Information, news, and entertainment for the commercial
alternate financing, bank, finance and leasing industries

Add me to mailing listSearch | All Lists | Columnists | Site Map
Advertising| Archives | Classified Ads | This Day In American History

Email the Editor

Wednesday, March 16, 2022

Today's Leasing News Headlines

Don’t Forget to Be Grateful...
    Written in the Sky
354 Attending "Bridging the Gap" NEFA Conference
    March 23, 2022—March 25, 2022
deBanked Announces Connect Miami Sold Out
    Leasing News Warned Readers Last Wednesday
Leasing Industry Ads
    We Are Growing Our Senior Sales Team Now!
Fully Understanding Credit
    Sales Makes it Happen by Scott Wheeler, CLFP
Verifying Financial Information
    Getting Tax Return On Line from IRS
2021 Leasing-Finance Associations'
    Membership Count and by Category
Biden Administration Warns Applicants to Refrain
    from Investing in Cannabis Companies
Tech Companies Retreat Affects Millions of Russians
    List of Tech Companies Available
    Adopt-a-Dog  Freeport, New York
ELFA Capital Connections - One Industry One Voice
    May 25, 2022 Hyatt Regency, Washington, Capitol Hill
News Briefs---
A Groggy Senate Approves Making
    Daylight Saving Time Permanent
Ten States Hit Record-low Unemployment Rates
    Businesses Scramble to Hire New Workers
9 Trends from 2022 Work Truck Week
    500 Exhibitors and 71 New Ones
A ‘perfect storm’ is causing COVID cases to rise
    in Europe. Should you be worried?
As China’s COVD outbreak expands, whole cities & provinces d
    are sealed off and key industries closed
Owners Outfoxed as Russia Absconds
    with $10 Billion Worth of Jets
French wine exporters advised to
    exercise caution in Russia and Ukraine
This 8-year-old’s plan to sell Girl Scout cookies turned into
    a hard lesson on ‘Silicon Valley ethos’ of business by Door Dash

You May have Missed---
Labrador Retriever Continues its Reign as Top Dog
While Bulldog Gets Bumped from Top 5

Broker/Funder/Industry Lists | Features (wrilter's columns)
Top Ten Stories Chosen by Readers | Top Stories last six months (Be Careful of Doing Business)
Leasing News Icon for Android Mobile Device

Sports Brief----
 California Nuts Brief---
   "Gimme that wine"
    This Day in History
      Daily Puzzle
        Weather, USA or specific area
         Traffic Live----

######## surrounding the article denotes it is a “press release,” it was not written by Leasing News nor has the information been verified. The source noted. When an article is signed by the writer, it is considered a “byline.” It reflects the opinion and research of the writer.



354 Attending "Bridging the Gap" NEFA Conference


March 23, 2022—March 25, 2022
The Waterfront Beach Resort, A Hilton Hotel
21100 Pacific Coast Hwy
Huntington Beach, CA 92648

Ladies Lunch, Wednesday, March 23, 2022  12:00PM – 2:00PM

Guest of Honor at Luncheon: Lovern J. Gordon, CLFP
2021 Leasing News Person of the Year

354 Attendee List & Registration



deBanked Announces Connect Miami Sold Out
Leasing News Warned Readers Last Wednesday

March 9: “This is not a bluff, these events sell out and have been very successful in the past, according to those who attended. Editor.”

Avant Garde deBanked Connect Miami


Help Wanted Ads



Fully Understanding Credit

Sales Makes it Happen by Scott Wheeler, CLFP

Successful originators in the commercial equipment finance and leasing industry sell a process. They sell the capabilities of their companies and funding sources. I recently asked a group of originators (ranging in industry experience from six months to ten years) to fully explain the credit box of their companies. I wanted to know:

  • What is required to secure an approval?
  • Why are deals rejected?
  • How do originators pre-qualify their transactions?
  • How often do they request financial information, additional collateral, or shorter terms to secure an approval on a marginal deal?

The individuals could easily answer the two extremes: 1) they don't fund bankrupt companies and, 2) they fund the strongest companies. However, the answers for transactions in the vast middle were filled with uncertainty and vagueness. The majority of transactions that the industry funds fall in the middle. This is the space where the industry has the most activity. This is the space where vendors and end-users function. This is the space where clarity is required to win and fund more transactions.

Several originators claimed that they weren't credit analysts; they were tasked with finding transactions, not approving them. My immediate response was: The strongest originators in the commercial equipment finance and leasing industry are proficient in credit. They fully understand the credit standards of their company, they can easily articulate those standards, they believe in those standards, and most importantly, they aggressively sell those standards.

It would be advantageous for companies to revisit the basics with training meetings focused entirely on the company's credit standards. Originators will benefit greatly from having internal credit departments review the last 20 transactions that fall "in the middle." The presentation should include specifics noting the reasons why deals were approved and why they were rejected. These training meetings should be highly interactive and informative and answer the question of what additional information would have made the credit decision process smoother and possibly turn a marginal declination in a potential approval. Originators need to fully understand credit to effectively sell their product to vendors and end-users.

Order via Amazon:

Scott A. Wheeler, CLFP
Wheeler Business Consulting
1314 Marquis Ct.
Fallston, Maryland 21047
Phone: 410 877 0428
Fax: 410 877 8161

Sales Makes it Happen articles:


Verifying Financial Information
Getting Tax Returns Online from IRS

Prudent credit managers attempt to verify financial information provided by applicants, but sometimes that is difficult, if not impossible. The lessee company may have internally prepared statements and tax returns and, with no outside accountant, verification is unlikely. In those cases, IRS Form 4506 is the primary tax return verification method available to the lessor.

This form authorizes the IRS to provide a copy of the filed tax return ( including all attachments. There is a $50.00 fee for each return requested.

Another useful form is IRS Form 4506-T. This authorizes the IRS to provide a transcript of a filed tax return, such as Forms 1040, 1065, 1120, etc. This allows the lessor or lender to verify that the copy of the tax return provided to the lessor by the prospective lessee is correct and contains the same numbers as in the filed tax return. This service is provided free of charge.

Other versions are Form 4506-F (regarding fraudulent returns) and Form 4506F-EZ, a short form request for an individual 1040 tax return. This latter is also a free request.

There are other similar forms available in the 4506 series. Information is available on the IRS website ( Search 4506 for a listing of various Forms 4506.

In all cases, the prospective lessee must provide written authorization. Depending on workload and other factors response time from the IRS may vary, but there is a faster method to determine whether or not the applicant has provided a true copy of the return. Since the applicant must sign the 4506 and knows what the lessor is requesting from the IRS, any refusal by the applicant to sign the form is a strong indication that the lessor should walk away from the transaction. On the other hand, if the applicant readily agrees to sign the form, the lessor can feel fairly confident that the copy of the return to be provided by the IRS will likely agree with the copy provided by the applicant.
Another alternative is to work with a service company, which may obtain the transcript or copy more quickly.

Verification of financial statements not prepared by an outside accountant is more difficult, but not impossible. The lessor can obtain copies of bank account statements, accounts receivable and payable aging’s, depreciation schedules, and other internal and external records. The lessor can also interview major customers and suppliers.

Part of mortgage meltdown was caused by over-reliance on “stated income” loans where the borrower provided information that was never (by design) verified by the lenders. Full-disclosure transactions, where the lessor carefully analyses the lessee’s ability to make payments, requires that the lessor exercise considerable due diligence, including verification of all information provided by applicants.


2021 Leasing-Finance Associations'
Membership Count and by Category

Leasing News has been collecting this information for 21 years with the purpose of not only promoting the associations, but informing companies and individuals on which association to
participate by examining the category of membership.

