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Monday, November 30, 2020

Today's Leasing News Headlines

Rush to Normal…
Top Ten Leasing News
    November 23 to November 25
Leasing Industry Ads
    ---Help Wanted
Volvo VNR Electric Truck to Hit the Market Dec. 3
Consent Order Confirms California
    Merchant Cash Advance CA Enforcement Campaign
California Attorney Ken Greene Updates
     Commitment to Lease or Make Loan Agreements
Most Influential Lawyers
    in Equipment Finance and Leasing
Types of Fraud
     By the late Bernie Boettigheimer, CLFP
Labrador Retriever
    Atlanta, Georgia   Adopt-a-Dog
15 Things You Should Know About the German Shepherd
     Golden Retriever Mix – A Breed Information Guide
News Briefs---
Democrat Schumer says $30 billion in federal funds
    needed to distribute COVID vaccine
COVID-19 fuels exodus to small towns, rural counties
   Country life and small-town homes more than tripled in October
US is 'rounding the corner into a calamity,' expert says
     with Covid-19 deaths projected to double soon
Pushed by Pandemic, Amazon Goes on Hiring Spree
    added 427,300 employees in 10 months, global work force over 1.2M
The Path to Electric Reefers
    Lighter Class 2 to Class 4 trucks driven off truck’s engines
A Cat Is Said to Be Joining the Bidens in the White House
    The last cat, India, belonged to President George W. Bush
You May have Missed---
5 Big Picture Trends Being Accelerated by the Pandemic
   “We’re living in “unprecedented times”

Broker/Funder/Industry Lists | Features (wrilter's columns)
Top Ten Stories Chosen by Readers | Top Stories last six months (Be Careful of Doing Business)
Leasing News Icon for Android Mobile Device

  Sports Brief----
   California Nuts Brief---
    "Gimme that Wine"
     This Day in History
       Daily Puzzle
         Weather, USA or specific area
          Traffic Live----

######## surrounding the article denotes it is a “press release,” it was not written by Leasing News nor has the information been verified. The source noted. When an article is signed by the writer, it is considered a “byline.” It reflects the opinion and research of the writer.





Top Ten Leasing News
November 23 to November 25

(Stories most opened by readers)

(1) Thanksgiving 2020
  We Know You Bought a Turkey that Feeds 12-15

(2) New Hires/Promotions in the Leasing Business
    and Related Industries

(3) New Bankruptcy Law May Impact Lessors and Lease Funders
    By: Edward P Kaye, Esq. and Sloan Schickler, Esq.

(4) Sums up Recent Virtual Conference with 2,200 Participants
  Thanksgiving Message to the SFNet Community
    By Richard Gumbrecht, CEO, SFNet

(5)  Channel Partners: October 2020: 20 Recent Transactions
    Business/FICO/TIB/Annual Revenues/Amount/Term

(6) Florida bar quickly closes after it’s packed
     with maskless crowds at reopening

(7) Leasing Icon John Deane to Retire End of Year
    CEO, Chairman, Co-Founder Alta Group

(8) Where U.S. Tech Workers get Paid the Most
       Average tech workers salary in major US. cities 2020

(9) Brand your Leased Vehicles

(10) ELFA Reports New Business Rose 6%
    from September




Leasing Industry Help Wanted



Volvo VNR Electric Truck to Hit the Market Dec. 3

Volvo Trucks North America announced it will begin selling the Volvo VNR Electric truck model on Dec. 3. It will start producing the VNR Electric at its New River Valley manufacturing plant in Dublin, Virginia, in early 2021.

Peter Voorhoeve, President of Volvo Trucks North American declared, “Volvo Trucks is committed to lead the commercial transport industry towards more sustainable solutions by advancing electromobility. We will continue to invest in and drive the development of this technology, both globally and right here in North America,

“We are excited to bring the Volvo VNR Electric to the mark this week.”

Volvo Trucks, as a global organization, announced the same day at the Volvo Group Capital Markets Day that it will offer a complete range of electric heavy-duty trucks in Europe in 2021. This will be followed by the development of electric vehicles for heavy long-haul operations, including battery-electric and fuel-cell electric trucks with a longer range. Volvo Trucks plans to start selling electric trucks powered by hydrogen fuel cells in the second half of this decade, and the objective is to have a fossil-free product range by 2040.

Volvo will release more details on the VNR Electric and open up the order board on Dec. 3.



Consent Order Confirms California
Merchant Cash Advance CA Enforcement Campaign

By Jan Owen, Scott Pearson, Charles Washburn, Jr.
Manatt, Phelps & Phillips, LLP

On November 12, 2020, the California Department of Financial Protection and Innovation (DFPI) (until recently called the Department of Business Oversight) entered into a consent order with Allup Finance LLC (Allup) finding that Allup’s merchant cash advance (MCA) product was a disguised usurious loan offered without obtaining a license under California’s “catchall” lender licensing law, the California Financing Law (CFL). The order requires Allup to cease lending in California until properly licensed under the CFL and to refund “fees or payments collected from California-based customers . . . that were in excess of the 10 percent usurious cap under the California Constitution . . . .”

What Happened
As we have warned, most recently here, DFPI has been investigating certain MCA providers for possible violations of California’s licensing and usury laws, with particular focus on transactions calling for remittance of future receivables through fixed daily ACH debits without meaningful “true-ups.” This consent order sheds considerable light on DFPI’s thinking, including setting forth its understanding of the law in recitals.

According to the order, Allup’s MCA agreements provide that Allup is purchasing the merchant’s future receivables “in exchange for the expected equivalent amount of cash up front, plus fees and interest,” on a nonrecourse basis. Remittances are made by fixed ACH debits, and returned ACHs trigger nonsufficient funds (NSF) fees. If a merchant incurs three or more NSF fees, this constitutes an event of “default,” permitting the exercise of extensive remedies including “enter[ing] into the merchant’s business and seiz[ing] all assets—without so much as notice to the merchant.”

DFPI acknowledges in the order that a purchase of outstanding (but not future) receivables without recourse generally “is not lending and is not subject to the state’s general lending law, the CFL,” provided that the purchaser of the receivables bears the risk of loss, citing West Pico Furniture Co. v. Pac. Fin. Loans, 2 Cal. 3d 594, 601-06 (1970). However, Allup’s NSF-fee default trigger, according to DFPI, effectively places the risk of loss on the merchant, “just like a loan,” particularly because NSF fees are charged when an ACH is returned “for any reason.” Furthermore, DFPI concluded that the agreement’s “indefinite repayment period” also makes the transaction a loan because it “places the risk of repayment on the merchant by leaving the repayment period open until fully repaid (with fees and interest).”

