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Leasing News is a web site that posts information, news, and
entertainment for the commercial alternate financing,
bank, finance and leasing industries

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Los Angeles, California
Class 8 through Class 6 Trucks

Manage repossession, valuation, refurbishing,
remarketing trucks and equipment
Exp. owner-operator trucking business a must
To learn more, please click here

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Monday, December 4, 2017

Today's Equipment Leasing Headlines

Looks Like No Changes to Section 179
  But No Definitive News to Date
Job Wanted – Collections
  Work Remotely or Relocate for Right Opportunity
Top Stories -- November 27 - December 1
   (Opened Most by Readers)
Brokers & Lenders: Are You Registered to Conduct Business
  (doesn’t concern “license”) in your Key States
       By Tom McCurnin, Leasing News Legal Editor
Leasing Industry Ads---Help Wanted
   Harbour Capital/Maxim Commercial Capital
Sales Makes it Happen by Christopher Menkin
  What can you learn from GreatAmerica Financial Services?
17 US Companies with Biggest Piles of Cash
The Billionaire Club Bosses of Sports Teams
  by Dyfed Loesche, Statista
Percentage Change in Median Household Income
  United States 2015 to 2016--Map
German Pointer, Shorthaired Mix
Des Moines, Iowa  Adopt-a-Dog
Leasing News Classified Ad
News Briefs---
All of America is doomed to repeat
  a mistake Kansas made 5 years ago
CVS Is Said to Agree to Buy Aetna
   Reshaping Health Care Industry

Broker/Funder/Industry Lists | Features (writer's columns)
Top Ten Stories Chosen by Readers | Top Stories last six months (Be Careful of Doing Business)
Leasing News Icon for Android Mobile Device 

You May have Missed---
  Sports Brief----
   California Nuts Brief---
   "Gimme that Wine"
     This Day in History
       Daily Puzzle
         Weather, USA or specific area
          Traffic Live----

######## surrounding the article denotes it is a “press release” and was not written by Leasing News nor information verified, but from the source noted. When an article is signed by the writer, it is considered a “by line.” It reflects the opinion and research of the writer.

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Looks Like No Changes to Section 179
But No Definitive News to Date

By Christopher Menkin

The House is working on the Senate Version of the Tax Reform to culminate with a Joint Resolution with the Senate.

If then passed by both houses and signed by the president before the end of the year, the Tax Reform will go into effect January 1, 2018.  The proposed cuts and changes in the bill will not show up until the following year. Tell your clients to take advantage of deductions this year, if you can close by year end, including delivery as it may change next year.

Forbes reports "Businesses will be able to immediately expense many asset purchases; after five years of 100% expensing, the rate will phase out at 80%/60%/40%/20% rates over the ensuing four years."  This appears to have continued the expensing phase, but does not note if the amount deductible stops at $510,000 per year or was raised to double, as originally proposed. This applies to equipment delivered in 2018.

*When Leasing News learns of more definitive changes, it will be published here.




Job Wanted – Collections
Work Remotely or Relocate for Right Opportunity

Each Week Leasing News is pleased, as a service to its readership, to offer completely free ads placed by candidates for jobs in the industry.  These ads also can be accessed directly on the website at:

Each ad is limited to (100) words and ads repeat for up to 6 months unless the candidate tells us to stop. Your submissions should be received here by the end of each week.



Work Remotely from Portland, Oregon

Experienced commercial banker and former commercial equipment leasing industry professional seeking full-time or part-time work out of my home in Portland, Oregon. Over twenty years’ experience in credit analysis, underwriting, sales and collections. Known for creative problem solving and strong quantitative & qualitative analytical skills.  Demonstrated ability to gather information, evaluate and make informed strategic business decisions to maximize profit and mitigate risk. Well known for ability to develop strong business relationships with Clients and large list of national equipment leasing Brokers. Please see attached resume and contact me below if interested. 


Top Stories -- November 27 - December 1
(Opened Most by Readers)

(1) New Hires/Promotions in the Leasing Business
         and Related Industries

(2) Fred Van Etten Now President Midland Equipment Finance,
      a Division of Midland States Bank, Clayton, Missouri

(3) Pictures from the Past - November 29, 2000 Announces Appointment of Baccaro to Head Sales

(4) “Evergreen Clause”—the Danger of Automatic Renewal
  Some of the List Have Closed, but Leases Still in Effect

(5) The Subject of Sex in the Recruiting Interview
  Recruiter Hal T. Horowitz Speaks Out

(6) Story Credit Lessors - Lenders List
"C" & "D" Lessees, Business Loans, Working Capital

(7) Countries with the Heaviest Tax Burdens
    (With Chart) by Niall McCarthy, Statista

(8) Former Bank of Oswego CEO, CFO convicted of conspiracy
     Heine, Former Citizen of the Year, Rest of his life in Jail

(9) FDIC Beige Report November 2017
           Smooth Sailing Ahead

(10) CFPB Goes After More Tribal Lenders
   for Cash Advances Among White House Controversy
By Tom McCurnin, Leasing News Legal Editor



Leasing Industry Help Wanted

Asset Manager
Los Angeles, California
Class 8 through Class 6 Trucks

Manage repossession, valuation, refurbishing,
remarketing trucks and equipment
Exp. owner-operator trucking business a must
To learn more, please click here

"Helping Owner-Operators Break
through Credit Challenges"




Brokers & Lenders: Are You Registered to Conduct Business
(doesn’t concern “license”) in your Key States?
By Tom McCurnin
Leasing News Legal Editor

The Failure to Register to Conduct Business May Prevent the Broker or Lender From Maintaining Any Claim

California Corporations Code §§ 191, 2103, 2205.  

At the outset, I am not talking about brokers and lenders obtaining a California lenders’ license. Being licensed in a state is not the same as being registered. The subject of this article concerns a business entity filing papers which qualifies it to conduct business in the State of California. If an entity conducts business in the state of California and does not so qualify, then it may not maintain any lawsuit in the State of California. Thus, it is barred from suing on a contract in California. 

A typical fact pattern would be this: an out of state broker does a gob of business with a California equipment lessor. The broker does not file papers with the California Secretary of State to qualify it to do business in California. Not being qualified, it of course pays no California state income taxes.  The equipment lessor stiffs the broker out of commissions and the broker sues the lessor for commissions. What result?

The broker’s lawsuit should be summarily dismissed. Under California law, all business entities which “transact intrastate business” are required to be registered with the Secretary of State to conduct business and will pay about 8.9% income taxes. If the broker is not registered, the sanction is simple—it may not maintain any lawsuit in California. The rationale is to encourage registration and to sanction tax evaders. 