It should be noted there was an East Coast (EAEL) and West Coast (WAEL) association that eventually joined as one, which today has become the National Equipment Finance Association (NEFA). At one time, there were members who belong to both.

The Following are 2021 Year-end Association Breakdowns by Category of Membership 

Member companies enjoy a strong return on their membership investment and access to exclusive benefits, including cutting-edge industry information, popular business and professional development events, a powerful federal and state advocacy agenda and effective industry promotion tools..

Amy Vogt
Vice President, Communications and Marketing


The American Association of Commercial Finance Brokers (AACFB) was formerly the National Association of Equipment Leasing Brokers (NAELB). The association, which celebrates its 30th anniversary this year, was founded on the promotion of a strong code of ethics and continuing education. AACFB serves as a great resource for those in the commercial finance industry, providing ample opportunities to network through an active online forum, searchable funding source directory, and events – whether in person or virtual. Members also have access to a host of savings plans for industry specific needs such as credit reporting and background checks as well as saving on email marketing, office supplies, restaurants, hotels, and software.

Education is always just a click away on the AACFB website where members can access the quarterly newsletter, Commercial Break and dozens of educational training videos and webinar recordings. In addition, limited legal services are also a benefit of membership. Last but not least, AACFB offers members year-round access to a community of commercial finance professionals willing to share their experience and expertise with one another. Seasoned members mentoring and guiding less experienced members is a hallmark of the AACFB member experience.

Monica Harper
Executive Director


“We hope to add 50 new members this year (or more). Just want to offer as much value as possible to our members, and the industry for
that matter, which will be good for everyone long term."

Chad Sluss, MSA  
Executive Director / CEO


265 Members

71 Service Providers
56 Banks
137 Nonbanks


Canadian Finance & Leasing Association

“We are currently at 182 members. We lost a number of smaller brokers over the pandemic which we hope to get back now that things are opening up.”
Michael Rothe


Association for Government Leasing & Finance

No response



Biden Administration Warns Applicants to Refrain
from Investing in Cannabis Companies

Smoking cannabis may no longer be the only obstacle that keeps you from getting a job with security clearance. Turns out, investing in marijuana companies may also be an impediment. According to an internal presentation, the White House has broadened its employee conduct guidelines to deny clearance to any person who has invested in companies involved in the cannabis industry.

The document states that an individual’s eligibility could be impacted negatively if they directly and knowingly invest in business ventures or stocks that are related to cannabis retailers and cultivators. It goes on to indicate that any decision made to invest in such activity willfully may reflect an individual who isn’t willing to comply with rules, regulations and the law.

This update is another demonstration of the federal government trying to deal with its marijuana-related HR policies as cannabis becomes a more accepted legal recreational, medical and business substance in states across the nation. Currently, the District of Columbia and 37 states as well as various territories have legalized marijuana for recreational and/or medical use.



The economic sanctions against Russia are having an impact, as evidenced by the rising ruble exchange rate and foreign exchange restrictions. But the effects of the Russian invasion are also being felt by consumers in numerous other respects. For example, 57 percent of people in Russia surveyed for the Statista Global Consumer Survey say they regularly use Instagram. However, the social media site is now blocked by the Kremlin. The same applies to Facebook (37 percent) and Twitter, which is much less popular but still with a reach of 14 percent.

Products - such as smartphones from Samsung and Apple - may soon also no longer be available. Both companies have stopped sales in Russia. Popular tech services such as PayPal or Netflix can also no longer be used by citizens of the Russian Federation. And it's not just tech companies that are leaving the country. According to a list from the Yale School of Management, 300 companies have already announced their withdrawal from the Russian market, including Coca Cola, McDonalds and Nike.

By Martin Armstrong, Statista


Adopt-a-Dog  Freeport, New York


7 Years, 3 months
Color: apricot, black & white
Up-to-Date with Shots

This freckle faced dude will brighten even your worst day with his joyful jumps of happiness and excitement when he sees you!!!  You will be his whole world…

Freckles is a 7 year old Hound/Boxer mix. This beautiful boy was rescued from a life on the street.  He is very friendly and enjoys a good walk!  Just toss him a ball and he’ll show you just how playful he is, too!  We believe he will flourish in an adults only home.

Freckles is neutered, microchipped, heart worm free, and up to date on all vaccines.  Please download our adoption application and email the completed form to if you’d like to meet this awesome dog. Kindly keep in mind that our adoptions are local only (NYC area and Long Island).

Adoption Application:

Bobbi & the Strays
2 Rider Place
Freepoint, New York 11520
(516) 378-4340

Office Hours:
Mon-Fri 11am - 6pm
Sat 12pm - 4pm


Registration is now open for Capitol Connections on May 25 on Capitol Hill at  Your participation is crucial to educating government officials on how laws and regulations affect your business, the equipment finance industry and, more broadly, the overall U.S. Economy.

ELFA is thrilled that this year's Capitol Connections will be in-person in Washington, DC at the Hyatt Regency Washington on Capitol Hill. Capitol Connection's one day program includes:

  • Advocacy Training for ELFA members
  • Briefing on the latest public policy issues
  • In-person and virtual meetings with Congress
  • LeasePAC event
  • Special Closing Event
  • Free for ELFA Members to attend

Capitol Hill Meeting Assignments
ELFA creates individualized schedules with our target list of elected officials in the House and Senate for each attendee. Congressional offices are alerted to those scheduled to visit the office and expect to see those listed.

Registered attendees will be assigned meetings based on geography to the extent possible. If you have a relationship with a specific member of Congress, please contact Chelsea Neil ( to discuss.

Important Dates:
- Friday, April 8 - registration deadline
- Monday, May 2 - hotel reservation deadline

Full Brochure


News Briefs---

A Groggy Senate Approves Making
     Daylight Saving Time Permanent

Ten States Hit Record-low Unemployment Rates
    Businesses Scramble to Hire New Workers

9 Trends from 2022 Work Truck Week
    500 Exhibitors and 71 New Ones

A ‘perfect storm’ is causing COVID cases to rise
    in Europe. Should you be worried?

As China’s COVID outbreak expands, whole cities & provinces
    are sealed off and key industries closed

Owners Outfoxed as Russia Absconds
    with $10 Billion Worth of Jets

French wine exporters advised to
    exercise caution in Russia and Ukraine

This 8-year-old’s plan to sell Girl Scout cookies turned into
    a hard lesson on ‘Silicon Valley ethos’ of business by Door Dash


You May Have Missed---

Labrador Retriever Continues its Reign as Top Dog
   While Bulldog Gets Bumped from Top 5



Sports Briefs---

Olson gets 8-year, $168 million contract from
     hometown Braves one day after trade from A’s

49ers break with tradition to spend big bucks
on cornerback Charvarius Ward

49ers awarded NFL-high five compensatory draft picks

Randy Gregory to sign with Broncos, not Cowboys,
in NFL free agency flip-flop

Carlos Rodón, Jakob Junis aim to keep up
SF Giants’ winning tradition

San Jose to host 2023 U.S. Figure Skating Championships


California Nuts Briefs---

California drought: Californians fail to hit water conservation
     targets by wide margin — is it disaster fatigue?