Although it is somewhat difficult to evaluate this consent order without seeing Allup’s agreement (which we assume does not use the word “interest” as suggested by the order), we find the order troubling in several respects. First, it draws a distinction between “outstanding” and “future” receivables in discussing what is and is not a loan, possibly suggesting that DFPI does not believe that cases such as West Pico apply to sales of future receivables. Virtually all MCA agreements address only future receivables, so MCA providers should not be comforted by this“concession.” Second, the suggestion that MCAs must have a term to avoid being characterized as a loan is legally incorrect. We are aware of very few MCA agreements that have a term or deadline for remittances, so DFPI potentially could pursue any MCA company under this novel, theory. Finally, it is difficult to imagine how the company will be able to make the refunds called for by the order, since MCAs have no term and no interest rate. The order does not specify what assumptions should be used to calculate the refunds.

Why It Matters
Yes, DFPI really is conducting an aggressive enforcement campaign against MCAs in California. Although few providers have been subpoenaed to date, this consent order should be a wake-up call, particularly for companies using the ACH model. It is imperative for MCA providers to be revisiting not only their contracts and deal structures but also compliance with true sale principles in marketing and collections.


California Attorney Ken Greene Updates

Commitment to Lease or Make Loan Agreements


(“AGREEMENT”) is executed by and between ________________________________(APPLICANT”) and _______________________ (“COMPANY”) on the dates of the signatures below. WHEREAS, APPLICANT desires and COMPANY agrees to seek financing for certain personal property selected by APPLICANT: 1. APPLICANT, as an inducement to COMPANY to seek financing on APPLICANT’S behalf, shall submit documents and other information to enable COMPANY to procure or provide said financing. 2. APPLICANT, in consideration of the promises, effort and contributions of COMPANY, and for other good and valuable consideration, receipt of which is hereby acknowledged, shall pay to COMPANY a fee of $_____________, together with the execution of this agreement. The components of this fee are set forth in the following Section 3. 3. APPLICANT acknowledges and agrees that all or part of this fee shall be retained by COMPANY, whether or not such financing is provided or procured, as compensation for its time, effort, and certain out of pocket expenses including, without limitation, the following estimated charges: • ADMINISTRATIVE FEE: • BACKGROUND/CREDIT CHECK FEES: • DELIVERY/UPS/FEDX/ETC.: • DOCUMENTATION FEE: • CONSULTING FEE/TIME AND EFFORT: (This fee is estimated and calculated as follows: ____ hours at the rate of $_____________ per hour). • MISCELLANEOUS FEES: (add specifics) 4. [OPTIONAL] Should COMPANY provide or procure financing for APPLICANT, the fees referenced in the preceding Section 3 shall be applied towards the payments required pursuant to the contract or contracts setting forth the terms of said financing. 5. In the event of a dispute pertaining to or arising out of this AGREEMENT, APPLICANT and COMPANY agree that the matter will be submitted to binding arbitration utilizing the services of a neutral and competent arbitrator agreed to by both parties. In the event the parties are unable to agree upon an arbitrator, any claim or dispute hereunder shall be resolved in the state and county in which COMPANY is located, in accordance with the Commercial Arbitration Rules of the American Arbitration Association, before a panel of three (3) arbitrators, one appointed by APPLICANT, one appointed by COMPANY, and the third appointed by said Association. The decision or award of the agreed upon arbitrator, or in the case of a three-arbitrator panel, the majority of the arbitrators, shall be final and binding upon the parties and may be entered as a judgment or order in any court of competent jurisdiction. [COMPANY NAME] Name: Title: ___________________________________ Date: [APPLICANT NAME] Name: Title: ___________________________________ Date:

The laws vary from State to State on the issue of the validity of these types of agreements, and the Courts vary in their interpretation. This is intended as a generic form which should be acceptable if (1) the fees charged are fair, reasonable and accurate and (2) the customer fully understands and agrees to the terms of the arrangement. This is not intended as specific legal advice for any particular transaction, and it should not be relied upon as such. The author makes no representations as to the enforceability of the agreement in a Court of law or elsewhere. Anyone who wishes further advice or information regarding this issue should consult a legal professional of their choosing.

It is a good idea to submit the form for review by an attorney with equipment leasing experience. This does not mean your college friend who became a lawyer. You wouldn't take your children to an Endodontist to get braces on their teeth, although the practitioner is a "dentist." The same with going to an attorney. You go to a specialist who has experience in the leasing and finance industry.

Some things to consider in your form.
#1: ACH---If you are going to require it or may require it, you should have this spelled out in the agreement. If not in the contract and becomes a requirement of the lease, the proposal is invalid.

#2 Date---It is a good idea to have a time period involved. This can be based on completion of all the documents and/or lease contracts. The time factor may be important, particularly if the matter goes to small claims court, or a higher court, depending on the money involved.
(Attorneys most likely will have different opinions on this, but it is important to let the applicant know there is a time frame involved in conducting credit or having to re-do credit and even ask for more current financial information, due to the time involved in collecting what you originally required.)

#3 Personal guarantees of all officers who own 10% or more of a privately held corporation. (This will protect if the final approval comes in with terms and conditions but requires other guarantors who are not named on the application or in the proposal.)

Kenneth Charles Greene
Law Office of Kenneth Charles Greene
Suite 208
5743 Corsa Avenue
Westlake Village, CA 91362
Tel:      818.575.9095
Fax:     805.435.7464



   Most Influential Lawyers
in Equipment Finance and Leasing

Stewart Abramson
Andrew Alper

Thomas V. Askounis

Julie Babcock
Joe Bonanno, CLFP
Bill Carey
Richard Contino
James Coston, CLFP
Jonathan Fleisher
Marshall Goldberg
Kenneth Charles Greene, Esq.
Michael A. Leichtling
Malcolm C. Lindquist
Barry Marks, Esq., CLFP
David G. Mayer
Allan J. Mogol
Frank Peretore
John G. Sinodis
Mark Stout
Kevin Trabaris
Allan Umans
Mark Wada
Michael J. Witt
Irwin Wittlin

Full List:



Types of Fraud
By the late Bernie Boettigheimer, CLFP

Methods of lease fraud are constantly evolving. Individuals perpetrating these frauds have studied our industry's practices and methods. Many of these frauds involve Vendors and Lessees who meet most of the screening criteria utilized by leasing companies - directory assistance listing, time in business, and physical storefronts. Lease Police, Inc. has identified the following general types of lease fraud:

Disguised Working Capital Fraud - In this scenario, a vendor presents himself as a legitimate seller of equipment; however, he is nothing other than someone soliciting for working capital loans. He will take a customer's current equipment and disguise it as his equipment and lease it back to the customer (the lessee). The vendor will keep 30% to 50% of the lease proceeds and will give the remainder to the lessee. This type of fraud can be very damaging and hard to detect, as many of the re-liquefied lessees will make payments for a while after funding. Most funders will experience a default rate between 10% to 40% with these transactions. Many of these vendors will "spread their paper" among several sources to further conceal their detection. Using, detecting these vendors is easy - just take note of excessive early termination activity.
Overpriced Equipment Working Capital Fraud - A vendor will overprice a piece of equipment and offer the debtor or lessee money back.  For example, a vendor will lease a $5,000 computer for $30,000 and give the debtor or lessee $15,000 as an inducement to enter into the lease. This type of fraud will have higher loss rates over the portfolio life, but because the debtor/lessee has just received a "lump sum" from the vendor, they will make payments for a while. Using, detecting these vendors is easy - just take note of excessive early termination activity.

Product Representation Fraud - In this scenario, the vendor may offer a deal that is "too good to be true." It may involve a 100% money back guarantee, inflated promises on the equipment, or a "promise and disappear" scheme. These vendors appear to be tremendous engines of new leases.  They can produce hundreds of new leases per month from the beginning of their existence. In most of these cases, the vendor is gone after one to two years, leaving funders an endless stream of litigation. Using, detecting these vendors is easy - just take note of a high number of recent inquiries for a newer vendor.

"Broken Up" Transaction Fraud - This type of fraud includes activity by Vendors and Debtors/Lessees who break up a larger deal into smaller pieces to avoid financial disclosure (without disclosing their other requests to the lenders). In most cases, those involved are aware of the application-only limits and apply for a large number of smaller transactions due to poor financial information. Imagine a $350,000 deal that is achieved by "splitting the transaction into five $70,000 transactions with five different funders. Some of these deals are further disguised by applying for corporation-only signatures - with no credit bureaus reports reviewed. In many cases, the debtor/lessee is already in distress and they fold under the higher debt levels. Using, detecting these lessees is easy - just take note of a high number of recent inquiries. Even corporation only transactions are shown in

Past Due Account "Layoff" Fraud - This is one of the oldest and least reported types of fraud in the industry. A Vendor has an internal delinquent open account with a customer. They usually threaten the customer to either pay the past due balance or they will pick up the equipment. As an option, they offer the past due customer the option to convert their account into a lease. By converting the delinquent customer into a lease, they get paid by the equipment leasing company and the leasing company gets an almost instantaneous delinquency. Many of these deals show up as first payment defaults. All participants are legitimate companies and fraud is almost never suspected!  Using, detecting these Vendors is easy - just take note of a high number of early terminations/defaults using the system. 

General Misrepresentations by Vendors and Lessees - This general category includes activities such as submitting altered financial statements, hiding prior bankruptcies, hiding ownership, false references, misrepresenting used equipment as new, falsifying actual date of sale or delivery, equipment being sent to other locations without disclosure, concealing large judgments or liens, and leasing the same collateral twice. Using, detecting these transactions is easy. subscribers can report any suspicious activities and they will be posted in our data files for future review.


Labrador Retriever
Atlanta, Georgia Adopt-a-Dog


Medium Size
Up to date with shots
Housetrained: Yes
okay with cats
okay with dogs

Avery is a two (2) year old, 58 pound brindle boy that came from a shelter where he was picked up as a stray. He was described by the shelter as sweet and very calm and good with other dogs….if he can be like that in the shelter, that is a pretty good dog! He is in our boarding now and hanging with our ever-changing pack and is everything we expected. If you are looking for a great dog, Avery is the dog for you. You can foster to adopt by going to and filling out an application or to inquire about fostering, go to

Atlanta Dog Rescue
P.O. Box 250206
Atlanta GA 30325


15 Things You Should Know About the German Shepherd
     Golden Retriever Mix – A Breed Information Guide


News Briefs---

Democrat Schumer says $30 billion in federal funds
   needed to distribute COVID vaccine

COVID-19 fuels exodus to small towns, rural counties
   Country life and small-town homes more than tripled in October

US is 'rounding the corner into a calamity,' expert says,
   with Covid-19 deaths projected to double soon

Pushed by Pandemic, Amazon Goes on Hiring Spree
 added 427,300 employees in 10 months, global work force over 1.2M

The Path to Electric Reefers
     Lighter Class 2 to Class 4 trucks driven off truck’s engines

A Cat Is Said to Be Joining the Bidens in the White House
   The last cat, India, belonged to President George W. Bush


You May Have Missed---

5 Big Picture Trends Being Accelerated by the Pandemic
   "we’re living in unprecedented times”.


Sports Briefs---

NFL Playoff Picture

Contact sports ban leaves San Francisco 49ers,
   other Bay Area teams in limbo''

49ers ‘most likely’ to play
   final three home games in Arizona

Big Game: Stanford wins back Axe by swatting Cal’s last-minute kick

Vanderbilt kicker Sarah Fuller becomes first woman
   to play in Power 5 conference

Andre Iguodala will call Stephen Curry’s golf exhibition

Is Tom Brady losing it? An all-time great showing signs of unraveling

Detroit Lions fire Coach Matt Patricia, general manager
    Bob Quinn after disastrous tenure


California Nuts Briefs---

San Francisco and San Mateo land in purple tier,
   curfew to start Monday night

Santa Clara County issues tough, new COVID-19 rules
     including quarantines for some



“Gimme that Wine”

Off-Premise Domestic Wine Sales Strengthen 17% in October

Top Wines of 2020

James Suckling: “I definitely think that online tastings
     can replace physical ones”