But, what qualifies as “transacting intrastate business?” Under California law it is “repeated and successive” transactions. Probably more than a handful each year. 

Before the reader starts complaining about those crazy West Coast laws, similar laws exist in most states. New York, for example has similar statutes and sanctions. See NY CLS Bus Corp § 1312. 

What are the takeaways here?

First, If You Conduct More Than a Handful of Deals Each Year, Consider Registering. The cost is nominal, about $800 a year for most states, and if you have to sue in that state, you’re covered. 

• Second, If You’ve Been Sued by an Out of State Entity, Consider Doing Some Research on the Number of Deals the Entity Has Done in Your Home State. While the plaintiff may have only done a handful of deals with you (and therefore might not have to qualify to conduct business), you simply don’t know if that entity has done other business with other entities, the cumulative effect being that it would have to be registered. The failure to register would bar that lawsuit. Yeah, it’s a cheap shot technicality, but that’s how we litigators make our living. 

• Third, If You’re a Broker, and You Have Not Registered, Then You’re at Risk if You File Suit. In some states, the suit is dismissed outright. In other states, the court might allow the unregistered broker a few months to register and pay all its back taxes. Depending on the volume, the suit may not be worth paying all those back taxes. 

•  Fourth, If You’re a Funder, Consider Putting the Requirement in Your Broker Agreement. You’ll need language which essentially requires the broker to secure such licenses and registrations in any state which requires licenses and registrations. The failure to do would be a breach, and if the funder wants to get aggressive, there could be a claw back for past commissions. 

The bottom line is that corporate status matters. While everyone knows the corporation must maintain its status in the home state, many brokers make the mistake of failing register in the states in which they do business. This can result in a disaster.

Tom McCurnin is a partner at Barton, Klugman & Oetting in Los Angeles, California.

Tom McCurnin
Barton, Klugman & Oetting
350 South Grand Ave.
Suite 2200
Los Angeles, CA 90071
Direct Phone: (213) 617-6129
Cell (213) 268-8291
Visit our web site at
Previous Tom McCurnin Articles:

Previous Tom McCurnin Articles:




Sales Makes it Happen
by Christopher Menkin

What can you learn from GreatAmerica Financial Services?

All departments, particularly sales, can learn from the success of GreatAmerica Financial Services, winner of the Cannata Award for Best Leasing Company in 2017. (1)

The first and most important decisions is one of the keys to their success: Who is the customer? Who "owns" the customer?

Is it the lessee that is performing at the beginning, during, and at the end, with the collector of the payment keeping in communication, providing service, and caring about obtaining repeat business?

GreatAmerica would agree with the concept of better communication with the party making the lease payment, but that is not their answer to either who is the customer or who “owns” the customer?

"We define our customer a little differently than most financing companies, explained GreatAmerica founder Tony Golobic, 2012 Leasing News Person of the Year. (2) “We resolved that the equipment dealers/leasing brokers are our customers and that the lessee is the customer of the dealer/broker. The dealer/broker, our customer, puts food on our family tables.

"This foundation guides our prospecting and marketing efforts and has engendered great trust with our customers. Not all equipment dealers, just like not all leasing brokers, are the right customers for us. We want just the best ones; the ones who have long-term vision, who want to build strong and lasting relationships with their customers and with us..."

When the sale is over, the vendor is often the party remaining in contact with his customer, providing service, asking for referrals, and hearing appreciation or complaints about the leasing company the vendor referred. Most vendors want to make another sale or get a referral or keep a reputation in their industry circle.

It also may be the vendor has a captive funding source but runs into situations that they will not accept the credit or a client may be over the credit limit, and keeping them happy is more important than ignoring them.

GreatAmerica also has a "Truth in Leasing" document:

"Our ethical focus has underscored our direction as a whole, ranging from the definition of our customer (above) to the creation of our Truth in Leasing Statement, which is a document we give our customers to give to their customers," he explains. "It’s an industry-first statement that is essentially a leasing bill of rights for the lessee and outlines what they can expect when they enter into a standard agreement with GreatAmerica. It also draws a line in the sand by capping residual positions and stating there would be no hidden fee tactics common in many leases."

Except for the more formal "commitment letters," most often utilized on leases over $100,000, the average proposal is boiler plate from over 30 years ago designed with "non-legal" language, often designed to enable the "company" to keep an advance rental with stupid sentences. There are too many companies who know the credit and situation will not get approved but want to keep the advance rental. Often it is treated as a "draw." Many companies will split or pay a percentage to salesmen when the transaction does not go ahead.

"We used to work with a large number of brokers, but 80% of our business was done with just a handful,” Golobic explains. "That didn’t work well and we pared the number down. We will continue to focus on this process with the goal of doing an increased amount of business with a smaller number of brokers. It’s a matter of finding the right brokers with the right vendor programs with whom we can develop strong and lasting relationships. It may sound strange but our goal is to have fewer brokers for whom we do a lot more."

The "Executive Bios" from the company web site also divides the company into sections where they maintain the majority of their business: Office Equipment Group, Distribution Group, Communications & Development, Direct Programs and Healthcare. There are also sales leader groups and business origination groups.

"The mission of GreatAmerica, plain and simple, is to help our customers become more successful," GreatAmerica Tony Golobic said. "Each of our business units specializes in their respective industries, immersing itself into the market it serves and tapping into the complex dynamics that go into making a business successful. Our expertise is gained through intense and continuous research into the industry served by that unit, business councils, industry events and internal training. The knowledge gained through these activities informs all levels of the company and creates a fertile environment that fosters innovative thinking and problem solving."

It all goes back to the theme, "Who is the customer?" GreatAmerica is different.

"The relentless pursuit of our vision to reach the standards of excellence so high in everything we do that we have no competition has enabled us to grow to an asset size of over $2 Billion. We have never stopped growing. We will do that by getting better every day and by truly helping our customers become more successful. Each time a customer hangs up the phone with one of our team members, we want them to think: 'Wow, it was a great day - the day I started doing business with GreatAmerica!'

GreatAmerica Wins Cannata Award for Best Leasing Company

2012 Leasing Person of the Year, Tony Golobic, CEO





17 US Companies with Biggest Piles of Cash

By Anaele Pelisson and Graham Rapier, Business Insider

American companies are hoarding cash like crazy.