Governor signs emergency legislation overturning
‘train wreck’ freeze of UC Berkeley enrollment

North Coast gas prices as high as $8.63 a gallon

Photos: This basic Sunnyvale home sold for close
to $3 million, $800,000 over asking

San Jose’s largest mobile home park safe, for now



"Gimme that wine"

The Making of 100-Point Wines:
    Syrah Ascends In the Sierra Foothills

Bordeaux Reports Historic 67% Annual U.S. Sales Increase

At Heritage Auctions, a Record Price for the Stag's Leap Wine
Cellars Cabernet Sauvignon That Made History in 1976

“Gimme that Wine”

Free Wine App

Wine Prices by vintage


This Day in History

      1565 - Smoking of tobacco was introduced to England by John Hawkins. Hawkins was primarily a slave trader, carrying Africans to the West Indies. Most of his dealings were with the Spanish in the West Indies, but during his second trip to the region, he visited the small French colony in Florida and learned to smoke tobacco from the colonists, who had learned from the Indians. Hawkins returned to Eng­land with a shipload of tobacco. He described the Indian use of the plant this way: “The Floridians when they travel have a kind of herb dried, who with a cane and an earthen cap in the end, with fire, and dried herbs put together, doe sucke thorow the cane the smoke thereof, which smoke satisfieth their hun­ger, and therwith they live foure or five days without meat or drinke, and this all the Frenchmen used for this purpose.”
    1621 - The first Indian appeared to colonists in Plymouth, Massachusetts. An unidentified Pilgrim had gone out fowling and, near a creek about a mile and a half from the plantation, twelve Pilgrims passed near the place he was hiding. He rushed back to Plymouth and raised the alarm. Myles Standish and Francis Cooke, who had been working in the woods when the alarm went out, rushed back to the little community, leaving their tools behind them. The colonists armed themselves and went back to the place where the Indians had been seen, but found none. In the evening, the men built a great fire near the place where the Indians had been seen.  Supposedly, Samoset, a Mohican, visited the settlers with the greeting, "Welcome, Englishmen! My name is Samoset."
    1687 - Father Eusebio Kino (1645-1711), 42, was an Italian-born Jesuit missionary, geographer, explorer, cartographer and astronomer in the service of Spain.  For the last 24 years of his life he worked in the region then known as the Pimeria Alta, modern-day Sonora, Mexico and southern Arizona. He explored the region and worked with the indigenous population, including primarily the Sobaipuri and other Upper Piman groups. He proved that Baja California is not an island by leading an overland expedition there. By the time of his death he had established 24 missions and visitas (country chapels or visiting stations.)
    1751 – James Madison (d. 1836), the 4th President, was born in Port Conway, Virginia Colony.  He is hailed as the "Father of the Constitution" for his pivotal role in drafting and promoting the Constitution and Bill of Rights.  He served as both a member of the Virginia House of Delegates and as a member of the Continental Congress prior to the Constitutional Convention. After the Convention, he became one of the leaders in the movement to ratify it, both nationally and in Virginia. His collaboration with Hamilton and Jay produced “The Federalist Papers,” among the most important treatises in support of the Constitution. Madison changed his political views during his life. During deliberations on the Constitution, he favored a strong national government, but later preferred stronger state governments, before settling between the two extremes late in his life.  In 1789, Madison became a leader in the new House of Representatives, drafting many basic laws. He is noted for drafting the first ten amendments to the Constitution, and thus is known also as the "Father of the Bill of Rights."  He worked closely with President Washington to organize the new federal government. Breaking with Hamilton and the Federalist Party in 1791, he and Thomas Jefferson organized the Democratic-Republican Party. In response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, Jefferson and Madison drafted the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions arguing that states can nullify unconstitutional laws.  As Jefferson's Secretary of State (1801–09), Madison supervised the Louisiana Purchase, which doubled the nation's size. Madison succeeded Jefferson as President in 1809, was re-elected in 1813, and presided over renewed prosperity for several years. After the failure of diplomatic protests and a trade embargo against England, he led the U.S. into the War of 1812. The war was an administrative morass, as the United States had neither a strong army nor financial system. As a result, Madison afterward supported a stronger national government and a strong military, as well as the national bank, which he had long opposed.
    1789 - Young Enoch Brooks inscribed his name in this children's Bible in Princeton, New Jersey. Now a rare artifact of Americana, Brooks' book is one of four extant copies of “A Curious Hieroglyphick Bible.” With nearly five hundred woodcuts by American artists, this Bible was the most ambitious woodcut volume produced in America up to that time. He was not only a prolific printer of children’s books but at one time owned more than 20 book stores in the Boston, MA area.
    1791 - Thomas Paine's “The Rights of Man” was published in London.  Consisting of 31 articles, it posits that popular political revolution is permissible when a government does not safeguard the natural rights of its people.  Paine argues that the interests of the monarch and his people are united, and insists that the French Revolution should be understood as one which attacks the despotic principles of the French monarchy, not the king himself, and he takes the Bastille, the main prison in Paris, to symbolize the despotism that had been overthrown.  Human rights originate in Nature thus, rights cannot be granted via political charter, because that implies that rights are legally revocable, and, as a result, would be privileges:  It is a perversion of terms to say that a charter gives rights. It operates by a contrary effect - that of taking rights away. Rights are inherently in all the inhabitants; but charters, by annulling those rights, in the majority, leave the right, by exclusion, in the hands of a few.  They consequently are instruments of injustice.  The fact, therefore, must be that the individuals, themselves, each, in his own personal and sovereign right, entered into a contract with each other to produce a government: and this is the only mode in which governments have a right to arise, and the only principle on which they have a right to exist.  Government's sole purpose is safeguarding the individual and his/her inherent, inalienable rights; each societal institution that does not benefit the nation is illegitimate, especially monarchy and aristocracy.  “Rights of Man” concludes in proposing practical reformations of English government: “a written constitution composed by a national assembly, in the American mold; the elimination of aristocratic titles, because democracy is incompatible with primogeniture, which leads to the despotism of the family; a national budget without allotted military and war expenses; lower taxes for the poor, and subsidized education for them; and a progressive income tax weighted against wealthy estates to prevent the emergence of a hereditary aristocracy.”
    1798 - Birthday of Abigail Fillmore (d. 1853), first wife of Millard Fillmore, 13th president of the US, at Stillwater, NY. It is said that the White House was without any books until Abigail Fillmore, formerly a teacher, made a room on the second floor into a library. Within a year, Congress appropriated $250 for the president to spend on books for the White House.