Free Wine App

Wine Prices by vintage


This Day in History

    1729 - Birth of Samuel Seabury (d. 1796), Groton, CT.  First bishop of the American Protestant Episcopal Church. Following the American Revolution, Seabury helped formulate the constitution which made the American Protestant Episcopal Church independent and autonomous from the Church of England.
    1782 - The Articles of Peace between Great Britain and the U.S., which were to end America's War of Independence, were signed at Paris, France. The refined and definitive treaty of peace between Great Britain and the U.S. was signed at Paris, on September 3, 1783. In it, "His Britannic Majesty acknowledges the United be free, sovereign and independent states; that he treats them as such; and for himself, his heirs and successors, relinquishes all claims to the government, propriety and territorial rights of the same, and every part thereof..." The time delay was not only due to communication by sea, but time was needed for over 100,000 loyalists to leave the United States. Also known as Tories, the loyalists suffered various penalties for their loyalty to the Crown, including confiscation of property, removal from public office, and punitive taxation. Probably no more than 10% of the colonials were Tories, who were generally well-to-do, engaged in commerce, or the professions, or public officials. Many fled to Canada, where they were granted land if they fought in the British Army, some to England. Some returned after the war. Many, however, had remained behind, thinking Great Britain would win the war. After the conflict, those Tories that did remain were able to recover at least part some of their confiscated property, according to historians. In 1784, a major depression crippled the U.S. economy, prompting states to institute separate measures to aid recovery. The hardships suffered during this depression led to Shays' Rebellion on January 25, 1787.
    1804 – The impeachment trial of Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase began.  President George Washington appointed Chase as an associate justice of the Supreme Court in 1796.  President Thomas Jefferson, alarmed at the seizure of power by the judiciary through the claim of exclusive judicial review, led his party's efforts to remove the Federalists from the bench. His allies in Congress had, shortly after his inauguration, repealed the Judiciary Act of 1801, abolishing the lower courts created by the legislation and terminating their Federalist judges despite lifetime appointments.  Chase, two years after the repeal in May 1803, had denounced it in his charge to a Baltimore grand jury, saying that it would "take away all security for property and personal liberty, and our Republican constitution will sink into a ‘mobocracy.’  Earlier, in April 1800, Chase acting as a district judge, had made strong attacks upon a defendant who had been indicted under the Alien and Sedition Acts, behaving more like a prosecutor than a judge.  Jefferson saw the attack as indubitable bad behavior and an opportunity to reduce the Federalist influence on the judiciary by impeaching Chase, launching the process from the White House when he wrote a Congressman, asking: "Ought the seditious and official attack [by Chase] on the principles of our Constitution . . .to go unpunished?"  Virginia Congressman John Randolph took up the challenge and took charge of the impeachment. The House served Chase with eight articles of impeachment in late 1804.  One article covered Chase's conduct with the New Castle grand jury, charging that he "did descend from the dignity of a judge and stoop to the level of an informer by refusing to discharge the grand jury, although entreated by several of the said jury so to do." Three articles focused on procedural errors made during Chase's adjudication of various matters, and an eighth was directed at his “intemperate and inflammatory … peculiarly indecent and unbecoming … highly unwarrantable … highly indecent” remarks while "charging" or authorizing a Baltimore grand jury. The Senate began the impeachment trial of Chase in early 1805, with Vice President Aaron Burr presiding and Randolph leading the prosecution.  All the counts involved Chase's work as a trial judge in lower circuit courts. The heart of the allegations was that political bias had led Chase to treat defendants and their counsel in a blatantly unfair manner. Chase's defense lawyers called the prosecution a political effort by his Republican enemies. In answer to the articles of impeachment, Chase argued that all of his actions had been motivated by adherence to precedent, judicial duty to restrain advocates from improper statements of law, and considerations of judicial efficiency.  The Senate voted to acquit Chase of all charges on March 1, 1805. He is the only U.S. Supreme Court justice to have been impeached. 
    1810 - Birthday of rifle maker Oliver Fisher Winchester (d. 1880), Boston.  Rifle maker. His company acquired rights to manufacture pistols and rifles patented by Tyler Henry and others. The repeating rifle was in full production by 1860 and was in heavy demand during the Civil War, during which Winchester continued to improve the rifle's design by acquiring other patents. He renamed the company the Winchester Repeating Arms Company in 1866. A political and philanthropic figure, he was lieutenant governor of Connecticut (1866–67) and made large donations to Yale. 
    1812 - American forces invaded Canada at Queenston on October 13 and lost.  British forces under General Brock hurried down the road from Niagara-on-the-Lake to reinforce the troops at Queenston. When they arrived, the fight began to warm up and the main body of the American militia, on the U.S. side, refused to cross the river to back up the success of their comrades. Their cowardice in abandoning the brave men who had gone before, and the poor leadership of the American Forces changed victory to defeat and possibly changed the entire outcome of the war. General Brock led an attack against the forces on the hill and was killed by a sniper's bullet in the first charge. U.S. forces were back again on this date with an army of 5,000 troops assembled near Buffalo. A small force crossed the river and captured a British battery. General Smythe demanded the British surrender Fort Erie, when this was refused, he called off the invasion plan. His men broke their weapons in frustration and humiliation. Smythe was publicly called a coward and challenged to a duel by U.S. Col. Peter Proter. He resigned his command of the frontier, but was dismissed from the army in disgrace by the Senate. After two years of bloodshed, misguided and misdirected efforts, the armies were back where they started. There was no doubt that both sides of the river gave a heartfelt sigh of relief when the Treaty of Ghent ended the war in December, 1814.
    1835 - Birthday of Samuel Langhorne Clemens (d. 1910) at Florida, MO.  Known as Mark Twain, celebrated American author, whose books include: “The Adventures of Tom Sawyer,’ “The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn” and “The Prince and the Pauper.” Twain is quoted as saying, “I came in with Halley's Comet in 1835. It is coming again next year, and I expect to go out with it.” He did, Apr 21, 1910 (just one day after Halley's Comet perihelion).
