire of the Vanities,” “The Right Stuff.”
    1931 – Former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev was born in North Caucasus, Russia.  With President Ronald Reagan, his reorientation of Soviet strategic aims contributed to the end of the Cold War.  He also led the removal of the constitutional role of the Communist Party in governing the state, and inadvertently led to the dissolution of the Soviet Union. He was awarded the Otto Hahn Peace Medal in 1989, the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1990 and the Harvey Prize in 1992.
    1933 - The motion picture “King Kong” starring Fay Wray, had its world premiere in New York
    1934 - Birthday of Dottie Rambo, born Joyce Reba Luttrell (d. 2008) in Madisonville, KY.  Contemporary gospel singer and songwriter. She has authored such country gospel favorites as "In the Valley He Restoreth My Soul," "Build My Mansion Next Door to Jesus" and "I Just Came to Talk With You, Lord."
    1934 – The Union Pacific tested a light-weight high-speed passenger train near Omaha
    1936 - Andy Kirk Band records “Walkin’ and Swingin’,’’ Decca 809.
    1937 - The Steel Workers Organizing Committee signed a collective bargaining agreement with US Steel, leading to unionization of the United States steel industry.
    1938 – In Los Angeles, landslides and floods caused over 200 deaths
    1939 – Thanks for joining us!  The Massachusetts Legislature ratified the US Bill of Rights - 147 years late.
    1940 - Madison Square Garden held the first intercollegiate track meet telecast.     
    1943 - Protected by American and Australian fighters, 137 American Flying Fortress and Liberator bombers attacked a Japanese convoy en route from its base at Rabaul to New Guinea. All the transports and four of the destroyers were sunk and 3,500 Japanese troops were drowned. Of the 150 Japanese aircraft involved in the fighting, 102 were shot down. The Battle of Bismarck Sea was a major victory for the Allies, ending any efforts by the Japanese to send reinforcements to New Guinea.
    1944 - Rock singer Lou Reed (d. 2013) was born in Brooklyn, New York. He was lead singer and songwriter of the Velvet Underground in the late 1960s. The group's bleak outlook captured the attention of Andy Warhol, who made them a part of his "Exploding Plastic Inevitable" multi-media show, which toured the US and Canada in 1966. Lou Reed made a bitter departure from the Velvet Underground in 1970, living in seclusion for a couple of years. His solo career began in 1972, and his second album, "Transformer," was produced by David Bowie. From this LP, came Reed's only top-ten single, "Walk on the Wild Side." Reed's later albums ranged from commercial rock to grating instrumental noise. A live concert LP, "Rock 'n' Roll Animal," was certified gold in 1974.
    1945 – The bombing of Dresden, Germany by the US 8th Air Force.
    1948 - Guitarist Larry Carlton born, Torrance, Ca.  Carlton has won four Grammy Awards for his performances and compositions, including the theme song for the hit TV series, “Hill Street Blues.”
    1949 - The first automatic streetlight system in which the streetlights turned themselves on at dark is installed in New Milford, Connecticut by the Connecticut Light and Power Company. Each streetlight contained an electronic device that contained a photoelectric cell capable of measuring outside light. By November of 1949, seven miles of New Milford’s roads were automatically lit at dusk by a total of 190 photoelectric streetlights. No longer would the proud men of New Milford be forced to don stilts in order to light their streetlamps.
    1949 - Lucky Lady II, a B-50 Superfortress, completed the first nonstop round-the-world flight at Fort Worth, TX, covering 23,452 miles in 94 hours.
    1950 - Birthday of singer Karen Carpenter (d. 1983) in New Haven, CT. She teamed with her pianist brother as the Carpenters who became a highly successful pop duo during the 1970s. The Carpenters had 19 hits including "Close to You," and "We've Only Just Begun," the latter now a staple at weddings across the country.  She died from anorexia nervosa just short of her 33d birthday, a disease little known at the time. Her battle with the disease that led to her death has been the subject of several TV movies and documentaries and generated needed attention to the disorder.
    1951 - The first All-Star Game of the National Basketball Association was played at the Boston Garden, Boston, MA, before a crowd of 10,094 patrons. The East team, coached by Joe Lapchick, defeated the West team, coached by John Kundla, by the score of 111-94.
    1951 - George Wettling’s Jazz Band (Sullivan, Hall, Davison) cut “Collier’s Climb.”
    1953 – The Academy Awards were telecast for the first time, on NBC.