    1802 – President Thomas Jefferson signed legislation establishing the US Military Academy at West Point, NY, the site of the oldest continuously occupied military post in North America.  The Continental Army first occupied West Point, New York, on 27 January 1778. The Army Corps of Engineers was established by Congress to found and operate the United States Military Academy--the first military school in the United States--for the purpose of educating and training young men in the theory and practice of military science. The U.S. Military Academy is often simply known as West Point.   Between 1778 and 1780, the Polish engineer and military hero Tadeusz Kosciuszko oversaw the construction of the garrison defenses.  The Great Hudson River Chain and high ground above the narrow "S" curve in the river enabled the Continental Army to prevent British Royal Navy ships from sailing upriver and thus dividing the Colonies.  As commander of the fortifications at West Point, Benedict Arnold committed his act of treason, attempting to sell the fort to the British.  After Arnold betrayed the patriot cause, the Army changed the name of the fortifications at West Point, New York, to Fort Clinton.  With the peace after the American Revolutionary War, various ordnance and military stores were left deposited at West Point.
    1802 - Absalom Jones (1746-1818) was ordained as the first Black priest in Episcopal Church in the US.
    1813 - Lorenzo Delmonico (d. 1881) was born in Marengo, Switzerland.  The original Delmonico's opened in 1827 in a rented pastry shop at 23 William Street in lower Manhattan, and appeared in a list of restaurants in 1830. It was opened by the brothers John and Peter Delmonico, from Ticino, Switzerland. In 1831, they were joined by their nephew, Lorenzo Delmonico, who eventually became responsible for the restaurant's wine list and menu. He soon transformed the business into one of the first, best, most elegant and famous restaurants in the country, Delmonico’s. Lorenzo was not a chef, but he purchased the food and created the very extensive menu. He helped make the concept of the 'restaurant' an acceptable and successful one.  The business was so successful that from 1865 to 1888 it expanded to four restaurants of the same name. At various times, there were Delmonico's at ten locations. Delmonico's vacated the six-story Delmonico Building at Fifth Avenue and 26th Street in 1899. The edifice was sold to John B. Martin, owner of the Martin Hotel, in May 1901.  In 1919, Edward L.C. Robins purchased Delmonico's, only to see it closed in 1923 as a result of changing dining habits due to Prohibition. That location was the final incarnation of Delmonico's with continuity to the original.  The current Delmonico’s is at 56 Beaver Street.
    1827 – The first black-owned newspaper in the US, "Freedom's Journal" began publishing.  Founded by Rev. Peter Williams, Jr. and other free black men in New York City, it intended to appeal to the 300,000 free blacks in the Northern United States, most of whom were freed after the Revolution by state abolition laws.  Manumissions in the South after the war increased the proportion of free blacks from less than 1% to nearly 10% of the black population in the Upper South. In New York State, a gradual emancipation law was passed in 1799, granting freedom to children born to slaves. Its "gradual" provisions meant that the last slaves were not freed until 1827, the year the paper was founded.
    1836 - Houston retreats from Santa Anna's army. Less than a week after the disastrous defeat of Texas rebels at the Alamo, the newly-commissioned Texan General Sam Houston begins a series of strategic retreats to buy time to train his ill-prepared army. Revolutionary Texans had only formally announced their independence from Mexico 11 days earlier. On March 6, 1836, the separatists chose Sam Houston to be the commander-in-chief of the revolutionary army. Houston immediately departed for Gonzales, Texas, where the main force of the revolutionary army was stationed. When he arrived, he found that the Texan army consisted of 374 poorly dressed and ill-equipped men. Most had no guns or military experience, and they had only two days of rations. Houston had little time to dwell on the situation, because he learned that the Mexican general Santa Anna was staging a siege of the Alamo in San Antonio. Before Houston could prepare his troops to rush to aid the defenders, however, word arrived that Santa Anna had wiped them out on March 6. Scouts reported that Santa Anna's troops were heading east toward Gonzales. Unprepared to confront the Mexican army with his poorly trained force, Houston began a series of strategic retreats designed to give him enough time to whip his army into fighting shape. Houston's decision to retreat won him little but scorn from the Texas rebels. His troops and officers were eager to engage the Mexicans, and they chafed at Houston's insistence on learning proper field maneuvers. Houston wisely continued to organize, train, and equip his troops so they would be prepared to meet Santa Anna's army. Finally, after nearly a month of falling back, Houston ordered his men to turn around and head south to meet Santa Anna's forces. On April 21, Houston led his 783 troops in an attack on Santa Anna's force of nearly twice that number near the confluence of Buffalo Bayou and the San Jacinto River. With the famous cry, "Remember the Alamo," the Texans stormed the surprised Mexican forces. After a brief attempt at defense, the Mexican soldiers broke into a disorganized retreat, allowing the Texans to isolate and slaughter them. In a stunning victory, Houston's army succeeded in killing or capturing nearly the entire Mexican force, including General Santa Anna, who was taken prisoner. Only two Texans were killed and 30 wounded. Fearful of execution, Santa Anna signed an order calling for the immediate withdrawal of all Mexican troops from Texas soil. The Mexicans never again seriously threatened the independence of the Lone Star Republic.
    1836 – Andrew Smith Hallidie (d. 1900) was born London.  He was the promoter of the Clay Street Hill Railroad in San Francisco, the world's first practical cable car system, and Hallidie is often therefore regarded as the inventor of the cable car and father of the present day San Francisco cable car system, although both claims are open to dispute. He also introduced the manufacture of wire rope to California, and at an early age, was a prolific builder of bridges in the Californian interior.  Accounts differ as to exactly how involved Hallidie was in the inception of the Clay Street Hill Railway. One version has him taking over the promotion of the line when the original promoter, Benjamin Brooks, failed to raise the necessary capital. In another version, Hallidie was the instigator, inspired by a desire to reduce the suffering incurred by the horses that hauled streetcars up Jackson Street, from Kearny to Stockton Street.  There is also doubt as to when exactly the first run of the cable car occurred. The franchise required a first run no later than August 1, 1873, however at least one source reports that the run took place a day late, on August 2, but that the city chose not to void the franchise. Some accounts say that the first grip man hired by Hallidie looked down the steep hill from Jones and refused to operate the car, so Hallidie took the grip himself and ran the car down the hill and up again without any problems.  However, given Hallidie's previous experience of cables and cable haulage systems, it seems unlikely that he did not contribute to the design of the system.  The Clay Street line started regular service on September 1, 1873 and was a financial success. In addition, Hallidie's patents on the cable car design were stringently enforced on cable car promoters around the world, and made him a rich man. 
    1846 - In San Francisco, Colonel Jose Castro issued a proclamation that declared John Frémont and his party to be a band of highwaymen.  José Castro was a California, born in Monterey, was acting governor of Alta California in 1835-1836, and Commandante General of the Mexican Army in Alta California at the time of the 1846 Bear Flag Revolt and the Mexican-American War of 1846-1848.  In 1844-45, he became a leader of the revolt against Alta California Governor Micheltorena, once again becoming Commandante General of California, checking Fremont’s movements, and leading Alta California forces against the Americans.  Castro Street and the Castro District in San Francisco are named for him.
    1861 – How soon they forget!  Edward Clark became Governor of Texas, replacing Sam Houston, who was evicted from the office for refusing to take an oath of loyalty to the Confederacy.