    1854 - "Fighting Mary" Eliza McDowell (d. 1936), was born in Cincinnati. A social worker, she helped organize the first women's local union of the Amalgamated Meat Cutters in 1902. Comprised mostly of women workers, the Local grew to more than 1,000 members.
    1866 - Construction begins on the first underwater highway tunnel, the Washington Street Tunnel, beneath the Chicago River, Chicago, IL. The total length of the tunnel and its approaches as 1,520 feet. It was lowered in 1907 to provide a clear draft of 27 feet in the Chicago River.
    1874 – Birthday of Lucy Maud Montgomery (d. 1942), Toronto, Canada.  Writer, famous for her juvenile books, especially “Anne of Green Gables” (rejected by several publishers) published in 1908, and followed by six sequels.
    1874 – World War II British prime minister Winston Churchill was born at Blenheim Palace, Woodstock, England.  His mother, Lady Randolph, originally Jennie Jerome, was born in Brooklyn.  Who knew he was half-American?
    1875 - A severe early season cold wave set November records. Temperatures plunged to 5 degrees in New York City, NY, 2 below at Boston, MA and 13 below at Eastport, ME.
    1887 - The first softball game was played at the Farragut Boat Club, Chicago, IL. The game was invented by George W. Hancock, who devised a set of rules that gradually developed as the game progressed. A broomstick was used for the bat and a boxing glove for the ball. The game was known variously as Diamond Ball, Fast Ball, Kitten Ball, Playground Ball, and recreation Ball. It was named softball by Walter C. Hakanson.
    1901 – The man who scouted Jackie Robinson for Branch Rickey, Clyde Sukeforth (d. 2000), was born in Washington, ME.
    1906 - Birthday of John Dickson Carr (d. 1977), Uniontown, PA.  Under pseudonyms Carr Dickson, Carter Dickson, Roger Fairbairn, he was a writer of detective fiction, whose specialty was "locked-room” puzzles, which he developed to its limits. Published about 80 mysteries. Fifty of them featured one of his three detectives - Henri Bencolin, Dr. Gideon Fell, & Sir Henry Merrivale.
    1907 - Disappearance of SF Police Chief William Biggy.  After the non-fatal shooting of special prosecutor Francis J. Heney by an excused juror named Morris Haas, Chief Biggy endured public criticism for negligence for the fact that Haas had a small derringer and committed suicide under police watch. Upon falling out with the men supporting the graft prosecution, Biggy was placed under surveillance by detectives employed by William J. Burns, a special agent to the prosecution.  Biggy went overboard from a police launch during a nighttime crossing of San Francisco Bay after discussing his resignation with police commissioner Hugo Keil. His body was found floating in the bay two weeks later. Because Biggy, a devout Catholic, was considered an unlikely suicide, the Coroner's Jury returned a verdict of accidental death although many people believed that he had committed suicide and the death remains unsolved.
    1907 – Pike Place Market in Seattle was dedicated.
    1907 – Brooklyn Dodger fans will remember Happy Felton, born Francis Joseph Felton (d. 1964) in Bellevue, PA.  Felton was a musician and television and radio personality who hosted the very popular show “Happy Felton's Knothole Gang” which preceded telecasts of Dodgers games. He had a knack for working with children and, in 1949, pitched the idea of pre-game show aimed at a young audience and featuring young fans to Dodgers owner Walter O’Malley. The proposal was accepted, the first installment aired on April 21, 1950 and continued until the Dodgers moved to LA for the 1958 season.
    1912 - Birthday of Gordon Parks (d. 2006), Ft. Scott, KS.  Film director/writer, “The Learning Tree.” Photographer for Life magazine, director of "The Learning Tree" and "Shaft," called a "Twentieth Century Renaissance man" by the NAACP, who awarded him its Spingarn Medal in 1972.
    1915 - "Brownie" McGee, born Walter Brown McGee (d. 1996), blues singer and guitarist, born Knoxville, Tennessee. Best known as part of the duet Brownie McGee and Sonny Terry.
    1924 - Birthday of Shirley Chisholm (d. 2005), Brooklyn.  She was the first black woman to serve in U.S. Congress. Got legislation passed that guaranteed minimum wages for domestic workers. Angered the political powers by actively seeking the presidency, winning 154 delegates. After serving seven terms, Chisholm retired from Congress in 1982, becoming a professor at Mount Holyoke College.  In 2015, Chisholm was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom.
    1929 - Birthday of Dick Clark (d. 2012), Mount Vernon, NY.  Long-time host of “American Bandstand,” from 1957-87, entertainer, producer.  As host of Bandstand, Clark introduced rock ‘n’ roll to most Americans. The show gave many new music artists their first exposure to national audiences, including most of the members of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Episodes he hosted were among the first in which blacks and whites performed on the same stage and among the first in which the live studio audience sat without racial segregation. The music establishment, and the adults in general, really hated rock ‘n’ roll. Politicians, ministers, older songwriters and musicians foamed at the mouth. According to Hollywood producer Michael Uslan, "he was able to use his unparalleled communication skills to present it in a way that was palatable to parents.”  Singer Paul Anka claimed that Bandstand was responsible for creating a "youth culture." Due to his perennial youthful appearance and his fame as the host of American Bandstand, Clark was often referred to as "America's oldest teenager" or "the world's oldest teenager."
    1929 - Birthday of Joan Ganz Cooney, television producer, Phoenix, AZ. After winning an Emmy for an anti-poverty special in 1966, she raised the funds to found the Children's Television Workshop which developed and produced “Sesame Street,” “The Electric Company,” and provide home and hearth for the Muppets. 
    1931 - William Ernest “Bill” Walsh (d. 2007) birthday, Los Angeles, CA. Pro Football Hall of Fame coach, Walsh went 102–63–1 with the San Francisco 49ers, winning 10 of his 14 postseason games along with six division titles, three NFC Championships, and three Super Bowls. He was named NFL Coach of the Year in 1981 and 1984. In 1993, he was elected to the Hall of Fame.  Among his many accomplishments to the game, he is credited with introducing the West Coast offense of short, precise passes to complement a solid running game.  Hall of Famers who played for him include Joe Montana, Jerry Rice, Charles Haley, Ronnie Lott, Steve Young and his coaching tree rivals those of Paul Brown, Bill Parcells, and Sid Gilman.
    1931 –Trumpet player Jack Sheldon birthday, Jacksonville, FL.
    1931 – “The Joy of Cooking” is published, perhaps the most popular all-purpose cookbook, self-published by Irma Rombauer (1877-1962—her son by the way started Rombauer Winery in Napa making outstanding wine.) Rombauer's book was a comforting voice for cooks during the Depression, and the book grew into an institution. The first commercial edition of the book appeared in 1936, and it offered a revolutionary “action format” (chronologically ordered ingredients followed by instructions) now commonplace in cookbooks. In reality, she was not a cook, and most of the recipes she collected from friends and others, and wrote in a style for people who were not cooks. The numerous editions overseen by Rombauer and later her daughter and grandson sold more than 14 million copies.