    1955 - Bo Diddley has his first recording session at Universal Recording Studio in Chicago, where he lays down "Bo Diddley," which will top the US R&B chart by the following June.
    1957 - Teenage heartthrob Tab Hunter’s song "Young Love" was number one in the U.S. and stays there for the entire month.
    1957 - Top Hits
“Young Love” - Tab Hunter
“Teen-Age Crush” - Tommy Sands
“Butterfly” - Charlie Gracie
“There You Go” - Johnny Cash
    1958 - First surface crossing of the Antarctic continent was completed in 99 days.
    1959 - Miles Davis cuts "Kind of Blue" for Columbia. It is considered the number one jazz album best seller today. It was originally released as a Columbia Jazz Club Member alternative, and was considered avant-garde in its day.
March 2
    1960 - Wilt Chamberlain of the Philadelphia Warriors sets NBA playoff record of 63 points.
    1961 – President Kennedy announced the creation of the Peace Corps in a nationally televised broadcast.
    1962 - Jon Bon Jovi was born John Francis Bongiovi, Jr. in Perth Amboy, NJ.  Lead singer of the group Bon Jovi and songwriter ("You Give Love a Bad Name"), Bon Jovi's melodic heavy metal on such chart-toppers as "You Give Love a Bad Name" and "Livin' on a Prayer" made them America's hottest rock band in 1986. He scored a solo No. 1 hit in 1990 with the million-selling “Blaze of Glory,” the theme song of the film “Young Guns II.''  Albums such as "Slippery When Wet" and "New Jersey" were multi-million-sellers.
    1962 - Wilt Chamberlain poured in 100 points, an NBA record, as the Philadelphia Warriors defeated the New York Knicks, 169-147, in Hershey, PA. Chamberlain made 36 field goals and a record 28 foul shots and set yet another record by scoring 59 points in the second half.
    1962 – President Kennedy announced the US will resume above ground nuclear testing
    1963 - Chubby Checker hosts "The Limbo Party" at San Francisco's Cow Palace. His special guests include Marvin Gaye, the Four Seasons, the Crystals, Lou Christie, Dick & Dee Dee, Paul & Paula and Herb Albert & the Tijuana Brass.
    1963 - The Four Seasons score their third consecutive Billboard #1 with "Walk like a Man."
    1963 - The Cascades achieved their only Billboard Top 40 hit when "Rhythm of the Rain" topped out at #3.
    1964 - The Beatles "Twist and Shout" backed with "There's a Place" is released in the U.S. on Tollie Records, the fourth label to release a Beatle record in America. Also on this day, shooting began on The Beatles' first feature film “A Hard Day's Night.” The film was a black-and-white semi-fictional account of "a day in the life" of the Beatles, and included eight songs written specifically for the film. Richard Lester was director. It was at this time that George Harrison first met Pattie Boyd, who would later become his wife.
    1965 - Top Hits
“This Diamond Ring” - Gary Lewis & The Playboys
“My Girl” - The Temptations
“The Jolly Green Giant” - The Kingsmen
“I’ve Got a Tiger by the Tail” - Buck Owens
    1965 - The movie version of the Rodgers and Hammerstein musical "The Sound of Music," starring Julie Andrews and Christopher Plummer,  had its world premiere in New York.
    1966 - Left wing Bobby Hull of the Chicago Blackhawks became the first NHL player to score 50 goals in a season twice when he scored his 50th goal of the 1965-66 season in a 5-4 win over the Detroit Red Wings.
    1966 - 215,000 US soldiers in Vietnam.
    1967 - Senator Robert Kennedy (D-New York) proposes a three-point plan to help end the war. The plan included suspension of the US bombing of North Vietnam and the gradual withdrawal of US and North Vietnamese troops from South Vietnam with replacement by an international force. Secretary of State Dean Rusk rejected Kennedy's proposal because he believed that the North Vietnamese would never agree to withdraw their troops.
    1967 - Winners of the ninth annual Grammy Awards for 1966 are announced. Record of the Year is Frank Sinatra's "Strangers in the Night." "Sinatra, a Man and His Music" is tabbed Album of the Year and Song of the Year is John Lennon and Paul McCartney's "Michelle." Herb Alpert wins a Grammy for “What Now My Love,'' Best Non-Jazz Instrumental. The Mamas & the Papas wins a Grammy for “Monday Monday,'' Best Contemporary Group Performance.
    1968 - Blue Cheer's "Summertime Blues" is released as is Simon & Garfunkel's "Scarborough Fair."
