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Leasing News is a web site that posts information, news, and
entertainment for the commercial alternate financing,
, finance and leasing industry


Monday, November 16, 2015

Today's Equipment Leasing Headlines

Archives--November 16, 2001
--Jeff Wong Passes Away
Position Wanted –Credit
Work Remotely or Relocate for Right Opportunity
Top Stories November 9-November 12
(Opened Most by Readers)
Alternate Finance/Cash Advance Not Regulated as Banks
   By Christopher Menkin
Fintech #102 by Charles Anderson
   Unicorns Tied to
“I would like to move to another location”
Career Crossroad---By Emily Fitzpatrick/RII
Leasing Industry Ads---Help Wanted
  Ascentium Capital/IMCA Capital
Leasing 102 by Mr. Terry Winders, CLFP
“Are You Ready to be a Leasing Professional?”
The CLFP Foundation announces
 2016 CLFP Board of Directors
Helping Disabled Vets to Learn Farming
  Vets2 Farm
Leasing News Web App for Android
Download to your Mobile Device
KLC Financial Acquires Portfolio
  and Other Assets of Kraus-Anderson
Marin County, California Adopt-a-Dog
Neuvo added to
Classified Ads---Employment Web Sites
News Briefs---
$14 Billion Day --Alibaba just proved it's more than
    just some Chinese company
Japan offers India soft loan for $15 billion
 bullet train in edge over China
The Federal Reserve Bank, Explained
  by Janna Herron, The Fiscatimes
Mortgage rates rise to a 4-month high
  Anticipating Fed Raise of Rates
Alternate Financing Case goes to US Supreme Court
 Madden v. Midland-Future of Non-Bank Lending
Companies Should Update Lease Accounting Systems,
  Experts Advise
Gene Amdahl, 'father' of modern computer, dies
  “Big Blue’s Chief Architect”

Broker/Funder/Industry Lists | Features (writer's columns)
Top Ten Stories Chosen by Readers | Top Stories last six months (Be Careful of Doing Business)
Leasing News Icon for Android Mobile Device

You May have Missed---
   SparkPeople--Live Healthier and Longer
    Sports Briefs---
      California Nuts Brief---
       "Gimme that Wine"    
          This Day in American History
           Daily Puzzle
               Weather, USA or specific area
                 Traffic Live----

######## surrounding the article denotes it is a “press release” and was not written by Leasing News nor information verified, but from the source noted. When an article is signed by the writer, it is considered a “by line.” It reflects the opinion and research of the writer.

Wednesday: Ken Greene, Esq. report on the
National Association of Equipment Leasing Brokers Conference



Archives--November 16, 2001
--Jeff Wong Passes Away

One of the great leasing attorneys, bon vivant, entertainer, a good friend to many, still missed, his passage to another world is announced:

ELFA Jeffrey Wong Memorial

Jeff’s Restaurant Guide


Position Wanted –Credit
Work Remotely or Relocate for Right Opportunity

Each Week Leasing News is pleased, as a service to its readership, to offer completely free ads placed by candidates for jobs in the industry.  These ads also can be accessed directly on the website at:

Each ad is limited to (100) words and ads repeat for up to 6 months unless the candidate tells us to stop. Your submissions should be received here by the end of each week.

Please encourage friends and colleagues to take advantage of this service, including recent graduates and others interested in leasing and related careers. 

Will relocate for the right opportunity and can work remotely. I have (25+) years in making credit decisions, as well as helping sales team and third party originators close more transactions via understanding their applicant's financial abilities. I can create alternative or additional opportunities (and income) by knowing which type of loan is best for the borrower

Orlando, Florida
As a Commercial Credit Analyst/Underwriter, I have evaluated transactions from sole proprietorships to listed companies, across a broad spectrum of industries, embracing a multitude of asset types. Sound understanding of balance sheet, income statement and cash flow dynamics which impact credit decisions. Strong appreciation for credit/asset risk.
407 430-3917




Top Stories November 9-November 12
(Opened Most by Readers)


(1) Why Every Broker Needs to be Licensed
        in the State of California
  By Tom McCurnin, Leasing News Legal Editor