    1933 – Birthday of artist Sam Gilliam, Tupelo, Mississippi. Artist known for unique manipulation of materials resulting in painted sculpture or suspended paintings. His work was in the exhibit African-American Artists 1880-1987.
    1937 – Birthday of Noel Paul Stookey, Baltimore.  American folk singer. Stookey was "Paul" of the 1960s folk trio Peter, Paul & Mary. Converted in the late 1960s, Stookey is now a Christian recording artist and prefers using his "born again" name, “Noel.”
    1938 - Bunny Berigan records Bix Beiderbecke’s “Davenport Blues.”
    1939 - Dwight David Eisenhower was issued pilot's license No. 93,258 by the Civil Aeronautics Administration. He learned to fly when he was a lieutenant colonel on General Douglas Macarthur's staff in the Philippines. He is the only President of the United States to hold an airplane pilot's license.
    1940 - Charlie Parker cuts first date with Jay McShann Band, Radio KFBI, Wichita, KS, “I've Found a New Baby.”
    1940 - "I Love Lucy" actress Lucille Ball (28) wed actor Desi Arnaz (23) in Greenwich, CT.
    1941 - Japanese Emperor Hirohito consulted with admirals Shimada and Nagano. Hirohito was deeply concerned by the decision to place "war preparations first and diplomatic negotiations second" and announced his intention to break with centuries-old protocol.  At the Imperial Conference on the following day, he directly questioned the chiefs of the Army and Navy general staffs — a quite unprecedented action. Konoe quickly persuaded Hirohito to summon them for a private conference instead, at which the Emperor made it plain that a peaceful settlement was to be pursued "up to the last." Chief of Naval General Staff Admiral Osami Nagano, a former Navy Minister and vastly experienced, later told a trusted colleague "I have never seen the Emperor reprimand us in such a manner, his face turning red and raising his voice." The war preparations continued without the slightest change. 
    1943 - OHATA, ALLAN M., Medal of Honor
Sergeant Allan M. Ohata distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action on 29 and 30 November 1943, near Cerasuolo, Italy. Sergeant Ohata, his squad leader, and three men were ordered to protect his platoon’s left flank against an attacking enemy force of 40 men, armed with machine guns, machine pistols, and rifles. He posted one of his men, an automatic rifleman, on the extreme left, 15 yards from his own position. Taking his position, Sergeant Ohata delivered effective fire against the advancing enemy. The man to his left called for assistance when his automatic rifle was shot and damaged. With utter disregard for his personal safety, Sergeant Ohata left his position and advanced 15 yards through heavy machine gun fire. Reaching his comrade’s position, he immediately fired upon the enemy, killing 10 enemy soldiers and successfully covering his comrade’s withdrawal to replace his damaged weapon. Sergeant Ohata and the automatic rifleman held their position and killed 37 enemy soldiers. Both men then charged the three remaining soldiers and captured them. Later, Sergeant Ohata and the automatic rifleman stopped another attacking force of 14, killing four and wounding three while the others fled. The following day he and the automatic rifleman held their flank with grim determination and staved off all attacks. Staff Sergeant Ohata’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the United States Army. 
    1943 - On Capitol Records, Nat ‘King' Cole and his trio recorded "Straighten Up and Fly Right," the first recording for the King Cole trio.
    1945 - Top Hits
“It's Been a Long, Long Time” - The Harry James Orchestra (vocal: Kitty Kallen)
“That's for Me” - Dick Haymes
“I'll Buy that Dream” - The Pied Pipers
“Shame on You” - The Lawrence Welk Orchestra (vocal: Red Foley)
    1948 - Baseball's Negro National League announced they are disbanding; the 1949 is their last season. The National Negro American League closed its doors in 1962, although its fans were less and less after the 1950's as blacks began to play in the Major Leagues.
    1950 - Clover Dairy Company, Wilmington, DE, sold their first can of concentrated milk called Sealtest. Two parts of water were added to one part fluid milk. The Clover Dairy Company was a division of the National Dairy Products Corporation.  Originally it was only a “test,” thus the name on the can.
    1950 - BARBER, WILLIAM E., Medal of Honor
Rank and organization: Captain U.S. Marine Corps, commanding officer, Company F, 2d Battalion 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Chosin Reservoir area, Korea, 28 November to 2 December 1950. Entered service at: West Liberty, Ky. Born: 30 November 1919, Dehart, Ky. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as commanding officer of Company F in action against enemy aggressor forces. Assigned to defend a 3-mile mountain pass along the division's main supply line and commanding the only route of approach in the march from Yudam-ni to Hagaru-ri, Capt. Barber took position with his battle-weary troops and, before nightfall, had dug in and set up a defense along the frozen, snow-covered hillside. When a force of estimated regimental strength savagely attacked during the night, inflicting heavy casualties and finally surrounding his position following a bitterly fought 7-hour conflict, Capt. Barber, after repulsing the enemy gave assurance that he could hold if supplied by airdrops and requested permission to stand fast when orders were received by radio to fight his way back to a relieving force after 2 reinforcing units had been driven back under fierce resistance in their attempts to reach the isolated troops. Aware that leaving the position would sever contact with the 8,000 marines trapped at Yudam-ni and jeopardize their chances of joining the 3,000 more awaiting their arrival in Hagaru-ri for the continued drive to the sea, he chose to risk loss of his command rather than sacrifice more men if the enemy seized control and forced a renewed battle to regain the position, or abandon his many wounded who were unable to walk. Although severely wounded in the leg in the early morning of the 29th, Capt. Barber continued to maintain personal control, often moving up and down the lines on a stretcher to direct the defense and consistently encouraging and inspiring his men to supreme efforts despite the staggering opposition. Waging desperate battle throughout 5 days and 6 nights of repeated onslaughts launched by the fanatical aggressors, he and his heroic command accounted for approximately 1,000 enemy dead in this epic stand in bitter subzero weather, and when the company was relieved only 82 of his original 220 men were able to walk away from the position so valiantly defended against insuperable odds. His profound faith and courage, great personal valor, and unwavering fortitude were decisive factors in the successful withdrawal of the division from the deathtrap in the Chosin Reservoir sector and reflect the highest credit upon Capt. Barber, his intrepid officers and men, and the U.S. Naval Service. 
    1950 - SITTER, CARL L., Medal of Honor