    1968 - CUTINHA, NICHOLAS J., Medal of Honor
Rank and organization: Specialist Fourth Class, U.S. Army, Company C, 4th Battalion, 9th Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Gia Dinh, Republic of Vietnam, 2 March 1968. Entered service at: Coral Gables, Fla. Born: 13 January 1945, Fernandina Beach, Fla. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. While serving as a machine gunner with Company C, Sp4c. Cutinha accompanied his unit on a combat mission near Gia Dinh. Suddenly his company came under small arms, automatic weapons, mortar and rocket propelled grenade fire, from a battalion size enemy unit. During the initial hostile attack, communication with the battalion was lost and the company commander and numerous members of the company became casualties. When Sp4c. Cutinha observed that his company was pinned down and disorganized, he moved to the front with complete disregard for his safety, firing his machine gun at the charging enemy. As he moved forward he drew fire on his own position and was seriously wounded in the leg. As the hostile fire intensified and half of the company was killed or wounded, Sp4c. Cutinha assumed command of all the survivors in his area and initiated a withdrawal while providing covering fire for the evacuation of the wounded. He killed several enemy soldiers but sustained another leg wound when his machine gun was destroyed by incoming rounds. Undaunted, he crawled through a hail of enemy fire to an operable machine gun in order to continue the defense of his injured comrades who were being administered medical treatment. Sp4c. Cutinha maintained this position, refused assistance, and provided defensive fire for his comrades until he fell mortally wounded. He was solely responsible for killing 15 enemy soldiers while saving the lives of at least 9 members of his own unit. Sp4c. Cutinha's gallantry and extraordinary heroism were in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
    1968 – Must be the day for big airplanes!!  The Air Force displayed its Lockheed C-5A Galaxy, then the biggest plane in the world.
    1969 - Phil Esposito, center of the Boston Bruins, became the first player in National Hockey League history to score 100 points in a season when he scored a goal in Boston’s 4-0 victory of the Pittsburgh Penguins.
    1969 - At the 11th Grammy Awards, Glen Campbell is presented with Album of the Year honors for "By The Time I Get To Phoenix" and Simon and Garfunkel's "Mrs. Robinson" is named Record of the Year. Jose Feliciano is dubbed Best New Artist and the Bobby Russell composition "Little Green Apples" is given the nod as Song Of The Year. Mason Williams won Best Instrumental Performance for "Classical Gas" and Judy Collins takes home a statue for Best Folk Performance for "Both Sides Now."
    1969 – The Supersonic transport Concorde was tested for the first time.
    1970 - American Airlines' first flight of a Boeing 747.
    1970 – The Supreme Court ruled draft evaders cannot be penalized after 5 years
    1972 - Pioneer 10: This unmanned probe began a journey on which it passed and photographed Jupiter and its moons, 620 million miles from Earth, in December 1973. It crossed the orbit of Pluto, and in 1983, become the first known Earth object to leave our solar system. On Sept 22, 1987, Pioneer 10 reached another space milestone at 4:19 PM, when it reached a distance 50 times farther from the sun than the sun is from Earth. It was also the first spacecraft to carry a message intended to be read by living beings elsewhere in the universe. Bolted to the probe’s exterior wall was a gold-anodized plaque, six by nine inches in area that carried a number of illustrations: drawings of a human man and woman, a star map marked with the location of the sun, and a second map showing the flight path of Pioneer 10. The message was designed by astronomer Carl Sagan.
    1973 - Top Hits
“Killing Me Softly with His Song” - Roberta Flack
“Dueling Banjos” - Eric Weissberg & Steve Mandell
“Could It Be I’m Falling in Love” - Spinners
“Rated ‘X’ " - Loretta Lynn
    1974 - A grand jury in Washington, D.C. concludes that President Nixon was indeed involved in the Watergate cover-up.
    1974 - Stevie Wonder takes home five Grammy Awards during ceremonies held at the Hollywood Palladium. The singer is honored for Album of the Year ("Innervisions"), Best Pop Vocal Performance ("You Are the Sunshine of My Life"), Best R&B Song ("Superstition"), Best R&B Vocal Performance ("Superstition") and Best Engineered Recording ("Innervisions"). Says Wonder on his five trips up to the podium: "I would like to thank you all for making this the sunshine of my life tonight." Gladys Knight & the Pips wins Grammys for “Neither One of Us'' (Best Pop Vocal Performance by a Duo, Group or Chorus) and “Midnight Train to Georgia.'' (Best R&B vocal performance by a group).