In the second quarter of 2017, twenty-four of the largest American companies are holding on to a whopping $1.01 trillion in cash reserves, up 1.63% from the first quarter, according to analysis of second quarter earnings reports by Bank of America.

Of the $1.01 trillion, just over 80% is held in stashes outside the United States.

A solid majority of the holdings are in the form of corporate and treasury bonds, which Bank of America sees as a sign that the companies aren't making a move to prepare to bring the money home yet.

"Because about 70% of 2Q inflows were invested in corporate bonds we see no evidence yet that corporate investors are making their cash portfolios more liquid ahead of the possible repatriation of overseas cash as part of tax reform or on a stand-alone basis," the bank wrote.




The Billionaire Club Bosses of Sports Teams
by Dyfed Loesche, Statista

Billionaires are buying sports clubs all over the world. According to a report by UBS and PwC, more than 140 top sports clubs are owned by just 109 billionaires. Sixty of those super-rich club owners are from the U.S., 29 from Asia and 20 from Europe. The average age of the wealthy sports baron is 68 years, with an average wealth of $5 billion under their wings.

In the U.S., more than two thirds of the NBA and NFL teams, and half of the MLB teams, are owned by billionaires. In the UK, almost half (9 out of 20) Premier League soccer clubs are governed by billionaires, the report states. While Chinese tycoons were erstwhile investing a lot in European soccer, they have now turned to their own market, investing heavily in China itself.






German Pointer, Shorthaired Mix
Des Moines, Iowa  Adopt-a-Dog

(You need to visit the dog, as my dog(s) have gotten older,
but still look beautiful. The photograph show her eyes, not her beauty. editor)

ID 36676544
Age: 10 Years, 2 months
Size: Large
Declawed: No
Housetrained: Unknown
Site: Cedar Valley Humane Society
Intake Date: 9/28/2017

Interested in a specific animal? Please email:
or call us at 319-362-6288.

Cedar Valley Humane Society
7411 Mr. Vernon Road
SE, Cedar Rapids, IA 52403

Shelter Hours:
Monday-Friday: 12:00pm - 7:00pm
Saturday: 12:00pm - 5:00pm
Sunday: Closed

Adopt a Pet



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News Briefs----

All of America is doomed to repeat
  a mistake Kansas made 5 years ago

CVS Is Said to Agree to Buy Aetna
   Reshaping Health Care Industry




You May Have Missed---

The first text message was sent 25 years ago


A Coach's Poem

Author Unknown

There are little eyes upon you
And they're watching night and day
There are little ears that quickly
Take in every word you say
Their little hands so eager
To do the things you do
And little ones who are dreaming
Of the day they'll be like you

You're the little person's idol
You're the wisest of the wise
In his little mind about you
No suspicions ever rise
He believes in you devoutly
Holds all that you can and do
He will say and do in your way
When he's all grown up like you

There's a wide eyed little person
Who believes you are always right
And his ears are always open
And he watches day and night
You are setting an example
Every day in all that you do
For the little one who's waiting
To grow up to be just like you



Tom Brady, Josh McDaniels in shouting match on Patriots sideline

Falcons: Three-game win streak snapped

 Seattle Seahawks' Russell Wilson Is Greatest One-Man Show in NFL

It took one game for Jimmy Garoppolo to prove
  he was worth the hype (and more than $20 million)

Garoppolo leads 49ers to comeback win in starting debut

NFL Scoreboard




California Nuts Briefs---

It’s magic: As the housing supply plunges in Silicon Valley,
    sales somehow inch up

Could California be seeing onset of recession?

Google in San Jose? Look what happened with Amazon in Seattle

Sonoma County fires deliver economic blow to house cleaners
and other service workers

As the post-fire North Coast rebuilds,
  where will the construction workers come from?


“Gimme that Wine”

Move over bottles, wine in cans capturing the millennial demand
(Drinking wine in paper cup okay)