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Marine Corps, Company G, 3d Battalion, 1st Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Hagaru-ri, Korea, 29 and 30 November 1950. Entered service at: Pueblo, Colo. Born: 2 December 1921, Syracuse, Mo. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as commanding officer of Company G, in action against enemy aggressor forces. Ordered to break through enemy-infested territory to reinforce his battalion the morning of 29 November, Capt. Sitter continuously exposed himself to enemy fire as he led his company forward and, despite 25 percent casualties suffered m the furious action, succeeded in driving through to his objective. Assuming the responsibility of attempting to seize and occupy a strategic area occupied by a hostile force of regiment strength deeply entrenched on a snow-covered hill commanding the entire valley southeast of the town, as well as the line of march of friendly troops withdrawing to the south, he reorganized his depleted units the following morning and boldly led them up the steep, frozen hillside under blistering fire, encouraging and redeploying his troops as casualties occurred and directing forward platoons as they continued the drive to the top of the ridge. During the night when a vastly outnumbering enemy launched a sudden, vicious counterattack, setting the hill ablaze with mortar, machine gun, and automatic-weapons fire and taking a heavy toll in troops, Capt. Sitter visited each foxhole and gun position, coolly deploying and integrating reinforcing units consisting of service personnel unfamiliar with infantry tactics into a coordinated combat team and instilling in every man the will and determination to hold his position at all costs. With the enemy penetrating his lines in repeated counterattacks which often required hand-to-hand combat, and, on one occasion infiltrating to the command post with hand grenades, he fought gallantly with his men in repulsing and killing the fanatic attackers in each encounter. Painfully wounded in the face, arms, and chest by bursting grenades, he staunchly refused to be evacuated and continued to fight on until a successful defense of the area was assured with a loss to the enemy of more than 50 percent dead, wounded, and captured. His valiant leadership, superb tactics, and great personal valor throughout 36 hours of bitter combat reflect the highest credit upon Capt. Sitter and the U.S. Naval Service. 
    1952 - GEORGE, CHARLES, Medal of Honor
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company C, 179th Infantry Regiment, 45th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Songnae-dong, Korea, 30 November 1952. Entered service at: Whittier, N.C. Born: 23 August 1932, Cherokee, N.C. G.O. NO.: 19, 18 March 1954. Citation: Pfc. George, a member of Company C, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and outstanding courage above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy on the night of 30 November 1952. He was a member of a raiding party committed to engage the enemy and capture a prisoner for interrogation. Forging up the rugged slope of the key terrain feature, the group was subjected to intense mortar and machine gun fire and suffered several casualties. Throughout the advance, he fought valiantly and, upon reaching the crest of the hill, leaped into the trenches and closed with the enemy in hand-to-hand combat. When friendly troops were ordered to move back upon completion of the assignment, he and 2 comrades remained to cover the withdrawal. While in the process of leaving the trenches a hostile soldier hurled a grenade into their midst. Pfc. George shouted a warning to 1 comrade, pushed the other soldier out of danger, and, with full knowledge of the consequences, unhesitatingly threw himself upon the grenade, absorbing the full blast of the explosion. Although seriously wounded in this display of valor, he refrained from any outcry which would divulge the position of his companions. The 2 soldiers evacuated him to the forward aid station and shortly thereafter he succumbed to his wound. Pfc. George's indomitable courage, consummate devotion to duty, and willing self-sacrifice reflect the highest credit upon himself and uphold the finest traditions of the military service. 
    1952 - On a local New York television show, Jackie Robinson accuses the Yankee organization of being racist due to its failure to have a black player on the club.  They had signed Vic Power in 1951, who languished for several years in the minors until being traded.  The first black Yankee was Elston Howard who made the roster in 1955 and became a cog of the late 1950-early 1960s teams, winning the AL MVP in 1963…the first African-American so honored.
    1953 - Top Hits
“Rags to Riches” - Tony Bennett
“Many Times” - Eddie Fisher
“Ricoche”t - Teresa Brewer
“There Stands the Glass” - Webb Pierce
    1954 - Nat "King" Cole begins a six-night run at Harlem's Apollo theater. 
    1954 - The first meteorite known to have struck a person crashed through the roof of a house at Sylacauga, AL, bounced off a radio, and struck Mrs. Elizabeth Hodges on the hip. she was not permanently injured. The space rock was a sulfide meteorite weighing 8.5 pounds and measuring seven inches long. It was put on display in the University of Alabama Museum of Natural History, Moundville, AL.
    1954 - Birthday of June Pointer (d. 2006), Pointer Sisters, born Oakland, California.
    1955 - Guitarist, singer, songwriter Billy Idol was born William Michael Albert Broad, Middlesex, England.
    1956 - Floyd Patterson won the heavyweight title by knocking out Archie Moore in the fifth round of a fight in Chicago. Patterson claimed the title made vacant by the retirement of Rocky Marciano on April 27.
    1961 - Top Hits
“Runaround Sue” - Dion
“Please Mr. Postman” - The Marvelettes
“Goodbye Cruel World” - James Darren
“Big Bad John” - Jimmy Dean
    1962 – Perhaps the greatest athlete who never was, Bo Jackson, was born Vincent Edward Jackson in Bessemer, AL.  Jackson won the 1985 Heisman Trophy at Auburn University. He was a powerful running back with blazing speed and is one of two Heisman Trophy winners to play Major League Baseball (Vic Janowicz is the other); he is also a member of the College Football Hall of Fame. College Football News ranked him the 25th greatest college football player of all time.  He was drafted first overall by the Tampa Bay Buccaneers in the 1986 NFL draft, but at first declined to pursue a career in pro football in order to play baseball. After a year, he changed his mind and said he would attempt to play both sports. Drafted again in 1987, this time in the 7th round by the Oakland Raiders, he played with them from 1987 to 1990. He missed the 1992 season after a hip injury suffered in the NFL playoffs in 1991 that ended his football career. He sat out the entire 1992 baseball season after undergoing hip replacement surgery. He returned to play baseball two seasons after the surgery, the first player to play in the Majors with an artificial hip.  He is one of six men who hit a home run and score a touchdown the same year.  In the Majors in 1986, he hit what was then (and what still might be) the longest home run in Royals history - a 475-foot shot. He was a physical phenomenon, combining raw power with blazing speed and a cannon arm from the outfield.  His best year was 1989, when he hit 32 home runs with 105 RBI.  He became the first Royal in history to steal 25 bases and hit 25 home runs in a single season, when he did so in 1988, despite tearing a hamstring in May.  He was named Comeback Player of the Year in 1993, after he had missed the 1992 season due to hip replacement surgery. He last played in the Major Leagues with the Angels in 1994, his last game coming the day of the 1994 strike.