(2) Article on Where to Get a California
         Finance Lenders License

(3) Not Licensed Funders “Looking for Brokers”
           in California

(4) Attorney Finds 33,000 Northern Leasing Lawsuits
      Legal Experts Say the Business are Victims of a scam

(5) Leasing 102 by Terry Winders, CLFP
           Personal Guarantees - Co-Lessee

(6) New Hires---Promotions in the Leasing Business
             and Related Industries

(7) Recruiters Find US Economy
           Turning into a Nightmare for Them

(Tie) (8) “Thinking about Leaving”
          Career Crossroad---By Emily Fitzpatrick/RII

(Tie) (8) White Paper on “Changes in Lease Accounting”
         Equipment Leasing and Finance Association

(10) Archives – Nov. 12, 2005 --Lease Corporation of America
           Receives Approval for Industrial Bank in Utah

(11) Mae Philpott Husband Chef Ben Philpott
        on The Food Network this Friday and Saturday



Alternate Finance/Cash Advance Lenders Not Regulated as Banks
By Christopher Menkin

Cash Advance and most Alternate Finance Lenders are not licensed, nor are they reported to credit agencies, and the investee does not note the "debt" on its balance sheet. It's not a "debt." It is declared on the profit and loss sheet as a credit card expense. In effect, the investor companies are not regulated as not “lenders,” although several now offering securities are governed by the Securities and Exchange Commission.

The cash advance is basically based on credit card receipts and is part of the processing fee, often with payments automatically taken daily. They are often terms of less than a year, although renewable. Mobile payments are entering this field, such as Apple and even Starbucks, and eBay spun off their arm as it was getting larger than the parent. The payment is relatively small, since it is daily, and if interest rate were applied, it is quite expensive, but certainly painless.

The larger retailers already have the customers online, while others rely on direct marketing and third party originators.

The popularity of alternate financing is based on private investors, and now, also by corporate and bank investors. The return is higher than an interest account, and some think better than the stock market or other investments, due to the flexibility and dollar amount invested. Starting with smaller investors, the program has grown, and is divided into groups based on return, usually four programs from safe to risky with appropriate interest charged and paid to the investor.

Most of the investees are subprime, turned down by banks, although inroads are being made on more successful companies due to banking and other restrictions and covenants.

The investor companies’ claim less overhead than a bank, no regulations, and technical expertise in evaluating companies they invest in (not loans, although an interest is used as fee to the party to which the money is advanced).

There is no Federal Deposit Insurance on the money invested, similar to investing in the stock market.

The programs have certainly helped the economy, unemployment, and the start of news businesses as well as the growth or survival of more established businesses.

Alternate Financing exists because interest rates are historically extremely low creating this competition for return on "cash." Many don't remember when the prime was 21.5% (December 19, 1980) and remained high for a number of years (1). It has remained at 3.25% since December 16, 2008.

There are entities that do loans, such as the LendingClub, San Francisco, California, founded 2006, with over $13 billion in loans to date, according to their website. (2) The company is a licensed California Finance Lender, #605-3714. According to Wikipedia, it was the first peer-to-peer lender to register its offerings as securities with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). The company does both business and consumer loans as well as start-ups. Investors can search to invest with stipulations from the LendingClub.

According to their website, the lowest interest rates are assigned to the least risky grades, which reflect the potentially lower loss rates (lower rate of charged off loans) and lower volatility in returns. (2)
Reward / Risk















Average borrower interest rates as of September 30, 2015

Lower interest payments
Lower expected loan losses

(fewer charge offs)
Lower expected returns

Lower expected volatility
Higher interest payments

Higher expected loan losses
(more charge offs)

Higher expected returns
Higher expected volatility


  1. Prime Rate History



Fintech #102 by Charles Anderson

Unicorns Tied to

A “unicorn” in the FinTech sense is any start-up valued at $1 billion by private or public markets. Aileen Lee first coined the term in 2013, to describe what she saw as a regular occurrence in the market after major technological developments. While at first researchers noticed unicorns steadily appearing in the market (about 4 per year in the past decade), this last year has seen a staggering 115% increase in membership to the unicorn club from all over the United States; expanding into Europe.

The success of a FinTech Unicorn derives from countless complex factors – timing in the market, leadership, and the product itself to name a few. Some get lucky, some make their own luck.