Bordeaux 2017: How the new vintage is shaping up

Wine Prices by vintage

US/International Wine Events

Leasing News Wine & Spirits Page


This Day in History

     1584 - Birthday of John Cotton (d. 1652), Derby, England.  Cotton was the first truly eminent minister to come to New England. On his arrival in September, 1633, Cotton was openly welcomed as one of the two ministers of the church in Boston in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, having been personally invited to the colony by Governor Winthrop. He was a Puritan clergyman of The Way of the Church of Christ in New England. Cotton, a much-loved figure in New England, wrote several pamphlets including, “Democracy as Detrimental to Church and State” (1636), “The Way of the Churches of Christ in New England” (1645), “Spiritual Milk for Babes” (1646) and “The Way of Congregational Churches Cleared” (1648).
    1619 – At Berkeley Hundred in Virginia Colony, a “Thanksgiving” was first held by thirty-eight Englishman who left their ship to eventually start Jamestown in Virginia. The group's charter proclaimed that the day "be yearly and perpetually kept holy as a day of thanksgiving to Almighty God." Plantations were built on this site, many of which remain today.
(Lower half of: )
    1674 - French Jesuit missionary Jacques Marquette erected a mission on the shores of Lake Michigan, in present-day Illinois. His log cabin became the first building of a settlement that afterward grew to become the city of Chicago.
    1779 - This is considered the first law school in the United States. George Wythe was appointed professor of law and police at the College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA. The teachers, who were attorneys, were paid by students paying for the course. The first college law school to be permanently organized was the Harvard College School of Law, Cambridge, MA, which was opened 1817.
    1783 - General George Washington issued his “Farewell Address to the Army'' at Fraunces Tavern, NYC. The country was changing as, by
this time, some 100,000 “loyalists” had fled the U.S. Also known as “Tories,” they had suffered various penalties for their loyalty to the Crown, including confiscation of property, removal from public office, and punitive taxation. Probably no more than 10% of the colonials were Tories, who were generally well-to-do, engage in commerce or the professions, or public officials. Many fled to Canada, some to England. Some returned after the war. Many, however, had remained behind. After the conflict, many were able to recover at least some of their confiscated property.
    1786 - Mission Santa Barbara was founded. This was a Franciscan Mission for the Indians, located in Santa Barbara, CA. The present structure is the fourth to stand on the same site. The last one was destroyed by the 1813 earthquake. Today is also St. Barbara’s Day, the saint after whom the mission was named. In 1970, the Roman Catholic Church officially stopped recognizing her as a Saint, stating the history could not be verified.
    1786 - The first National Grange was founded. This was the first organized agricultural movement in the US.
    1786 - The first of two great early December storms began. The storm produced 18 inches of snow at Morristown, NJ, and twenty inches of snow at New Haven, CT. It also resulted in high tides at Nantucket which did great damage.
    1816 - James Monroe was elected President. Daniel D. Tompkins was elected Vice President. Monroe, Secretary of State under President James Madison, gained the presidency in a landslide victory of his Federalist opponent, Rufus King of New York. The presidential electoral vote was Madison, 183; King, 34, and four abstentions. The presidential election of 1816 resulted in continuation of the so-called Virginia dynasty of presidents that had begun with the election of George Washington. The Democratic-Republican candidate was James Monroe of Virginia, who had been wounded in the American Revolution, and has served as diplomat, senator and secretary of state. The Federalists by now scarcely existed as a national political party. They nominated Rufus King, who had been a delegate to the Constitutional Convention and one of New York’s first senators. He carried only Massachusetts, Connecticut and Delaware. By 1820, the Federalist Party ceased to exist.
    1844 - James K. Polk was elected President by a popular vote of 1,337,243 to 1,299,068 for Henry Clay, the Whig candidate, and 62,300 for James B. Birney, the Liberty candidate. Birney’s strong was showing in New York cost Clay the state’s electoral votes and the election. The electoral vote was Polk, 170; Clay, 105. The presidential election campaign of 1844 saw some unusual happenings in American politics. President John Tyler wanted a term in his own right, and a Democratic faction nominated him in 1844. It was clear, however, that he stood no chance, and he withdrew on August 20, becoming the first President who did not stand for a second term. At the Democratic National Convention, former President Martin Van Buren tried to secure the nomination, but could not muster enough support, largely because of his opposition to the annexation of Texas. The Democrats nominated the first so-called dark horse in U.S. History, James K. Polk of Tennessee. The Whigs unanimously nominated Henry Clay of Kentucky for the presidency. There was a third party this year, the Liberty Party, which in 1843 had nominated James. G. Birney of Kentucky on an antislavery platform. The Democratic platform was nationalistic, calling for the annexation of Texas and control of the entire Oregon Territory, then shared with England. The Whig platform was more general, making no reference to Texas or a national bank. The main opposition came from antislavery forces who were opposed because Texas was certain to become a salve state. Others wanted to act lest Great Britain or France develop a relationship with the Republic of Texas, whose independence Mexico refused to recognize. The Texas Annexation Treaty failed to win the necessary two-thirds vote for passage in the Senate on June 8. Henry Clay, in the so-called Alabama letters, stated the he had no objection to the annexation of Texas if it could be done “without dishonor, without war.” Clay’s ambivalence on Texas probably lost him the presidency. It was Tyler, who when elected, pushed the joint resolution, even though the Senate had originally rejected it.
    1843 - Manila paper was invented by John Mark and Lyman Hollingsworth of South Braintree, MA, partners under the firm name of J.M. and L. Hollingsworth, who received a patent this day. They manufactured it from hemp sales, canvas, and rope.
    1843 – Crazy Horse (d. 1877) was born but the precise year is debated.  Oral history accounts from relatives on the Cheyenne River Reservation place his birth in the spring of 1843.  Crazy Horse was born to parents from two tribes of the Lakota Sioux, his father being an Oglala and his mother a Miniconjou. Crazy Horse lived in a Lakota camp in present-day Wyoming.  In 1854, the camp was entered by Lieutenant John Grattan and 29 other U.S. troopers, who intended to arrest a Miniconjou man for having stolen a cow. When the soldiers fatally shot Chief Conquering Bear, the Lakota returned fire, killing all 30 soldiers and a civilian interpreter in what was later called the Grattan Massacre. 