    1865 - Slaves were assigned to military duty in the Confederate Army by a bill signed by President Jefferson Davis. During the Civil War, blacks not only had related jobs, but also were uniformed soldiers and officers. CSA General Patrick Cleburne had suggested enlisting slaves a year before, but few in the Confederate leadership considered the proposal, since slavery was the foundation of southern society. One politician asked, "What did we go to war for, if not to protect our property?" Another suggested, "If slaves will make good soldiers, our whole theory of slavery is wrong." General Lee weighed in on the issue and asked the Confederate government for help. "We must decide whether slavery shall be extinguished by our enemies and the slaves be used against us, or use them ourselves." Lee asked that the slaves be freed as a condition of fighting, but the bill that passed the Confederate Congress on March 13 did not stipulate freedom for those who served. The measure did nothing to stop the destruction of the Confederacy. Several thousand blacks were enlisted in the Rebel cause, but they could not begin to balance out the nearly 200,000 blacks that fought for the Union.
    1868 - The US Senate began its trial to impeach President Andrew Johnson. For the first time in the nation’s history, a president was impeached. Pres. Johnson was accused by Congress of having violated the Tenure of Office Act of 1867, which forbade the president to discharge any federal officer holder appointed “by and with the consent of the Senate.” Johnson tested the act by removing Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton on February 21. The impeachment was brought largely because the radical Republicans bitterly opposed Johnson’s plans for Reconstruction. Johnson’s firing of Stanton gave them the opportunity they had been seeking. On February 24, the House of Representatives voted to impeach. The US Senate trial began this date. Sworn in as president after Lincoln's assassination in April 1865, President Johnson enacted a lenient Reconstruction policy for the defeated South, including almost total amnesty to ex-Confederates, a program of rapid restoration of U.S.-state status for the seceded states, and the approval of new, local Southern governments, which were able to legislate "black codes" that preserved the system of slavery in all but name. The Republican-dominated Congress greatly opposed Johnson's Reconstruction program and passed the "Radical Reconstruction" by repeatedly overriding the president's vetoes. Under the Radical Reconstruction, local Southern governments gave way to federal military rule, and African-American men in the South were granted the constitutional right to vote. In March, 1867, in order further to weaken Johnson's authority, Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act over his veto. The act prohibited the president from removing federal office holders, including Cabinet members, who had been confirmed by the Senate, without the consent of the Senate. It was designed to shield members of Johnson's Cabinet like Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton, who was appointed during the Lincoln administration and was a leading ally of the so-called Radical Republicans in Congress. In the fall of 1867, Johnson attempted to test the constitutionality of the act by replacing Stanton with General Ulysses S. Grant. However, the Supreme Court refused to rule on the case, and Grant turned the office back to Stanton after the Senate passed a measure in protest of the dismissal. On February 21, 1868, Johnson decided to rid himself of Stanton once and for all and appointed General Lorenzo Thomas, an individual far less favorable to the Congress than Grant, as secretary of war. Stanton refused to yield, barricading himself in his office, and the House of Representatives, which had already discussed impeachment after Johnson's first dismissal of Stanton, initiated formal impeachment proceedings against the president. On February 24, the House voted 11 impeachment articles against President Johnson. Nine of the articles cited his violations of the Tenure of Office Act; one cited his opposition to the Army Appropriations Act of 1867 (designed to deprive the president of his constitutional position as commander in chief of the U.S. Army); and one accused Johnson of bringing "into disgrace, ridicule, hatred, contempt, and reproach the Congress of the United States" through certain controversial speeches. On March 13, according to the rules set out in Section 3 of Article I of the Constitution, the impeachment trial of President Johnson began in the Senate. Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase presided over the proceedings, which were described as theatrical. On May 16 and again on May 26, the Senate voted on the charges brought against President Johnson. Both times the vote was 35 for conviction and 19 for acquittal, with seven moderate Republicans joining 12 Democrats in voting against what was a weak case for impeachment. Because both votes fell short--by one vote--of the two- thirds majority needed to convict Johnson, he was judged not guilty and remained in office. Nevertheless, he chose not to actively seek reelection on the Democratic ticket. In November, Ulysses S. Grant, who supported the Republicans' Radical Reconstruction policies, was elected President. In 1875, after two failed bids, Johnson won reelection to Congress as a U.S. senator from Tennessee. He died less than four months after taking office at the age of 66. Fifty-one years later, the Supreme Court declared the Tenure of Office Act unconstitutional in its ruling in Myers v. United States.
    1882 - US Senate ratified a treaty establishing the Red Cross.  The American Red Cross was established in Washington, D.C. on May 21, 1881, by Clara Barton, who became the first president of the organization.
    1887 - Chester Greenwood of Maine received a patent for earmuffs.
    1900 - At an American League meeting in Chicago, Ban Johnson announced that an A.L. team will be placed in Chicago to ensure the stability of the league. Other franchises are in Kansas City, Minneapolis, Milwaukee, Indianapolis, Detroit, Cleveland, and Buffalo. In an agreement with Chicago National League officials, the A.L. club will be situated on the south side of the city and will be permitted to use the nickname Chicago White Stockings, formerly used by the N.L. team. However, the White Stockings will not be able to use the word Chicago in their official name. The new franchise, known as the White Sox, will be the 1901 AL champion in the junior circuit's inaugural season as a Major League.
    1906 – Lloyd Waner (d. 1982) was born in Harrah, OK.  He made his Major League debut in 1927, batting .355 with 223 hits, the latter figure establishing a NL rookie record that stood into the 21st century. Waner will hit over .300 in 10 of his first 12 seasons, compiling a career mark of .316 with 2,459 hits, striking out just 173 times in an 18-season Major League career with several clubs. He was elected to the Hall of Fame in 1967.
    1906 – Comedian Henny Youngman (d. 1998) was born in London.
    1916 - The 7th (Custer’s old unit) and 10th (The Buffalo Soldiers) US cavalry regiments under Gen. John J. Pershing, crossed into Mexico to join the hunt for Pancho Villa.  Pershing organized and commanded the Mexican Punitive Expedition, a combined armed force of 10,000 men that penetrated 350 miles into Mexico. They routed Villa's revolutionaries, but failed to capture him. 
    1922 - Drummer Willie “Rough Dried” Williams (d. 1988) was born Lake Village, AR.  Williams backed up Howlin' Wolf with Detroit Jr. before Willie Dixon and Cadillac Baby pulled him into the studio with teams of crack local session men, one of which included Little Mack on harp.
    1923 - A great improvement in radio receivers was advertised. The new models had a concealed speaker and eliminated the need for headphones, which were considered a nuisance because they were so heavy to wear and messed up hairdos. The new radios were also said to have a ‘foolproof’ design.
    1926 – Comedian, actor, producer, fundraiser Jerry Lewis was born Joseph Levitch (d. 2017) in Newark, NJ.  Known for his slapstick humor in film, television, stage and radio, his career began in 1946, with Dean Martin, performing in live nightclubs, television programs, radio shows and theatrical movies before 1956, when the two men parted ways, after ten years as a duo. During that period, there was no hotter entertainment act than Martin & Lewis!  Then as a solo, Lewis went on to star in many films, and television shows and appearances, music albums, live concerts and more. From 1966 to 2010, Lewis hosted the annual Labor Day Telethon for the Muscular Dystrophy Association and served as national chairman of the organization, raising over $2.6 billion.
    1926 – Robert Goddard launched the first liquid-fueled rocket, at Auburn, MA.