They all had one vision in mind: A passion to be different.  With the success of many of the alternate lending ventures, this seems to be their major drive today.

Kabbage, Atlanta, Georgia
Current value: $1 billon
Founded: 2009
Unicorn since: 2015

Kabbage is a familiar name in commercial lending, but don’t let its cute name fool you. The funding of small and medium sized companies by this lender has quickly become the number one online provider of working capital to businesses in the US and the UK. It linked with online seller channels like eBay, PayPal, Amazon and Etsy to drive volume and collect common-sense data (like deposits, social media, and shipping information). They cite they have funded over $1 billion to date. They are also exhibiting at the leasing association conferences looking for broker business.

It states on its website: “Qualify for a line up to $100,000 in minutes.”

Funding Circle, San Francisco, California
Current value: $1 billion
Founded: 2010
Unicorn since: 2015

Founded by my Stanford Business School superstar classmates Sam Hodges and Alex Tonelli, Funding Circle became the first true Peer-to-Peer (P2P) lender for small business finance. Inspired by the auction-like process of “crowdfunding,” Funding Circle provides a platform for investors to choose already-approved businesses, propose the amount they are willing to lend and the interest rate they wish to earn. Funding Circle claims this direct access to capital cuts out the cost of the middle man, directing these funds in profit toward investors and savings toward the borrower. With great success in the UK, Funding Circle has now moved its way into the US market. It has become very popular with third party originators, who report the rates are “great”
and turnaround is very fast. Many kudos from equipment leasing brokers who are now creating loans up to $200,000 at what they call “bank rates,” with a decent commission to them. Funding Circle has also been working the leasing association conferences.

Their website declares “Get a business loan of up to $500,000.” They claim to have lent over $1.5 billion.

SoFi, San Francisco, California
Current value: $4 billion
Founded: 2011
Unicorn since: 2015

A few more of my Stanford classmates (Mike Cagney, Ian Brady, James Finnigan and Dan Macklin) founded SoFi (short for “Social Finance”) took a P2P approach toward growing student debt in a school project. 

The idea is simple: link student borrowers with alumni lenders to re-finance expensive federal student loans. By connecting students and alumni, SoFi leverages social networks to increase willingness to pay. The average client is an A-tier young professional from a top-tier university; by cherry-picking these clients – often with high annual salaries and excellent credit – it’s no wonder SoFi consistently undercuts federal student loans by an average of 1-2% APR.

Its student loan refinancing is paired with career coaching, unemployment protection, entrepreneurship programs, and consulting services to provide a full suite of financial services for recent grads.

Credit Karma, San Francisco, California
Current value: $3.5 billion
Founded: 2007
Unicorn since: 2014

Credit Karma effectively took apart the world of consumer credit. Like its predecessors, it provided credit “report cards” which grades you on various aspects of the report and provides easy-to-digest information on how to improve. However, this service is completely free (not “free” or *free, like its competitors), instead generating revenue through lead-gen to external financial services.

Its mobile iOS platform and weekly credit reports provide simple access to credit info on-the-go – making it easy and effortless for anyone to have up-to-the-minute credit information.

So whether it’s in the realm of consumer credit, commercial finance or student loans – these giants disrupted the market with pure simplicity. There are over 50 such companies; mostly they are growing, and new ones coming along, all tied to this very popular FinTech blog:

Charles Anderson
CEO – IMCA Capital, Enverto Investment Group, Express-Tech 



“I would like to move to another location”
Career Crossroad---By Emily Fitzpatrick/RII


Question: I am contemplating exploring new job opportunities, but my employer has treated me well and I do enjoy working with my colleagues, however, I would like to move to a new area for personal reasons. Should I ask if I can work from another location?

Answer: Many Candidates are interested in making a potential move due to geography.

My suggestion: Discuss with your current employer the possibility of working from a remote location. This is typically not an issue if you are in a Business Development role.

However, if you are in a Management or Operations role, your company's computer system or method of operation may not make this feasible. I see "Cloud Computing" growing, meaning anyone from anywhere can access the company computer system without dialing up as all the information is located elsewhere to be downloaded by digital device, tablet, laptop or home computer. I see more and more employees now working from their home.