Through the late 1850s and early 1860s, Crazy Horse's reputation as a warrior grew, as did his fame among the Lakota. Crazy Horse fought in numerous battles between the Lakota and their traditional enemies among Plains tribes.  In 1864, after the Third Colorado Cavalry decimated Cheyenne and Arapaho in the Sand Creek Massacre, Oglala and Miniconjou bands allied with them against the U.S. military. Crazy Horse was present at the Battle of Platte Bridge and the battle of Red Buttes in July, 1865.  Because of his fighting ability and for his generosity to the tribe, in 1865 Crazy Horse was named an Ogle Tanka Un ("Shirt Wearer", or war leader) by the tribe.  On June 17, 1876, Crazy Horse led a combined group of approximately 1,500 Lakota and Cheyenne in a surprise attack against brevetted Brig. General George Cook’s force of 1,000, and allied 300 Crow and Shoshone warriors in the Battle of the Rosebud. The battle, although not substantial in terms of human losses, delayed Crook's joining with the 7th Cavalry under Custer. It contributed to Custer’s subsequent defeat at Little Bighorn.  A week later, Custer's 7th Cavalry attacked a large encampment of Cheyenne and Lakota bands along the Little Bighorn River, marking the beginning of his last battle. Crazy Horse's actions during the battle are unknown but the only proven fact is that Crazy Horse was a major participant in the battle.  On September 10, 1876, Captain Mills and two battalions of the Third Cavalry captured a Miniconjou village of 36 tipis in South Dakota.  Crazy Horse and his followers attempted to rescue the camp and its headman, but they were unsuccessful. The soldiers killed the chief and much of his family after they holed up in a cave for several hours. 
On January 8, 1877, Crazy Horse's warriors fought their last major battle at Wolf Mountain against the US Cavalry in Montana Territory.  His people struggled through the winter, weakened by hunger and the long cold. Crazy Horse decided to surrender with his band to protect them, and went to Ft. Robinson, Nebraska on May 5, 1877. Together with other tribesmen, they met in a solemn ceremony with First Lieutenant William P. Clark as the first step in their formal surrender.  For the next four months, Crazy Horse resided in his village near the Red Cloud Agency in what would become the Pine Ridge Reservation.  On the morning of September 5, 1877, Crazy Horse and Lieutenant Lee, accompanied a number of Indian scouts, departed for Fort Robinson with orders that Crazy Horse was to be arrested and taken under the cover of darkness to Division Headquarters. Lee turned the Oglala war chief over to Captain James Kennington, in charge of the post guard, who accompanied Crazy Horse to the post guardhouse. Once inside, Crazy Horse struggled with the guard and Little Big Man and attempted to escape. Just outside the door, Crazy Horse was stabbed with a bayonet by one of the members of the guard. He was taken to the adjutant's office, where he was tended by the assistant post surgeon at the post and died late that night.  The following morning, Crazy Horse's body was turned over to his elderly parents; they took it to Camp Sheridan and placed it on a burial scaffold. The following month, when the Spotted Tail Agency was moved to the Missouri River, Crazy Horse's parents moved the remains to an undisclosed location. There are at least four possible locations and his final resting place remains unknown.
    1851 - Felt hats for women were introduced in New York City by John Nicholas Genin, who took low-crowned soft black hats, fastened the left side of the brim of each to the crown, and ornamented it with a black feather. Prior to this time, women wore bonnets. Genin created the new style to celebrate the arrival of Lajos Kossuth, the Hungarian patriot, who arrived in New York City on December 5, 1851, on board the Mississippi.
    1854 - Birthday of Mary Reed (d. 1943), Crooked Tree, OH.  American Methodist missionary. She spent the last 52 years of her life ministering to the lepers of India.
    1861 - The U.S. Senate, voting 36 to 0, expels Senator John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky once he joined the Confederate Army. He had been the Southern Democrats candidate for president against Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln.
    1861 - Birthday of Lillian Russell (d. 1922), born Helen Louise Leonard in Clinton, IA.  She was perhaps the first female American “star,” known for her beauty and style, as well as for her voice and stage presence. She was a very popular singer and actress, who in 1881, gained fame in the comic opera “The Great Mogul” and for Gilbert and Sullivan.  Russell was married four times, but her longest relationship was nearly 40 years with Diamond Jim Brady, who supported her extravagant lifestyle.   Shortly after completing a fact-finding mission to Europe on behalf of President Warren Harding to investigate increases in immigration, she died from injuries suffered on the return trip.  She recommended a five-year moratorium on immigration, and her findings were instrumental in the content of the Immigration Act of 1924.
    1864 - At Waynesboro, GA, forces under Union General Judson Kilpatrick prevented troops led by Confederate General Joseph Wheeler from interfering with Union General William Tecumseh Sherman’s campaign destroying a wide swath of the South on his March to the Sea.
    1865 - Birthday of Luther Halsey Gulick (d. 1918), at Honolulu, HI.  A sports administrator and a pioneer in the YMCA, Gulick designed the triangular logo symbolizing the physical, emotional and intellectual development that is still the Y’s goal. While working in Springfield, MA, in 1891, Gulick persuaded Dr. James Naismith to devise an indoor game for use during the winter at the School for Christian Workers. The result was basketball. He was inducted into the Basketball Hall of Fame in 1959.
    1875 - Boss Tweed escapes prison, flees to Spain, disguised as a seaman. He was recognized by a likeness to the famous cartoon about him, captured, and died in prison in New York.
    1881 – The Los Angeles Times was published for the first time as the Los Angeles Daily Times under the direction of Nathan Cole, Jr. and Thomas Gardiner.
    1903 - American mystery author Cornell Woolrich, (d. 1968) was born in NYC. Since 1938, the suspense fiction of Woolrich, alias William Irish, has been adapted into more than 20 films, best known for writing “Rear Window.”
    1906 - Alpha Phi Alpha was formed by members of a social study club, and it became the first national college fraternity for African-American men. The first president was George B. Kelley. The first chapter was started at Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, and the second, in 1908, at Howard University, Washington, DC.
    1908 – For the first time, football uniform numerals were sewn on the players’ uniforms to enable the spectators easily to distinguish the players.  They were used by the University of Pittsburgh for the game against Washington and Jefferson College. Washington and Jefferson won, 14-0. The idea was so popular, the sewing of numbers on jerseys swept all sports.
    1909 - The Montreal Canadiens, the oldest surviving professional hockey franchise in the world, was founded as a charter member of the National Hockey Association.
    1909 - Amsterdam News founded in New York, a newspaper devoted to the black community.
    1912 – Gregory “Pappy” Boyington was born (d. 1988) in Coeur d’Alene, ID.  A Marine Corps fighter ace during World War II, he received both the Medal of Honor and the Navy Cross.
    1915 - Birthday of Eddie Heywood (d. 1989), Atlanta, GA; composer of “Canadian Sunset” and “Soft Summer Breeze.”
    1918 – President Woodrow Wilson set sail for the World War I peace talks in Versailles, France, becoming the first US president to travel to Europe while in office.