    1932 – 37-year-old Babe Ruth signed a one-year contract for $75,000 and a percentage of the exhibition gate. Legend has it the Bambino signed a blank contract with the amount filled in later by New York Yankees owner Jacob Ruppert.
    1932 - With six million unemployed, chaos in Berlin, starvation and ruin, the threat of Marxism, and a very uncertain future, the German people turn to Hitler by the millions. In the presidential election, Hitler receives over eleven million votes (11,339,446) or 30% of the total. Hindenburg receives 18,651,497 votes or 49%. Since Hindenburg does not get the majority, a run-off election is held. In the campaign that follows, Hitler crisscrosses Germany in an airplane, descending from the clouds into the arms of growing numbers of fanatics, at ever larger rallies. He gives them a positive message, promising something for everyone, then ascends back into the clouds. "In the Third Reich every German girl will find a husband!" Hitler once promised.
    1932 – Hunger marches were taking place throughout the country; the Bonus marchers are expelled from Washington. President Herbert Hoover sends a secret message to Congress advising it not to cut the pay of Army or Navy personnel because they may be needed to put down the marchers, whose numbers seem to be growing. He believes they are communist inspired as are the hunger marches in England and Germany. The economy is not in the bad of shape that the newspapers report, he adds.    
    1940 - “The Road to Singapore,” starring Bob Hope, Bing Crosby, and Dorothy Lamour, opened. The comedy was the first of seven ‘Road’ pictures, which brought fame and fortune to its actors.
    1941 - The Benny Goodman Sextet cuts “Air Mail Special.”
    1942 - Two tornadoes, 24 minutes apart, struck Baldwin, MS, resulting in 65 deaths.
    1944 - Top Hits
Mairzy Doats - The Merry Macs
Besame Mucho - The Jimmy Dorsey Orchestra (vocal: Bob Eberly & Kitty Kallen
No Love, No Nothin’ - Ella Mae Morse
Rosalita - Al Dexter
    1945 - PIERCE, FRANCIS Jr., Medal of Honor
Rank and organization: Pharmacist's Mate First Class, U.S. Navy serving with 2d Battalion, 24th Marines, 4th Marine Division. Place and date: Iwo Jima, 15 and 16 March 1945. Entered service at lowa Born: 7 December 1924, Earlville, lowa. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while attached to the 2d Battalion, 24th Marines, 4th Marine Division, during the Iwo Jima campaign, 15 and 16 March 1945. Almost continuously under fire while carrying out the most dangerous volunteer assignments, Pierce gained valuable knowledge of the terrain and disposition of troops. Caught in heavy enemy rifle and machinegun fire which wounded a corpsman and 2 of the 8 stretcher bearers who were carrying 2 wounded marines to a forward aid station on 15 March, Pierce quickly took charge of the party, carried the newly wounded men to a sheltered position, and rendered first aid. After directing the evacuation of 3 of the casualties, he stood in the open to draw the enemy's fire and, with his weapon blasting, enabled the litter bearers to reach cover. Turning his attention to the other 2 casualties he was attempting to stop the profuse bleeding of 1 man when Japanese fired from a cave less than 20 yards away and wounded his patient again. Risking his own life to save his patient, Pierce deliberately exposed himself to draw the attacker from the cave and destroyed him with the last of his ammunition then lifting the wounded man to his back, he advanced unarmed through deadly rifle fire across 200 feet of open terrain. Despite exhaustion and in the face of warnings against such a suicidal mission, he again traversed the same fire-swept path to rescue the remaining marine. On the following morning, he led a combat patrol to the sniper nest and, while aiding a stricken marine, was seriously wounded. Refusing aid for himself, he directed treatment for the casualty, at the same time maintaining protective fire for his comrades. Completely fearless, completely devoted to the care of his patients, Pierce inspired the entire battalion. His valor in the face of extreme peril sustains and enhances the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
    1946 - The first Medal of Honor awarded to a soldier of Japanese ancestry was conferred upon Private First Class Sadao S. Munemori of Company A, 100th Infantry Battalion, 442dn Combat Team, for action near Seravezza, Italy, on April 5, 1945, when he knocked out two machine guns with grenades and saved the livers of two of his companions by diving on an exploding grenade. The medal was presented posthumously to his mother, Mrs. Nawa Munemori.
    1947 - "The Best Years of Our Lives," produced by Samuel Goldwyn, was a big favorite, winning the Best Picture prize at the 19th Academy Awards held at the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles. Actor/producer/comedian Jack Benny hosted the glittering gala. "The Best Years of Our Lives" won Oscars for Best Director (William Wyler); Actor (Fredric March); Supporting Actor (Harold Russell); Film Editing (Daniel Mandell); Screenplay (Robert E. Sherwood); and a shared award with "The Jolson Story" for Best Score. Other awards for the best of 1946: Actress: Olivia de Havilland in "To Each His Own," and Actress in a Supporting Role: Anne Baxter in "The Razor’s Edge." The Best Song was "On the Atchison, Topeka and the Santa Fe" (from "The Harvey Girls") by Johnny Mercer and Harry Warren. Foreign-made films showed up in these Oscars, bringing an end to Hollywood’s then exclusive rights to the coveted awards. Of the foreign movies nominated, three were British ("Henry V" - producer, Laurence Olivier; "Brief Encounter" starring Celia Johnson; "Perfect Strangers" which won the Oscar for Best Writing/Original Story [Clemence Dane]), one was French ("Les Enfants du paradis," an original screenplay by Jacques Prévert) and one Italian ("Roma, città aperta," screenplay written by Sergio Amidei, Federico Fellini).
    1951 - The comic strip, "Dennis the Menace," appeared for the first time in 18 newspapers across the U.S. The strip became an international favorite in thousands of newspapers and spawned a CBS-TV program that starred Jay North as Dennis. The series lasted for several seasons and is still seen in syndicated re-runs. A somewhat popular movie starring Walter Matthau as Mr. Wilson and Christopher Lloyd as the bad guy was released in 1993.
    1952 - Top Hits
“Slowpoke” - Pee Wee King
“Tell Me Why” - The Four Aces
“Please, Mr. Sun” - Johnnie Ray
“Wondering” - Webb Pierce
    1955 – “The Ballad of Davy Crockett" by Bill Hayes reached the number one spot on the US Pop music charts, where it would stay for five weeks. The song sold more than 7,000,000 records on more than 20 different labels worldwide.
    1955 - Epic Records releases Roy Hamilton's "Unchained Melody," which will climb to #6. The Righteous Brothers would update the song ten years later and take it to #4.
    1956 - In a rally in Birmingham, Alabama, Asa Carter, the executive secretary of the North Alabama White Citizen's Council, charged that rock and roll was introduced to white teenagers by the N.A.A.C.P. and other pro-integration forces. He initiated a campaign to pressure radio stations to bar what he termed "immoral music."
    1956 - Elvis Presley's first album is released by RCA. The self-titled disc would sell over a million copies and become The King's first Gold record.
    1958 - “The Long Hot Summer,” starring Paul Newman, Joanne Woodward, and Orson Welles, opens in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Newman, who won the Cannes Film Festival award as Best Actor for his performance in the film, married Woodward the same year.  The pairing was one of Hollywood's longest lasting marriages.
    1958 - The Quarry Men, with both John Lennon and Paul McCartney playing guitar, perform at the Morgue Skiffle Cellar in Oakhill Park.
    1958 - The Ford Motor Company produced its 50 millionth automobile, a Thunderbird, averaging almost a million cars a year since the company's founding.
    1960 - Top Hits
The Theme from "A Summer Place" - Percy Faith
“Wild One” - Bobby Rydell
“Baby (You’ve Got What It Takes)” - Dinah Washington & Brook Benton
“He’ll Have to Go” - Jim Reeves
    1960 - National Football League owners voted to allow the Chicago Cardinals to move to St. Louis. The Cardinals are generally regarded as the oldest continuing operation in pro football, having been founded as the Morgan Athletic Club, a neighborhood team in 1899. The Cardinals remained in St. Louis through the 1987 season after which owner Bill Bidwill transferred the team to Phoenix, AZ.