If the only reason for making a move is predicated on location, FIRST discuss with your employer. They may even "lend" you a computer or surprise you by paying for your relocation costs – and if they do – they may request reimbursement should you leave the company within a specified time frame.

I always recommend talking with your employer to explore all opportunities.

Emily Fitzpatrick
Sr. Recruiter
Recruiters International, Inc.
Phone:  954-885-9241
Cell:  954-612-0567
Invite me to Connect on LinkedIn
Also follow us on Twitter #RIIINFO

Career Crossroads Previous Columns



Leasing Industry Help Wanted

For information on placing a help wanted ad, please click here:

Please see our Job Wanted section for possible new employees. 


(Terry retired January 1, 2015. To honor him and his many years of writing for readers of Leasing News, is repeating several of his columns that are still meaningful today. Here is November 1, 2010-updated)

Are You Ready to be a Leasing Professional?

Professionalism in commercial equipment leasing has been of low consideration until now. The financial upheaval has made the business community review each proposal from our industry with increased scrutiny and is looking to the quality of their finance partners with a cautious eye to the future. Gone is the day of short incomplete presentations and shoddy, if not, deceptive documentation.

It is time to embrace a method to place yourself above the fray and look like a true professional. Those that have passed the Certified Leasing and Finance Professional test and proudly display the “CLFP” emblem on their business card, letterhead and web site show the world that they have been recognized by their peers as one that understands the leasing business. It also signifies they can clearly service the lessee’s needs with honesty and proper documentation.

A new breed of lessor’s are contacting Reid Raykovich, CLFP, the executive director, to find a mentor, to obtain help, and then to take the test.

Thanks to the hard work of a committee to up-date the handbook as well as a new test, it is more complete as it cover finance, asset management, collections, and other up-to-date subjects.

Here are a few sample questions to show how the test has changed from an essay to a modern test of knowledge (answers follow the short quiz):

A Purchase Option is:
a. A mandatory requirement for Lessee.
b. Requires the Lessor to assume a residual.
c. Required by income tax law
c. Required by the UCC
d. None of the above

Which of the following is not a true lease tax rule?
a. The term of the lease cannot exceed 80% of the useful life.
b. The lessee may not have a bargain purchase option.
c. The lessee may not have an equity interest in the equipment.
d. The rentals plus the purchase option may equal what the lessee could have received from a loan with a balloon.

Return language can require the Lessee to return the equipment in like-new condition. (True or False)

A quite enjoyment clause is required by Article 2A. (True or False)

You can complete the dates on a acceptance certificate if the Lessee sign the agreement and failed to do so. (True or False)

Disclosures for a lessee’s capital lease should include:
a. Total contingent rentals actually incurred for each period for which an income statement is presented
b. Future minimum lease payments as of the date of the latest balance sheet presented.
c. The gross amount of assets recorded under capital leases as of the date each balance sheet is presented by major classes according to nature or function.
d. All of the above.
e. A. and C only


To survive as a leasing professional in the future you will be required to fully understand the commercial equipment leasing product with all its ramifications. The CLFP distinction supports that recognition and will be the CFLP badge that sets you apart from the non-professionals.

More information may be obtain at

(To learn more about the CLP Handbook)

For more information, call Executive Director Reid Raykovich, CLFP at (206) 535-6281 or visit

Previous #102 Columns:



The Certified Lease & Finance Professional Foundation
announces 2016 CLFP Board of Directors

Leslie Brown, CLFP
Vice President
Bravo Capital

Eric Bunnell, CLFP
Equipment Finance Specialist,
Arvest Equipment Finance

Andrew Eller, CLFP
Assistant Vice President/Assistant Controller
First American Equipment Finance

Chris Enbom, CLFP
CEO and Chairman,
Allegiant Partners Inc. dba
First Star Capital dba Clearview Financial

Bob Fisher, CLFP
Senior Vice President,
Business Development for Ascentium Capital
Vice President of the CLFP Board of Directors

Kevin Prykull, CLFP
PNC Equipment Finance

Joe Schmitz, CLFP
F.I.T. Leasing

Brian Schonfeld, CLFP
Project & Information Manager
Pawnee Leasing
(A Chesswood Group Limited Company)

Marci Slagle, CLFP –
Sr. Vice President
Varilease Financial Inc.