    1964 - A cold wave brought temperatures to 17 below at Minneapolis and 3 below at Springfield, IL
    1965 - Following a visit to South Vietnam, Defense Secretary McNamara reports in a memorandum to President Lyndon B. Johnson that the South Vietnamese government of Nguyen Cao Ky "is surviving, but not acquiring wide support or generating actions." McNamara warned that there was no guarantee of U.S. military success and that there was a real possibility of a strategic stalemate, saying that "U.S. killed in action can be expected to reach 1,000 a month." In essence, McNamara cautioned Johnson that sending additional troops was not likely to prevent the stalemate. In the end, however, Johnson chose to seek a military solution. By 1969, there were more than 500,000 U.S. troops in Vietnam.
    1967 - Julie Nixon, daughter of Richard and Pat Nixon, and David Eisenhower, grandson of President and Mrs. Eisenhower, announced their engagement.  They have been married since December 22, 1968.
    1967 – The New York Yankees purchased SS Gene Michael from the Dodgers.  While his Major League playing career was modest at best, this trade brought Michael to the organization he is credited with thoroughly rebuilding.  He was twice GM, latterly from 1990-95, and as GM was responsible for the acquisitions by trade or draft of the core of the Yankees dynasty of the 1990s:  Dave Winfield, Derek Jeter, Charley Hayes, Paul O’Neill, John Wetteland, Andy Pettitte, Jimmy Key, and David Cone.  His greatest value may have been in keeping owner George Steinbrenner from himself given his whimsy to trade young talent that did not develop as quickly as Steinbrenner wished.  Most prominent among them were Jeter and Pettitte. 
    1968 - Diana Ross and the Supremes hit #1 on the music charts with "Love Child," a controversial song for the times. It stayed at #1 for two weeks.
    1969 - Top Hits
“Come Together/Something” - The Beatles
“And When I Die” - Blood, Sweat & Tears
“Na Na Hey Hey Kiss Him Goodbye” - Steam
“Okie from Muskogee” - Merle Haggard
    1969 - Simon & Garfunkel's first TV special airs. Sponsor AT&T backs out when they learn that the duo plan to show footage of Bobby Kennedy's funeral march and clips of the Vietnam War.
    1969 - OWEN, HAMMETT L., JR. Medal of Honor
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company C, 2d Battalion, 14th Infantry, 25th Infantry Division. Place and date: Binh Duong Province, Republic of Vietnam, 27 June 1969. Entered service at: Jacksonville, Fla. Born: 30 November 1947, Lagrange, Ga. Citation: S/Sgt. Bowen distinguished himself while serving as a platoon sergeant during combat operations in Binh Duong Province, Republic of Vietnam. S/Sgt. Bowen's platoon was advancing on a reconnaissance mission into enemy controlled terrain when it came under the withering crossfire of small arms and grenades from an enemy ambush force. S/Sgt. Bowen placed heavy suppressive fire on the enemy positions and ordered his men to fall back. As the platoon was moving back, an enemy grenade was thrown amid S/Sgt. Bowen and 3 of his men. Sensing the danger to his comrades, S/Sgt. Bowen shouted a warning to his men and hurled himself on the grenade, absorbing the explosion with his body while saving the lives of his fellow soldiers. S/Sgt. Bowen's extraordinary courage and concern for his men at the cost of his life served as an inspiration to his comrades and are in the highest traditions of the military service and the U.S. Army. 
    1971 - As the "ABC Movie of the Week," ABC-TV presented "Brian's Song." The story was about Chicago Bears Brian Piccolo and his friendship with Gayle Sayers, who watched him die a tragic death. The movie, starring James Caan and Billy Dee Williams, rated a 32.9 and a 48 share. "Brian's Song," performed by Michel Legrand, was the movie's theme.
    1974 - The Eagles released their hit, "Best of My Love," but it would take until March 1,1975 for it to hit #1 on the top 40 charts.
    1974 - Elton John's Greatest Hits album hits #1 
    1977 - Top Hits
“You Light Up My Life” - Debby Boone
“Don't It Make My Brown Eyes Blue” - Crystal Gayle
“How Deep is Your Love” - Bee Gees
“The Wurlitzer Prize” (“I Don't Want to Get over You”) - Waylon Jennings
    1982 – “Thriller” was released.  Michael Jackson’s sixth album is one of the most popular and important of all time, charting seven Top 10 songs:  “Wanna Be Startin’ Somethin’,” “The Girl is Mine,” “Thriller,” “Beat It,” “Billie Jean,” “Human Nature,” and ”P.Y.T.”   It broke the pop charts for black artists who had often been relegated to R&B charts.  “Thriller” stayed on the charts for three years and has sold over 110 million copies.  In 2008, it Was added to the Library of Congress’ National Recording Registry.
    1985 – “Separate Lives" by Phil Collins & Marilyn Martin topped the charts and stayed there for a week.
    1985 - Top Hits
“Separate Lives” - Phil Collins & Marilyn Martin
“Broken Wings” - Mr. Mister
“Never” - Heart
“Too Much on My Heart” - The Statler Brothers
    1987 - "Weird Al" Yankovic records first of his "Even Worse" LP: "Melanie" and "Stuck In A Closet With Vanna White" are among the songs therein.
    1987 - Los Angeles Raiders running back Bo Jackson rushes for 221 yards in just his fifth career NFL game as the Raiders beat Seattle 37-14. Jackson scores on runs of 91 and 2 yards, and adds a 14-yard touchdown catch
    1988 - LL Cool J performs the first rap concert held in Africa.
    1991 - 93 cars and 11 trucks were involved in a chain-reaction accident near Coalinga, California (Central California, north of the Grapevine) during a dust storm; 17 died and 150 were injured. The area is well-known for its “tule” fog and dust storms.
    1991 - "Set Adrift on Memory Bliss" by P.M. Dawn topped the charts and stayed there for a week.
    1991 - Minneapolis ended the month with 46.9 inches of snow, the most ever for November and for any month. Although the official start of winter was still 3 weeks away, the city had already surpassed the normal seasonal snowfall record with 55.1 inches since October 1 (normal for the entire winter is 49.2 inches)
    1993 - Brady Gun Bill signed into law by President Clinton.
    2000 - Free agent Mike Mussina inks an $88.5 million, six-year contract with the Yankees. The ten-year veteran compiled a 147-81 record with a 3.53 ERA as an Oriole hurler.  Mussina spent his entire career in the competitive and high-scoring AL East, won at least 11 games in 17 consecutive seasons – an American League record – and recorded a career .638 winning percentage. Considered a marginal Hall of Fame candidate, among pitchers, he ranks 33rd in all-time wins (270), 33rd in games started (535), 66th in innings pitched (3,562.2), and 19th in strikeouts (2,813). A five-time All-Star and seven-time Gold Glove winner, Mussina's consistency resulted in six top-five finishes in the voting for his league's Cy Young Award.  He finally had a 20-win season in his final year.  Mussina entered the Baseball Hall of Fame in 2019 with teammate Mariano Rivera.
    2011 - Washington State University researchers developed an artificial bone 'scaffold' which uses 3D printers to print replacement bone tissue for injured patients.



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