    1961 – New York approved a bond issue for the construction of a 55,000-seat stadium on the site of the 1939-40 World Fair in Queens’ Flushing Meadows area. Shea Stadium was inaugurated three years later as the new home of the New York Mets.  It was the home of the Mets through the 2008 season, after which it was dismantled to make way for the Mets’ new and current home, Citi Field.
    1961 - President John F. Kennedy sets up the Alliance for Progress.
1962 - Wing Luke becomes the first non-white to be elected to the Seattle City Council, and the highest Asian-American elected official in the continental US at the time.
    1962 - Although he is about to be dropped by Columbia because his Big Band style records weren't selling, Bobby Vinton is allowed to lay down a couple of vocal efforts. The results would produce the first of his thirty, US Top 40 hits, "Roses Are Red," which would top the Billboard chart by next June.
    1963 - Peter, Paul and Mary's "Puff the Magic Dragon" is released in the US, where it will reach #2. Although banned by some radio stations who thought the song was about drugs, it is really just a story about a little boy growing up, according to its writer, Peter Yarrow.
    1964 - Motown Records released Mary Wells' "My Guy," written and produced by Smokey Robinson.  Wells' teaming with Robinson led to a succession of hit singles. Their first collaboration, 1962's "The One Who Really Loves You", was Wells' first smash hit, peaking at No. 2 on the R&B chart and No. 8 on the Hot 100.  Motown released the similar-sounding "You Beat Me to the Punch" a few months later. The song became her first R&B No. 1 single and peaked at No. 9 on the pop chart.
    1964 – Paul Hornung and Alex Karras were reinstated by the NFL after serving one-year suspensions for gambling.  Hornung, league MVP in 1961 with the Green Bay Packers and Karras, an All-Pro defensive lineman for the Detroit Lions, were forced to miss the 1963 season by NFL Commissioner Pete Rozelle after it was discovered that they had each regularly bet on the outcomes of their team’s games (Hornung had bet up to $500 on games while Karras had placed bets ranging from $50 to $100). In addition, both Hornung and Karras had kept fast company including being seen with friends who were also reputed to have connections to gambling and organized crime. Five other members of the Lions; Joe Schmidt, Wayne Walker, John Gordy, Gary Lowe and Sam Williams, were each fined $2,000 by Rozelle for betting on the Packers in the 1962 championship game against the New York Giants, which Green Bay won. Karras was asked by the league to sell his one-third interest in Detroit’s Lindell AC Bar because of mob influences and reputed gambling activities taking place there. Karras had threatened to retire rather than sell the bar, but later relented and sold his share, which paved the way for his reinstatement. Both Hornung and Karras admitted their transgressions and accepted their punishments. Their contrition was enough for Rozelle to allow them to come back for the 1964 season and resume their careers. During a game in 1964, Karras refused to make a call of the opening coin toss, telling the referee that he “wasn’t permitted to gamble.”
    1965 - The Rolling Stones were at #1 on the UK singles chart with "The Last Time," the band's third UK #1.
    1966 - RASCON, ALFRED V., Medal of Honor
Rank and organization: Specialist Fourth Class, U.S. Army, Reconnaissance Platoon, Headquarters Company, 1st Battalion (Airborne), 503rd Infantry,173d Airborne Brigade (Separate) Place and date: Republic of Vietnam, 16 March 1966 Born: 1945, Chihuahua, Mexico Citation: Specialist Four Alfred Rascon, distinguished himself by a series of extraordinarily courageous acts on 16 March 1966, while assigned as a medic to the Reconnaissance Platoon, Headquarters Company, 1st Battalion (Airborne), 503rd Infantry, 173d Airborne Brigade (Separate). While moving to reinforce its sister battalion under intense enemy attack, the Reconnaissance Platoon came under heavy fire from a numerically superior enemy force. The intense enemy fire from crew-served weapons and grenades severely wounded several point squad soldiers. Specialist Rascon, ignoring directions to stay behind shelter until covering fire could be provided, made his way forward. He repeatedly tried to reach the severely wounded point machine-gunner laying on an open enemy trail, but was driven back each time by the withering fire. Disregarding his personal safety, he jumped to his feet, ignoring flying bullets and exploding grenades to reach his comrade. To protect him from further wounds, he intentionally placed his body between the soldier and enemy machine guns, sustaining numerous shrapnel injuries and a serious wound to the hip. Disregarding his serious wounds he dragged the larger soldier from the fire-raked trail. Hearing the second machine-gunner yell that he was running out of ammunition, Specialist Rascon, under heavy enemy fire crawled back to the wounded machine-gunner stripping him of his bandoleers of ammunition, giving them to the machine-gunner who continued his suppressive fire. Specialist Rascon fearing the abandoned machine gun, its ammunition and spare barrel could fall into enemy hands made his way to retrieve them. On the way, he was wounded in the face and torso by grenade fragments, but disregarded these wounds to recover the abandoned machine gun, ammunition and spare barrel items, enabling another soldier to provide added suppressive fire to the pinned-down squad. In searching for the wounded, he saw the point grenadier being wounded by small arms fire and grenades being thrown at him. Disregarding his own life and his numerous wounds, Specialist Rascon reached and covered him with his body absorbing the blasts from the exploding grenades, and saving the soldier's life, but sustaining additional wounds to his body. While making his way to the wounded point squad leader, grenades were hurled at the sergeant. Again, in complete disregard for his own life, he reached and covered the sergeant with his body, absorbing the full force of the grenade explosions. Once more Specialist Rascon was critically wounded by shrapnel, but disregarded his own wounds to continue to search and aid the wounded. Severely wounded, he remained on the battlefield, inspiring his fellow soldiers to continue the battle. After the enemy broke contact, he disregarded aid for himself, instead treating the wounded and directing their evacuation. Only after being placed on the evacuation helicopter did he allow aid to be given to him. Specialist Rascon's extraordinary valor in the face of deadly enemy fire, his heroism in rescuing the wounded, and his gallantry by repeatedly risking his own life for his fellow soldiers are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the United States Army.
    1968 - The Byrds received a gold record for the album, "Greatest Hits," which featured "Turn! Turn! Turn!," written by Pete Seeger (excerpted from the Book of Ecclesiastes in the Bible); "Eight Miles High;" "Mr. Spaceman;" "Mr. Tambourine Man;" "All I Really Want To Do;" and "My Back Pages." The group consisted of Roger McGuinn, David Crosby, Gene Clark, Chris Hillman and Mike Clarke. Kevin Kelly, Gram Parsons, Clarence White, John York and Gene Parsons were also members of the group through the years. The Byrds were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1991.
    1968 – In the My Lai massacre, between 347 and 500 Vietnamese villagers (men, women, and children) were killed by American troops.
    1968 – General Motors produced its 100 millionth vehicle, an Oldsmobile Tornado.
    1968 - Top Hits
“Love is Blue” - Paul Mauriat
(Theme From) “Valley of the Dolls” - Dionne Warwick
“(Sittin’ On) The Dock of the Bay” - Otis Redding
“Take Me to Your World” - Tammy Wynette
    1969 - “The Love Bug” released by Walt Disney studio. Directed by Robert Stevenson, the film starred "Herbie," a loveable Volkswagen bug with a personality. Abused by the evil racecar driver "Thorndyke" (David Thomlinson), Herbie is rescued by the young good-guy racecar driver "Jim" (Dean Jones). Grateful for his rescue, Herbie rewards the hapless Jim by winning one race after another on his driver’s behalf. The excitement begins when the ruthless Thorndyke plots to get Herbie back by any means necessary. Based on a story by Gordon Buford, “The Love Bug” inspired two sequels, “Herbie Rides Again” and “Herbie Goes To Monte Carlo.”
    1970 - An extremely popular cover of "LIFE" magazine was issued, showing the current fashion battle over long versus miniskirts.
    1971 - At the 13th Annual Grammy Awards, Simon and Garfunkel's "Bridge Over Troubled Water" wins Record of the Year, Album of the Year, Song of the Year, Best Arrangement Accompanying Vocalists, Best Engineered Record and Best Contemporary Song.
    1971 - The Allman Brothers Band records its breakthrough album, "Live at the Fillmore East."
& file=index&do=showpic&pid=1616&orderby=