Amy Spragg, CLFP
Managing Director
Pacifica Capital

Kevin Prykull, CLFP stated, "I am delighted to have been selected to represent and serve as a member of the CLFP Foundation Board.  I hope that we will continue on our journey to create the undeniable "gold standard" in educational recognition, professional ethics, and high achievement level within the equipment finance and leasing industry.  Such recognition is good for both the industry and for those individuals who have achieved and maintain the CLFP designation.”

The CLFP designation identifies an individual as a knowledgeable professional to employers, clients, customers, and peers in the equipment finance industry. There are currently 288 Certified Lease & Finance Professionals and Associates throughout the world. For more information, call Executive Director Reid Raykovich, CLFP at (206) 535-6281 or visit


(Please Click on Bulletin Board to learn more information)
(Leasing News provides this ad “gratis” as a means
to help support the growth of Lease Police)



Helping Disabled Vets to Learn Farming

Vets2farm is a non-profit organization built for the purpose of providing disabled Veterans a place to heal, farm, grow and give back. It is a place where Veterans who are interested in farming can learn the various tasks associated with running an organization as well as the science behind everything we do on the farm. This, in turn, benefits not only the Veterans we serve, but the community as well.

To learn more, please go here:


Leasing News Web App
Download to your Mobile Device

Readers can access the latest edition of Leasing News on their mobile device by going to their browser and typing in A web app is available for Android smartphones that opens the news edition in Portrait style, versus a landscape (but can be read either way; however, designed for Portrait viewing).

To add the Android Web App, open www.leasingnews in your mobile device, go to this article, and click on the link below:

Your mobile device has a download section, just as your computer has a download section. Find the .apk file and open it. It will automatically be placed with your other Web Apps. Adjust the size to fit your screen.

You can also ask us to email you the .apk to your mobile device and then follow the directions in the paragraph above.



##### Press Release ############################

KLC Financial Acquires Portfolio
and Other Assets of Kraus-Anderson

Minneapolis, Minnesota -  -  KLC Financial, Inc. (KLC) a market leader in commercial equipment leasing & financing businesses nationwide, has acquired the portfolio and others assets of Kraus-Anderson Capital, Inc. (KAC).  The acquisition provides KLC with a large customer base of established businesses and with a greater expertise in the leasing and financing of construction equipment for businesses of all sizes.

KLC Financial has been specializing in custom business financial solutions for all types of businesses since 1987.   Being a truly independent financing company, KLC is able to create custom lease financing solutions for the ever-growing market today.  Clients include Fortune 500 companies, middle-market, small businesses and start up business ventures, KLC has developed sophisticated leasing plans to match this diverse marketplace.

Mark P. Keepman
KLC Financial

“We look forward to continuing to provide a high level of service to Kraus Anderson Capital’s customer base and we look forward to continuing to provide financing to the customers for many years to come,” said Marc P. Keepman, President, who has been active in KLC Financial since 1987.

KLC is a Minnesota based company with a strong reputation for providing custom equipment leasing and financing solutions.  KLC has established strategic programs with a host of banks, equipment vendors and other equipment finance companies nationwide.  Resulting in client relationships generating consistent growth in equipment lease and finance agreements annually and is expected to grow with the addition of KAC’s portfolio.  While continuing to build volume profitably, KLC is committed to establishing solid, long-term relationships with clients, investing partners and referral sources.

Bruce Engelsma

“We’re pleased to work with KLC Financial through this transition,” said Kraus-Anderson Chairman Bruce Engelsma.  “The portfolio sale allows us to focus more fully on our core businesses, and we know that the KLC team is well positioned to provide KA Capital’s clients with the high level of service they have come to expect.”

For more information about the leasing and financial business services provided by KLC Financial please visit or contact the customer care team at (952) 224-4300.