    1921 - The first Virginia Rappe manslaughter trial against silent film star Roscoe “Fatty” Arbuckle ended in a hung jury.  At a raucous, three-day party in 1921, the young starlet became severely ill and died four days later. Newspapers went wild with the story: popular silent-screen comedian Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle had killed Virginia Rappe with his weight while savagely raping her. Though the newspapers of the day reveled in the gory, rumored details, juries found little evidence that Arbuckle was in any way connected with her death.  After three manslaughter trials, Arbuckle was formally acquitted; his acquittal in the third trial was accompanied by an unprecedented statement of apology from the jury stating, in part, that "Acquittal is not enough for Roscoe Arbuckle. We feel that a great injustice has been done him… there was not the slightest proof adduced to connect him in any way with the commission of a crime."  Arbuckle's reputation and career were nevertheless ruined by the scandal. Sadly, they never found what really happened to Ms. Rappe.
    1927 - Duke Ellington opens at the Cotton Club in Harlem. He stays there for five years.
    1930 - Birthday of jazz guitarist Jim Hall (d. 2013), Buffalo, NY.
    1930 - Birthday of Harvey Edward Kuenn, Jr., (d. 1988) at West Allis, WI.   Baseball player and manager.  Kuenn was a fine-hitting shortstop and outfielder in both leagues, 1953 AL Rookie of the Year and 1959 AL leader in batting average. He managed the 1982 Milwaukee Brewers, known as “Harvey’s Wallbangers,” to the American League pennant.
    1933 - "Tobacco Road," a play based on Erskine Caldwell’s book, premiered at the Masque Theatre in New York City. The play ran for eight years and 3,182 shows. 
    1940 – Birthday of Freddy ‘Boom Boom’ Cannon, born Frederick Anthony Picariello in Revere, MA.  1950s-60s rock ‘n’ roller whose hits include: “Tallahassee Lassie,” “Way Down Yonder in New Orleans,” “Palisades Park,” “Transistor Sister,” “Abigail Beecher.”
    1943 – The WPA, Work Progress Administration was shut down due to high employment during the war.
    1944 – Dennis Wilson (d. 1983), drummer of The Beach Boys, was born in Inglewood, CA. 
    1945 - By a vote of 65 to 7, the Senate approved United States participation in the UN, which had been established on October 24, 1945.
    1947 - Tennessee William's play “A Streetcar Named Desire” premieres on Broadway starring Marlon Brando and Jessica Tandy.
    1948 – “Southside Johnny” Lyon was born in Neptune, NJ.
    1949 - Top Hits
Don’t Cry, Joe - The Gordon Jenkins Orchestra (vocal: Betty Brewer)
I Can Dream, Can’t I? - The Tommy Dorsey Orchestra (vocal: Jack Leonard)
That Lucky Old Sun - Frankie Laine
Slipping Around - Margaret Whiting & Jimmy Wakely
    1950 - The University of Tennessee defies court rulings by rejecting five Negro applicants.
    1950 - Los Angeles wide receiver Tom Fears celebrates his 27th birthday by making an NFL record 18 receptions for 189 yards and two touchdowns in the Rams' 51-14 victory over Green Bay.
    1950 - DAVIS, RAYMOND G.,  Medal of Honor
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps commanding officer, 1st Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Vicinity Hagaru-ri, Korea, 1 through 4 December 1950. Entered service at: Atlanta, Ga. Born: 13 January 1915, Fitzgerald, Ga. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as commanding officer of the 1st Battalion, in action against enemy aggressor forces. Although keenly aware that the operation involved breaking through a surrounding enemy and advancing 8 miles along primitive icy trails in the bitter cold with every passage disputed by a savage and determined foe, Lt. Col. Davis boldly led his battalion into the attack in a daring attempt to relieve a beleaguered rifle company and to seize, hold, and defend a vital mountain pass controlling the only route available for 2 marine regiments in danger of being cut off by numerically superior hostile forces during their re-deployment to the port of Hungnam. When the battalion immediately encountered strong opposition from entrenched enemy forces commanding high ground in the path of the advance, he promptly spearheaded his unit in a fierce attack up the steep, ice-covered slopes in the face of withering fire and, personally leading the assault groups in a hand-to-hand encounter, drove the hostile troops from their positions, rested his men, and reconnoitered the area under enemy fire to determine the best route for continuing the mission. Always in the thick of the fighting Lt. Col. Davis led his battalion over 3 successive ridges in the deep snow in continuous attacks against the enemy and, constantly inspiring and encouraging his men throughout the night, brought his unit to a point within 1,500 yards of the surrounded rifle company by daybreak. Although knocked to the ground when a shell fragment struck his helmet and 2 bullets pierced his clothing, he arose and fought his way forward at the head of his men until he reached the isolated marines. On the following morning, he bravely led his battalion in securing the vital mountain pass from a strongly entrenched and numerically superior hostile force, carrying all his wounded with him, including 22 litter cases and numerous ambulatory patients. Despite repeated savage and heavy assaults by the enemy, he stubbornly held the vital terrain until the 2 regiments of the division had deployed through the pass and, on the morning of 4 December, led his battalion into Hagaru-ri intact. By his superb leadership, outstanding courage, and brilliant tactical ability, Lt. Col. Davis was directly instrumental in saving the beleaguered rifle company from complete annihilation and enabled the 2 marine regiments to escape possible destruction. His valiant devotion to duty and unyielding fighting spirit in the face of almost insurmountable odds enhance and sustain the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
     1950 - HUDNER, THOMAS JEROME, JR., Medal of Honor
Rank and organization: Lieutenant (J.G.) U.S. Navy, pilot in Fighter Squadron 32, attached to U.S.S. Leyte. Place and date: Chosin Reservoir area of Korea, 4 December 1950. Entered service at: Fall River, Mass. Born: 31 August 1924, Fall River, Mass. Citation. For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as a pilot in Fighter Squadron 32, while attempting to rescue a squadron mate whose plane struck by antiaircraft fire and trailing smoke, was forced down behind enemy lines. Quickly maneuvering to circle the downed pilot and protect him from enemy troops infesting the area, Lt. (J.G.) Hudner risked his life to save the injured flier who was trapped alive in the burning wreckage. Fully aware of the extreme danger in landing on the rough mountainous terrain and the scant hope of escape or survival in subzero temperature, he put his plane down skillfully in a deliberate wheels-up landing in the presence of enemy troops. With his bare hands, he packed the fuselage with snow to keep the flames away from the pilot and struggled to pull him free. Unsuccessful in this, he returned to his crashed aircraft and radioed other airborne planes, requesting that a helicopter be dispatched with an ax and fire extinguisher. He then remained on the spot despite the continuing danger from enemy action and, with the assistance of the rescue pilot, renewed a desperate but unavailing battle against time, cold, and flames. Lt. (J.G.) Hudner's exceptionally valiant action and selfless devotion to a shipmate sustain and enhance the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
    1951 - The first completely automated parking garage was the Park-O-Mat Garage opened in Washington, DC, by the Parking Services Company. A car could be parked or returned in 50 seconds. The garage was an open building with 16 floors and 2 basement levels. Two elevators parked 72 cars on a lot 25 by 40 feet. There were no ramps, no aisles, no lanes, and only one attendant, who used push-button controls and did not enter the cars. The “vehicle parking apparatus” was patented on October 14, 1947, by Richard L. Sinclair of Los Angeles, CA.
    1954 – The first Burger King opened in Miami.