    1972 - "The Merv Griffin Show", starring game show and late-night television host, Merv Griffin (1925-2007), started its syndicated debut for Metromedia Television. Joining Merv were Arthur Treacher, and Mort Lindsey and his orchestra. In the 1940s, Griffin had a number one song with the Freddy Martin Orchestra, "I’ve Got a Lovely Bunch of Cocoanuts," which launched him to fame. He had his own radio show at KFRC in San Francisco in the late 1940’s, branching into early local television. Griffin battled Johnny Carson on CBS-TV late night, and lost. He also fought ABC-TV's Joey Bishop, and again lost. He did win in the Metro media show; and with ownership of stations such as WPIX-TV 11 in New York, WPOP Radio in Hartford, Connecticut. Later, he came up with "Wheel of Fortune" and the formula for "Jeopardy," which he also owned, making him one of the world's richest entertainment moguls and for which he still receives credit. Griffin also owned several hotels in Atlantic City, New Jersey and Beverly Hills.
    1972 - Author Clifford Irving pleads guilty to a charge that the "autobiography" of Howard Hughes on which he supposedly collaborated was a hoax.
    1974 - The Arab Oil Embargo was lifted. It would take several weeks before long gasoline lines disappeared here. The oil-producing Arab countries agreed to lift their five-month embargo on petroleum sales to the US. During the embargo prices went up 330 percent and a ban was imposed on Sunday gasoline sales. Long lines at filling stations became the norm, as did the 55 mph speed limit nationwide.  Rationing took the form of even-odd alternate days purchasing capability based on the final digit of one’s license plate.  The embargo was in retaliation for US support of Israel during the October, 1973 Middle-East War.
    1975 - A single storm brought 119 inches of snow to Crater Lake, Oregon, establishing a state record.
    1976 - Top Hits
December 1963 (“Oh, What a Night”) - The Four Seasons
“All by Myself” - Eric Carmen
“Take It to the Limit” - Eagles
“The Roots of My Raising” - Merle Haggard
    1976 - The Four Seasons, featuring Frankie Valli, returned to the pop charts after an absence of 10 years. The group's "December, 1963 (Oh, What a Night)," became the top song in the United States. Valli’s real name is Castelluccio and with him were Bob Gaudio, Nick Massi and Tommy DeVito. Joe Long and Charlie Callelo were members in the 1960s, when Gaudio focused on producing for the group and DeVito left. The original producer was Bob Crewe. The name, The Four Seasons, was taken from a bowling alley in New Jersey. The group charted a total of 30 songs, plus Valli had nine solo hits. In 1990, they were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.  Their music has been captured by “Jersey Boys,” first as a smash Broadway play and the feature film of the same name, released in 2014.
    1976 - Johnny Taylor's "Disco Lady" begins a six week stay at the top of the Billboard R&B chart. It is the first number one song to contain the word "disco" in the title.
    1980 - Pink Floyd's "The Wall" goes platinum a few weeks into its 15 week stay at Number One. The two-record set is largely the brainchild of bass player Roger Waters, who now emerges as the group's creative head.
    1983 - Radio talk show host Larry King brought his topical interview program to syndicated TV. Using a telephone hook-up, viewers called in to speak to particular guests. King appeared on CNN on “Larry King Live” from 1985-2010, interviewing a variety of newsmakers and celebrities.
    1983 - Randy Smith’s NBA consecutive-game streak came to an end as he played in his 906th straight game. Smith played for Buffalo, San Diego, Cleveland, New York, and San Diego (again.)
    1984 – Beirut CIA station chief William Buckley was kidnapped by Islamic fundamentalists Hezbollah and later died in captivity.  The upcoming trial of 17 Iranian-backed militants was about to begin in Kuwait.  William Casey, who was by then the Director of Central Intelligence, asked for help in securing Buckley's release.  Three weeks after Buckley's abduction, President Ronald Reagan signed National Security Decision Directive 138 which outlined plans on how to get the American hostages released from Iran and to "neutralize" alleged "terrorist threats" from countries such as Nicaragua.  This was the beginning of the Iran-Contra affair, which culminated in the exchange of missiles for the release of hostages. 
    1984 - Top Hits
“Jump” - Van Halen
“Girls Just Want to Have Fun” - Cyndi Lauper
“Somebody’s Watching Me” - Rockwell
“Going, Going, Gone” - Lee Greenwood
    1985 – AP newsman Terry Anderson was taken hostage by Shiite Hezbollah militants in Beirut. He was released on December 4, 1991.
    1985 - National Football League owners met in Phoenix, AZ and tabled a proposal that would have allowed transmitters and receivers in football helmets. The idea was to allow coaches to talk with quarterbacks in noisy stadiums. The idea did become a reality, but a minor one. Players complained of too much interference and static.
    1985 – Denny McLain, winner of the AL Cy Young Award in 1968 after winning 31 games, was convicted of racketeering, extortion, and cocaine possession in Tampa. McLain served 29 months of a 23-year sentence before an appeals court overturned the decision.
    1986 - Susan Butcher wins the Iditarod dogsled race from Anchorage to Nome, Alaska, in the record time of 11 days, 15 hours, almost seven days faster than the time in 1985 when Libby Riddles was the first woman to win the race. Butcher again wins the race in 1987 in what is called a new era in the dogsled competition
    1988 – In the Iran-Contra Affair, Lt Colonel Oliver North and Vice Admiral John Poindexter were indicted on charges of conspiracy to defraud the United States.
    1989 - The Rolling Stones signed a $70 million contract to play 50 North American dates. At that point, it was the largest contract in Rock history.
    1989 - A winter storm brought heavy snow and high winds to the southwestern U.S. Winds gusted to 60 mph at Lovelock, NV, Salt Lake City, UT, and Fort Carson, CO. Snow fell at a rate of three inches per hour in the Lake Tahoe area of Nevada.
    1990 - Thunderstorms developing ahead of a cold front produced large hail and damaging winds from northwest Florida to western South Carolina. Thunderstorm winds gusted to 75 mph at Floridatown, FL. Sixteen cities across the northeastern quarter of the nation reported record high temperatures for the date. The afternoon high of 78 degrees at Burlington, VT smashed their previous record for the date by 23 degrees. New York City reported a record high of 82 degrees.
    1993 - "Informer" by Toronto rapper Snow reached number-one on the Billboard Hot 100. It would remain in the top spot for seven weeks, making it one of the most successful Canadian songs ever on the US chart. Snow's debut album, "12 Inches of Snow," also was a million-seller.
    1994 - Prodigy put a newspaper, the Atlanta Journal-Constitution online. The Journal-Constitution listed local information, including Little League scores, lunch menus, and crime reports, as well as local advertising. The news service was available as a subscription service, with additional fees for bulletin board usage. Other early online newspapers included the St. Louis Dispatch and Florida Today.
    1995 – Mississippi, the home state of Jefferson Davis, officially ratified the Thirteenth Amendment, becoming the last state to approve the abolition of slavery. The Thirteenth Amendment was officially ratified in 1865.
    1998 - Candice Bergen and the cast of “Murphy Brown” filmed the 245th and final episode of the award-winning and sometimes controversial CBS sitcom. The hour-long finale featured appearances by Julia Roberts, Bette Midler, and George Clooney, as well as Bergen's real mother, Frances.
    1999 - The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) gave out its first set of Diamond Awards for sales over 10 million units in the US. Sixty-one albums and one single qualified. At the top of the list was “The Eagles' Greatest Hits,” with over 25 million copies (it would sell another million by the end of the year).
    2003 - Over 5,000 coordinated candlelight vigils take place, in more than 125 countries, in a last-ditch protest against a U.S. invasion of Iraq.
    2009 - The Weinstein Co. acquired the rights to produce “Nowhere Boy,” the story of John Lennon's tumultuous childhood. The script focuses on the battle between Lennon's aunt Mimi and his mother Julia for custody and the affections of the young musician as well as his friendship with Paul McCartney. The film was released at the 2010 Sundance Film Festival on January 27th, 2010.
    2014 - As part of its effort to protect America from an attack by North Korea, the U.S. invested $1 billion in ground-based missile interceptors on the West Coast.
    2015 - Apple began a web TV service in September, carrying broadcast networks such as CBS, Fox and ABC. Apple TV offers 25 channels for less than current cable television packages.
    2020 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average plunged 2997 points during the global financial crisis that began in February, 2020.  The crisis was precipitated by the COVID-19 pandemic and oil price war, causing the largest one-day drop in Dow Jones history.



The object is to insert the numbers in the boxes to satisfy only one condition: each row, column and 3x3 box must contain the digits 1 through 9 exactly once. What could be simpler?



Daily Puzzle

How to play:

Refresh for current date:






See USA map, click to specific area, no commercials



Traffic Live---

Real Time Traffic Information

You can save up to 20 different routes and check them out with one click,
or type in a new route to learn the traffic live



How to Play