### Press Release ############################


Marin County, California Adopt-a-Dog

Animal ID: 205973
Male - 7Yrs 2Mths 3Wks
Weight: 61.8 lbs.
Size: Medium

"My health has been checked.
My vaccinations are up to date.
My worming is up to date.
I have been microchipped.
Animal Identification"

Phone (415) 506-6225
Fax (415) 382-1349
Address 171 Bel Marin Keys Blvd. Novato

A Little Bit About Me

"Handsome Jack is currently available for adoption from his wonderful foster home. If you would like to meet Jack, please talk to one of our adoption staff and they can set up an appointment.

"Jack is a cool jazz kind of dog; he takes his time to get to know people before offering his full personality, but then he hits a nice happy groove with a bounce in his step. Among Jack's many pluses: he is house trained and even asks to go outside if you are forgetful. He's easy going and has the adorable habit of burrowing in blankets. Lots of Facebook potential here!"

Adopt a Pet



added to
Classified Ads---Employment Web Sites

This site is free.  It has many equipment leasing and finance jobs available throughout the United States, mostly smaller companies, but all types of positions are available.

Go to and type in specific job, spelling it all out, such as equipment leasing sales.  You can leave the city, region, state blank or fill it.

Full List: 



News Briefs---

$14 Billion Day --Alibaba just proved it's more than just some Chinese company

Japan offers India soft loan for $15 billion bullet train in edge over China

The Federal Reserve Bank, Explained

Mortgage rates rise to a 4-month high
  Anticipating Fed Raise of Rates

Alternate Financing Case goes to US Supreme Court
 Madden v. Midland-Future of Non-Bank Lending

Companies Should Update Lease Accounting Systems,
  Experts Advise

Gene Amdahl, 'father' of modern computer, dies




--You May Have Missed It

The guy who invented USB didn’t make a dime off of it
 — but here's why he’s OK with that


SparkPeople--Live Healthier and Longer

Tips for Making Breakfast a Daily Habit


Football Poem

 Silver Lining To The Clouds Of Doubt
When things go wrong, as they sometimes will,
When the road you're trudging seems all up hill,
When the funds are low and the debts are high,
And you want to smile but you have to sigh,
When care is pressing you down a bit,
Rest if you must, but don't you quit.
Life is queer with its twists and turns
As every one of us sometimes learns,
And many a failure turns about
When he might have won had he stuck it out;
Don't give up though the pace seems slow-
You might succeed with one last blow.
Often the goal is nearer than
It seems to be to a faltering man.
Often the struggler has given up,
When he might have captured the victor's cup.
And he learned too late, when night slipped down,
How close he was to the golden crown.
Success is failure turned inside out.
The silver lining to the clouds of doubt-
And you never can tell how close you are,
It may appear when it seems afar;
So stick to the fight when you're hardest hit-
It's when things seem worst that you mustn't quit!




Sports Briefs----


This time, Patriots stun Giants in final seconds

Peyton Manning benched in favor of Brock Osweiler
  Bronco's Lose to Chiefs 29-13

Here's whom to blame as Cowboys hit rock bottom

Offense struggles again, Packers fall to Lions 18-16

Rams Report Card vs. Chicago Bears

Eagles lose game, Bradford to shoulder injury

Raiders' rush to relevance dealt 30-14 blow by Vikings

Thompson: Raiders know die-hard fans will follow them anywhere

Kirk Cousins throws for four TDs, everything breaks Redskins’ way in 47-14 win vs. Saints

Former 49ers owner DeBartolo interested in Raiders ownership stake

Are Chargers leaving? Answer is close

Oregon Ducks return to rankings, one spot ahead of Washington State

Oklahoma State and Notre Dame move up in AP poll


Receivables Management LLC
John Kenny

• End of Lease Negotiations & Enforcement 
• Third-Party Commercial Collections | ph 315-866-1167

(Leasing News provides this ad as a trade for investigative
reporting provided by John Kenny)



California Nuts Briefs---

El Niño still on track to deliver deluges, new report says 


(Leasing News provides this ad as a trade for appraisals and equipment valuations provided by Ed Castagna)



“Gimme that Wine”

2015 Survey of American Wine Consumer Preferences

How Short Was California's Grape Crop?