    1954 - The Chordettes' "Mr. Sandman" hit #1.
    1956 - Elvis Presley visited the Sun recording studio with his companion, Marilyn Evans, a showgirl from Las Vegas, and interrupted a Carl Perkins session that featured Jerry Lee Lewis on piano. Fellow label mate Johnny Cash also arrived and the four begin running through an impromptu jam on a series of songs they all know (mainly spirituals). Producer Sam Phillips records what would become famously known as the "Million Dollar Quartet" sessions, although they don't get released to the public officially until the early Eighties.
    1957 - Fats Domino records "I'm Walkin'" in New Orleans. The single will reach #4 on the pop chart and Number One on the R&B chart in April.
    1957 - Former heavyweight boxing champ Joe Louis appears on "The Steve Allen Show" to introduce singer Solomon Burke, who performs Louis' "You Can Run, but You Can't Hide."
    1957 - After hearing reports that many US radio stations had banned Elvis' Christmas album because of their shock over "the Pelvis" singing religious songs, DJ Allen Brooks of CKWS in Kingston, Ontario, plays the entire album and invites listeners to call in their opinion. Of eight hundred callers, only 56 disapprove of Presley's sacred music. 
    1957 - Top Hits
“Jailhouse Rock” - Elvis Presley
“April Love” - Pat Boone
“Raunchy” - Bill Justis
“Wake Up Little Susie” - The Everly Brothers
    1960 - After reaching #28 with their first chart entry, "Honest I Do" earlier in the year, Kathy Young and The Innocents attain their only US Top 10 hit when "A Thousand Stars" tops out at #3. 
    1961 - Gene Chandler's "Duke of Earl" is released on Vee Jay Records. By the first week of February, 1962, it would reach number one in the US, on its way to selling over one million copies worldwide.
    1961 - Syracuse University halfback and Heisman Trophy winner Ernie Davis became the first African-American to be selected first in the NFL draft when he was picked by the Washington Redskins, then almost immediately traded to the Cleveland Browns who issued him number 45. However, he never played a professional game, as he was diagnosed with leukemia in 1962 and died at the age of 23. Davis was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in 1979.
    1964 - One of the worst ice storms on record was in progress across Massachusetts and eastern New York. Ice accretions reached 1.5 inches in some places. Well over 80,000 homes lost power. Some homes did not have power for 5 days.
    1964 - The Beatles released their fourth album, "Beatles For Sale," which would spend 11 weeks as the #1 album in the UK. 
    1964 - Nine hundred students boycott classes at the University of California, Berkeley, during Free Speech Movement. A small movement is about to explode (in three days) on campus. 
    1965 - Top Hits
“Turn! Turn! Turn!” - The Byrds
“1-2-3” - Len Barry
“I Got You (I Feel Good)” - James Brown
“Make the World Go Away” - Eddy Arnold
    1965 - Fender Guitars is sold to CBS for $13 million. Fender guitars, along with Gibsons, are a favorite brand among rock ‘n’ rollers.
    1965 - The Byrds' scored their second US number one hit with "Turn, Turn, Turn." Unlike their first chart topper, "Mr. Tambourine Man," the entire band was allowed to play on the recording, instead of studio musicians. "Turn, Turn, Turn" made it to #26 in the UK. 
    1965 - Acid Test. The second Acid Test was held at "Big Nig's" house in San Jose. It featured the Warlocks band (future Grateful Dead), a light show, and was attended by some 400 people.
    1969 - Fred Hampton, chairman of the Illinois chapter of the Black Panther Party, was killed by Chicago police while he was sleeping. Mark Clark was also killed. Nearly a hundred bullets had been fired in what police described as a fierce gun battle with members of the Black Panther Party. However, ballistics experts later determined that only one of those bullets came from the Panthers' side. In addition, the "bullet holes" in the front door of the apartment, which police pointed to as evidence that the Panthers had been shooting from within the apartment, were actually nail holes created by police in an attempt to cover up the attack.
    1970 - The classic rock album, "Supersession," a recorded jam session with Mike Bloomfield (Electric Flag), Al Kooper (Blood, Sweat and Tears) and Steve Stills (Buffalo Springfield), is certified Gold. 
    1970 - Cesar Chavez jailed for 20 days for refusing to call off United Farm Workers lettuce boycott, Salinas, California.
    1971 - Don McLean's "American Pie" enters Billboard's Hot 100. The eight-and-a-half-minute song will eventually sell over 3 million copies and become one of the most discussed, dissected and debated songs that popular music has ever produced.  Recorded and released on the album of the same name, the single was a number-one US hit for four weeks in 1972. In the UK, the single reached No. 2 on its original 1972 release and a reissue in 1991 reached No. 12.  The song was listed as the No. 5 song on the RIAA project Songs of the Century.  The repeatedly mentioned "day the music died" refers to the 1959 plane crash which killed early rock and roll performers Buddy Holly, The Big Bopper and Ritchie Valens. (The crash was not known by that name until after McLean's song became a hit.) The meaning of the other lyrics has long been debated, and for decades, McLean declined to explain the symbolism behind the many characters and events mentioned. However, the overall theme of the song is the loss of innocence of the early rock and roll generation as symbolized by the plane crash which claimed the lives of three of its heroes.  In 2017, McLean's original recording was selected for preservation in the National Recording Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or artistically significant."
    1971 - Sly and the Family Stone's "Family Affair" begins a three-week stint at the number one spot on Billboard's Hot 100. It is their third and final chart topper and their last to make the Top Ten. 
    1971 - Led Zeppelin started a two-week run at the top of the UK album chart with the "Four Symbols" album. Featuring the 8-minute track, "Stairway to Heaven," the LP stayed on the US chart for nearly 5 years, selling over 11 million copies.
    1972 - Billy Paul from Philadelphia received a gold record for his smash hit, "Me and Mrs. Jones." 
    1972 - No. 1 Billboard Pop Hit: "I Am Woman," Helen Reddy.
    1972 - Winds gusting to 70 mph sent the temperatures at Livingston, MT plunging from 52 degrees to 18 degrees in just 20 minutes
    1973 - Top Hits
“Top of the World” - Carpenters
“Goodbye Yellow Brick Road” - Elton John
“Just You ’n’ Me” - Chicago
“The Most Beautiful Girl” - Charlie Rich
    1976 - A year after leaving The Guess Who, lead singer Burton Cummings is awarded a Gold record for his million selling, US Top Ten, solo hit, "Stand Tall.”
    1978 – Following the November 27 murders of Mayor George Moscone and Supervisor Harvey Milk, Dianne Feinstein became San Francisco’s first female mayor. 
    1981 - “Falcon Crest” premiered on television. This nighttime serial was set in Napa County, making the California wine country famous to the general public. It originally focused on Angela Channing’s efforts to gain control of the Falcon Crest vineyard winery; later the emphasis turned to crime. Famous actors who were a part of the cast at one time or another include: Wyman, Lorenzo Lamas, Billy R. Moses, Cliff Robertson, Turner, Gina Lollobrigida, Parker Stevenson, Anne Archer, Ionia, Cesar Romero, Morgan Fairchild, Ken Olin and Mary Mobley. In the season finale, Angela received Falcon Crest and everyone was happy.
    1981 - President Ronald Reagan broadens the power of the CIA by allowing spying in the United States.
    1981 - Top Hits
“Physical” - Olivia Newton-John
“Waiting for a Girl like You” - Foreigner