    1974 - Neil Diamond wins a Grammy for “Jonathan Livingston Seagull,'' Best Film Soundtrack.
    1974 - Terry Jacks, who had left The Poppy Family in 1970, had the top song in the US with "Seasons in the Sun." The tune was originally written in French, titled "Le Moribund" ("The Dying Man") and recorded as an album cut by The Kingston Trio. It was recommended by Jacks to The Beach Boys, who did record it, but declined to release it. Their decision worked out well for Jacks, who sold over eleven and a half million copies of the record.
    1975 - Roberta Flack won three Grammy Awards for "Killing Me Softly with His Song." Best new artist was Bette Midler.
    1976 – Amid swirling rumors that the team would leave, Bob Lurie became CEO of the SF Giants, keeping the team in the City.
    1977 - Future “Tonight Show” host Jay Leno debuted with host Johnny Carson on “The Tonight Show.”
    1978 - The coffin containing the body of actor-director Charlie Chaplin was stolen from a Swiss cemetery. Chaplin, who had died a year earlier, is considered one of the great geniuses of cinema. His body was recovered three months later, found in a cornfield 10 miles from the cemetery in Corsier-sur-Vevey, Switzerland, and the grave robbers were arrested. Chaplin's body was reburied in a vault surrounded by cement.
    1979 - Over 1,100 Christian organizations combined to form the Evangelical Council for Financial Accountability (ECFA). This oversight agency was created to demonstrate to the public that religious groups wanted to make themselves accountable for the funds they raise and spend.
    1979 - The three-day Havana Jam, sponsored by CBS Records and the Cuban government, began in the 5,000-seat Karl Marx Auditorium in Havana. Among the acts appearing were Weather Report, Stephen Stills and Billy Joel. They were the first US pop artists to appear in Cuba in more than 20 years.
    1981 - Top Hits
“I Love a Rainy Night” - Eddie Rabbitt
“Woman” - John Lennon
“Keep on Loving You” - REO Speedwagon
“Southern Rains” - Mel Tillis
    1981 – Howard Stern’s first radio broadcast, on WWDC in Washington, DC
    1982 – Pittsburgh Steelers Super Bowl winning (twice) QB, Ben Roethlisberger was born in Lima, OH.
    1983 - Sony and Philips introduced their jointly-developed compact disc system.  The CD is a digital medium in which sound waves are replicated as a series of binary numbers on the 12 cm disc. A laser in the CD player reads the digital information, which is then translated into sound. In contrast, vinyl records were traditionally recorded using analog technology, which replicates sound waves in the grooves of a record. The sound is transmitted through a needle vibrating in a groove via a cartridge to an amplifier. The major advantage of digital recording over analog is that it eliminates extraneous noise. In analog recording, a noise reduction mechanism is needed to minimize hisses and crackles. Within a decade of the CD's introduction, vinyl records had virtually disappeared from stores.
    1984 - After 30 years in business, the first McDonald’s franchise closed in Des Plaines, Illinois. A new drive-in McDonalds opened right across the street.
    1985 - For the first time, country singer, Gary Morris hit #1 on the country charts with "Baby Bye Bye" from his album, "Faded Blue."
    1985 - The federal government approved a screening test for AIDS that detected antibodies to the virus, allowing possibly contaminated blood to be excluded from the blood supply.
    1986 - Queen Elizabeth signed the Australia bill, formally severing the last constitutional ties with Britain.
    1987 - Two sets of quintuplets were born, one set to Rosalind Helms in Peoria, Illinois, and another set to Robin Jenkins of Las Vegas, Nevada.
    1987 - United States Government officials said the median price for a new home topped $100,000 for the first time. The price of $110,700 was up from $94,600.  As of September, 2019, the median price was $299,400 with an average price exceeding $362,000.
    1988 - Grammy news: U2's "The Joshua Tree" wins Best Album, while Paul Simon's "Graceland" wins Best Record. Jody Watley wins Best New Artist.
    1989 - Top Hits
“Straight Up” - Paula Abdul
“Lost in Your Eyes” - Debbie Gibson
“The Lover in Me” - Sheena Easton
“I Sang Dixie” - Dwight Yoakam
    1989 - NY Met Darryl Strawberry swung at teammate Keith Hernandez…with his fists!
    1991 - Andrew Lloyd Webber's "Aspects of Love" closed in New York after 377 performances. It was the shortest run of any Lloyd Webber musical on Broadway. "Aspects of Love" was said to be the most expensive play in Broadway history, costing about two million dollars to open and running up expenses of eight million by the time it closed. Little of the investment was recouped during the show's nearly 11-month run. The British production was much more successful, running for more than three years.