The growth of Canada’s urban wineries

Wine Grape Growers Prepare for Winter

What It Takes to Be a Master Sommelier

Another reason to drink at Spago:
   Sommelier wins prestigious Prix Le Montrachet

Free Mobile Wine Program

Wine Prices by vintage

US/International Wine Events

Leasing News Wine & Spirits Page


This Day in American History

    1620 - Fifteen pilgrims lead by Captain Myles Standish, William Bradford, Stephen Hopkins and Edward Tiley discovered corn on the future site of Provincetown, MA. They named the place "Corn Hill." This vegetable would become a staple for the settlers. The Indians also taught them how to make popcorn, a very popular item even way back then.
    1676 – The first prison in the Colonies opened in Nantucket, MA.
    1747 - Knowles Riot in Boston involving hundreds of sailors, laborers and free blacks rising up against British Navy Press Gangs, temporarily forced an end to impressments in the Royal Navy. Many believe this gave rise to the American Revolution, although there were several such acts of rebellion, none as dramatic as this as it was a "mob act," mostly poor whites and black, and not planned such as the Boston Tea Party.
    1766 - Indians surrendered to British in Indian War of Chief Pontiac. By 1763, the British had control of much of northeastern North America. Most of the Indians were displeased by their treatment from the British. The main concern of the Indians was the continued settlement of people along the western frontier, which in 1763, included Ohio. Chief Pontiac began organizing many Indian tribes together to rebel against the British. The Indians had success waging war on frontier settlements that were not well protected. The British had many small forts on the frontier that were easily overrun by the Indians. Many British soldiers were killed in the attacks. The Indians attacked Fort Detroit and Fort Pitt but were unsuccessful in capturing the forts. The Indians were counting on French support against the British in order to take these two forts. The French support never came. In 1766, Chief Pontiac signed a peace treaty at Oswego, New York. As one of the conditions of the treaty, Pontiac was considered not guilty of any wrong and was allowed to return home to his family who were living on the Maumee River. There were farther reaching consequences, however. This war worsened Britain’s financial health and resulted in the Proclamation of 1763, preventing colonial settlement farther to the West. This will be a grievance that leads into the American Independence movement.
    1776 - Fort Washington on Manhattan Island fell to the British, who took about 2,000 prisoners. Colonial troops were on retreat and the war looked bleak as the weather.
    1776 - The first salute to a U.S. Flag (Grand Union Ensign also known as the Continental Union flag) was a volley of 11 guns fired by Fort Orange on St. Eustatius, Dutch West Indies (Leeward Islands today). The salute was in response to a volley fired from the "Andrea Doria" commanded by Isaih Robinson. It was saluted by Johannes de Graeff, governor of the colony. The brig was captained by Nicholas Biddle, who had been sent to St. Eustatius to transport arms and ammunition for the American Continental Army. This was an important event as St. Eustatius was a very important trading center and a supply base for the colonies.  Separately, the Low Countries, corresponding roughly to the present-day Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg, recognized the independence of the United States.
    1777 - The Second Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union and submitted them to the states for ratification two days later. They were adopted on March 1, 1781. Although ultimately supplanted by the United States Constitution, the Articles of Confederation provided stability during the Revolutionary War years and attempted to define "states’ rights" and "federal authority."
    1798 – Kentucky became the first state to nullify an Act of Congress.  Thomas Jefferson drafted the Kentucky Resolutions of 1798 and first introduced the word “nullification” into American political life.  Follow-up resolutions in 1799 employed Jefferson’s formulation that “nullification…is the rightful remedy” when the federal government reaches beyond its constitutional powers. In the Virginia Resolutions of 1798, James Madison said the states were “duty bound to resist” when the federal government violated the Constitution.  Jefferson warned that “… if the federal government is allowed to hold a monopoly on determining the extent of its own powers, we have no right to be surprised when it keeps discovering new ones. If the federal government has the exclusive right to judge the extent of its own powers, it will continue to grow – regardless of elections, the separation of powers, and other much-touted limits on government power.”  Boy, have we lost sight of this recently!
    1801 – The first edition of the New York Post was published.