“Every Little Thing She Does is Magic” - The Police
“My Favorite Memory” - Merle Haggard
    1982 - The temperature in New York City's Central Park reached 72 degrees to establish a record high for December. The entire month was also the warmest of record.
    1985 - Dallas, Texas became the largest city in the United States to pass a no smoking law for restaurants. ‘Big D’ added another ‘biggest’ to its list. 
    1987 - IBM shipped the first version of its multitasking operating system, OS/2. IBM had developed the system as a way to free itself of MS-DOS, which Microsoft had designed and still owned: Microsoft would code OS/2 to IBM's design specifications. Far from freeing IBM from Microsoft's domination, OS/2 almost accelerated the process. IBM initially developed the program to run on the 286 processor, not the more powerful 386, which contributed to the system's failure to catch on with many businesses. Meanwhile, early versions of Windows continued to gain ground, and with the launch of Windows 3.0 in 1990, Microsoft quickly became the leader in operating systems.
    1988 - Roy Orbison gave his last concert, in Akron, OH. He died two days later. 
    1989 - Top Hits
“Blame It on the Rain” - Milli Vanilli
“We Didn’t Start the Fire” - Billy Joel
“(It’s Just) The Way That You Love Me” - Paula Abdul
It’s Just a Matter of Time - Randy Travis
    1989 - Seventeen cities in the eastern U.S., including nine in Florida, reported record low temperatures for the date. Lakeland, FL reported a record low of 31 degrees, and Watertown, NY was the cold spot in the nation with a low of 20 degrees below zero.
    1991 - A sad chapter in U.S. history came to a close when Terry Anderson, an Associated Press correspondent, became the final American hostage held in Lebanon to be freed. Anderson had been held since March 16, 1985, one of 15 Americans who were held hostage for from two months to as long as six years and eight months. Three of the hostages, William Buckley, Peter Kilburn and Lieutenant Colonel William Higgins, were killed during their captivity.
    1991 – Pan American World Airways, one of the country’s first airlines, ceased operations after 64 years when Capt. Mark Pyle landed ‘Clipper Goodwill,’ a Pan Am 727-221ADV, at Miami International Airport.
    1992 - Flagstaff, AZ was buried under 23 inches of snow and Sandia Peak, NM had 22 inches.
    1992 - President George H.W. Bush ordered American troops to lead a mercy mission to Somalia, threatening military action against warlords and gangs who were blocking food for starving millions.
    1995 - The 746-pound Galileo spacecraft launched in October, 1989 from Cape Canaveral, FL, entered Jupiter’s upper cloud layer. It descended by parachute several hundred miles before being crushed and vaporized under intense atmospheric pressure. It found out many things, including that Jupiter’s atmosphere lacked water and complex organic molecules. Galileo itself was the first spacecraft to orbit one of the giant outer plants for a long-term survey, and is considered an historic flight.
    1995 - Netscape, Sun, and two dozen other vendors announced JavaScript, which helped transform ordinary, brochure-like Web sites into dynamic applications. JavaScript was designed to let developers rapidly create Java applications. Netscape included JavaScript in its Web authoring tool, making it quicker and easier to create interactive Web pages.
    1996 - The first electric car to be mass-produced using modern technology was the Electric Vehicle One, or EVI, market by General Motors. The first models were leased to customers in Los Angeles, CA, at a price tag of $34,000. The two-seater coupe was powered by a 137-horsepower, three-phase induction motor that ran on stored energy in a lead-acid battery pack. The EV1 cold travel 70 to 90 miles between changings, which took 3 to 12 hours. It reached speeds between 25 to 35 mph.
    1997 - Cincinnati running back Corey Dillon rushes for a rookie record 246 yards in a 41-14 victory over Tennessee.
    1997 – The NBA suspended Warriors PG Latrell Sprewell for attacking Coach P.J. Carlesimo on Dec. 1 at practice.  When Carlesimo yelled at Sprewell to make crisper passes, Sprewell responded that he was not in the mood for criticism and told the coach to keep his distance. When Carlesimo approached, Sprewell threatened to kill him and dragged him backwards by his throat, choking him for 7–10 seconds before his teammates and assistant coaches pulled Sprewell off his coach. Sprewell returned about 20 minutes later after showering and changing and again accosted Carlesimo. He landed a glancing blow at Carlesimo's right cheek before being dragged away again by the assistant coaches.  Sprewell was suspended for 10 games without pay. The next day, in the wake of a public uproar, the Warriors voided the remainder of his contract, which included $23.7 million over three years, and the NBA suspended him for one year. Sprewell took the case to arbitration, and, as a result, the contract voiding was overturned and the league suspension was reduced to the remaining 68 games of the season.
    1999 - San Francisco Mime Troupe celebrates its 40th anniversary for next two days, setting the stage for the Mime Troupe to enter the next millennium empowered by the energy of its collective past.
    2002 - An early season winter storm brought an expansive shield of snow and ice through much of the eastern U.S., from the lower Ohio Valley, southern Appalachians and into the Northeast. Snow accumulations of 4-8 inches were common along the northern edge of the precipitation shield, while a significant accrual of glaze occurred in the Carolinas. The storm caused at least 17 fatalities, mostly from traffic accidents (CNN). In the Carolinas, electric utilities provider Duke Power characterized the ice storm as the worst in the company's history, with 1.2 million customers or nearly half its entire customer base without power on the morning of the 5th. This surpassed electrical outages inflicted by Hurricane Hugo as it swept through the central Carolinas in September 1989.
    2006 - McGINNIS, ROSS ANDREW, Medal of Honor
United States Army. Citation. For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty: Private First Class Ross A. McGinnis distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as an M2 .50-caliber Machine Gunner, 1st Platoon, C Company, 1st Battalion, 26th Infantry Regiment, in connection with combat operations against an armed enemy in Adhamiyah, Northeast Baghdad, Iraq, on 4 December 2006.That afternoon his platoon was conducting combat control operations in an effort to reduce and control sectarian violence in the area. While Private McGinnis was manning the M2 .50-caliber Machine Gun, a fragmentation grenade thrown by an insurgent fell through the gunner's hatch into the vehicle. Reacting quickly, he yelled "grenade," allowing all four members of his crew to prepare for the grenade's blast. Then, rather than leaping from the gunner's hatch to safety, Private McGinnis made the courageous decision to protect his crew. In a selfless act of bravery, in which he was mortally wounded, Private McGinnis covered the live grenade, pinning it between his body and the vehicle and absorbing most of the explosion. Private McGinnis' gallant action directly saved four men from certain serious injury or death. Private First Class McGinnis' extraordinary heroism and selflessness at the cost of his own life, above and beyond the call of duty, are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the United States Army.
    2014 - Texas and 16 other states sued the Obama administration regarding an executive order that will postpone deportation of millions of undocumented immigrants; the states claim the order is illegal.



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