    1992 - Second baseman Ryne Sandberg signed a four-year contract with the Chicago Cubs worth $28.4 million to become baseball’s highest paid player at the time, passing Bobby Bonilla of the New York Mets. The eight-time All-Star and nine-time Gold Glove winner retired in the middle of the 1994 season but returned to the game at a far lower salary in 1996.  Sandberg was the manager of the Philadelphia Phillies (2013-15), the team that traded him to the Cubs.
    1995 - "Smokey Joe's Cafe" opened at Virginia Theater, NYC.
    1996 - Another east coast snowstorm deposited 4.6 inches of snow at Central Park in New York City to bring its seasonal snowfall total to 66.3 inches, breaking the old season snowfall record of 63.2 inches set in 1947-48.
    1998 - In a surprise announcement, Apple Computer said it would stop producing its Newton handheld computer. The ill-fated Newton, which cost an estimated $500 million to develop over ten years, got off to a bad start when it debuted in 1993. The press panned its much-ballyhooed handwriting recognition capability, and although later versions corrected some of the problems, the product never quite recovered from its traumatic entry into the marketplace. In the late 1990s, the Newton was overtaken by new products like 3Com's Palm Pilot, which sold one million units during its first two years on the market, compared with 200,000 Newton’s sold in five years.
    1998 - Data sent from the Galileo spacecraft indicated that Jupiter's moon Europa has a liquid ocean under a thick crust of ice.
    1999 - Bob Dylan is the opening performer at the House of Blues at the Mandalay Bay Resort in Las Vegas. During the encore, Dylan performs with U2's Bono for a rousing rendition of "Knockin' on Heaven's Door.
    2001 - Yahoo stock (YHOO on NASDAQ) loses $2.75 to close at $21.69. On a split adjusted basis, it had traded as high as high as $237.50 on 03 January 2000, and as low as $1.32 on 22 September 1996.
    2002 – After the withdrawal of the Russian Army from Afghanistan after 11+years, the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan began.  Operation Anaconda ended on March 19 after killing 500 Taliban and al Qaeda fighters, with 11 Western troop fatalities.
    2003 – Hank Ballard died in Los Angeles.  Ballard was a R&B singer and songwriter, the lead vocalist of Hank Ballard and The Midnighters, and one of the first rock ‘n’ roll artists to emerge in the early 1950s. He played an integral part in the development of the genre, releasing the hit singles “Work with Me Annie” and answer songs "Annie Had a Baby" and "Annie's Aunt Fannie" with his Midnighters. He later wrote and recorded “The Twist” which spread the popularity of the dance and was notably covered by Chubby Checker. He was inducted into the Rock and Rock Hall of Fame in 1990.
    2005 - Thirty-two years after his death, Jackie Robinson received the Congressional Gold Medal, the highest honor Congress can bestow. The medal is accepted by Rachel Robinson, his widow. Baseball was represented in a way by former Texas Rangers executive, now President George W. Bush. Robinson joined Roberto Clemente, Joe Louis and Jesse Owens as the only athletes among about 300 Gold Medal recipients
    2011 - The Supreme Court ruled 8-1 that members of the fundamentalist Westboro Baptist Church have a First Amendment right to picket the funeral of a Marine.
    2012 - The Red Cross was denied access to provide relief to the Baba Amr district in Homs by the Syrian army.
    2012 - A tornado outbreak occurred over a large section of the Southern United States and into the Ohio Valley region, resulting in 40 tornado-related fatalities.
    2012 – Major League Baseball expanded the post season by adding a second wild card team in each league to the playoffs.  The two wild card teams in each league will play one game to determine which one will then face the team with the league's best record in the Division Series.
    2014 - President Putin received unanimous approval from Russia's parliament to send troops to the Ukraine, which was not received very
well by the United States, as well as most of Europe, especially NATO
    2015 - Snowstorms continued to hit Boston, Massachusetts, bringing the city's snowfall this season to 102 inches to date; the city's highest snowfall occurred in the winter of 1995 with 107.6 inches.
    2017 – Attorney General Jeff Sessions recused himself from the investigation into Trump campaign contacts with Russia after revelations he met a Russian ambassador.
    2021 – Six books by Dr. Seuss will cease publication because of racist and insensitive imagery according to Dr. Seuss Enterprises.



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