    1821 - Missouri Indian trader William Becknell arrives in Santa Fe, New Mexico, sells his goods at an enormous profit, and makes plans to return the next year over the route that will become known as the Santa Fe Trail. Becknell's role in reopening the trail and laying out the shortcut earned him the title of "Father of the Santa Fe Trail." It became one of the most important and lucrative of the Old West trading routes; merchants and other travelers continued to follow the trail blazed by Becknell until the arrival of trains in the late 1870s.
    1836 - Kalākaua, born David Laʻamea Kamanakapuʻu Mahinulani Nalaiaehuokalani Lumialani Kalākaua and sometimes called The Merrie Monarch (d. 1891), in Honolulu, was the last reigning king of the Kingdom of Hawaii. He reigned from February 12, 1874 until his death in San Francisco, on January 20, 1891.  During his reign, hula was revived, after having been banned in 1830 by Queen Ka’ahumanu, who had converted to Christianity. He is also known for having revived surfing and the Hawaiian martial art, Kapu Kuialua.
    1863 – In the Battle of Campbell’s station near Knoxville, TN, Confederate troops failed to successfully attack Union troops.
    1864 - General William T. Sherman’s march to the sea with 62,000 men began. Leaving Atlanta, GA., in flames, it was thought the fires were started by Sherman's troops, but historians state most of the major fires were started by Confederates fleeing the city, not wanting to supply the Union troops with food and supplies. Sherman was to seep across a 60-mile front with little serious opposition, his army destroying everything useful to the Confederates, who were doing the same to his army. The South was cut in two. General William J. Hardee and his remaining Confederate forces evacuated Savannah, GA. on December 21. Sherman occupied the city that day.
    1873 - Birthday of William Christopher (W.C.) Handy (d. 1958) at Florence, AL.  American composer, bandleader, "Father of the Blues". If you can't have but one jazz CD in your collection, let me recommend “Louis Armstrong Plays W.C. Handy”.
    1889 - The Oahu Railway and Land Company (OR&L) began operating on Hawaii's third largest island. The brainchild of Massachusetts native Benjamin Franklin Dillingham, the railroad made it possible to move agricultural products from inland to port, stimulating the local economy and providing a valuable transportation route for decades.  (Lower portion of:
    1892 - The University of Chicago won its first football victory. The preceding October 22, they played to a 0-0 tie with Northwestern in its first ever football game and this was their first win for Coach Amos Alonzo Stagg,  10-4 against Illinois at Chicago. A founding member of the Big 10, Chicago eliminated its football program for many years, but now competes against the likes of New York University, Emory and Washington University at St. Louis.
    1899 - Birthday of Mary Margaret McBride (d. 1976) Paris, MO.  From 1934 to 1954 conducted a radio show of astonishing and human interest facts and in 1940, was voted the most popular woman in radio. She was one of the first big radio stars who tried to move to the new medium of television where she was declared a big flop. It was the same night Milton Berle became the permanent host of "Texaco Star Theatre," and NBC showcased McBride in the timeslot right after Berle. Early TV's biggest success was a performer who'd never done well on radio--Milton Berle, a vaudevillian. His popularity on TV showed the uncertainty of predicting how radio stars would likely fare on television. "We all knew one thing that wouldn't work," recalled George Burns, also a vaudevillian, about moving from radio to TV: "standing in front of a microphone and reading from a script. Unfortunately, that's what we were best at."
    1902 - A cartoon appeared in the Washington Star, prompting the Teddy Bear Craze, after President Teddy Roosevelt refused to kill a captive bear tied up for him to shoot during a hunting trip to Mississippi.
    1907 - Oklahoma became the 46th state. The word, Oklahoma, is a
combination of two Choctaw words meaning red people. Then, why Sooner? Many, many Oklahoma homesteaders thought sooner was better than later, better to stake their homesteads first, before it was legal to do so.
    1914 - The Federal Reserve Bank was formally opened. The Federal Reserve Act, approved on December 23, 1913, was an "act to provide for the establishment of Federal Reserve Banks, to furnish an elastic establish a more effective supervision of banking in the United States." The 12 regional district banks are under the supervision of a seven-member Board of Governors.
    1918 - In NY City, the United Lutheran Church was organized by a merger of three general Lutheran bodies in the U.S. and Canada. In 1962, the ULC became one of the branches of Lutheranism which formed the Lutheran Church in America.
    1920 - The postage meter was officially set at Stamford, CT, by the Pitney-Bowes Postage Meter Company. Although the idea of metered mail originated in 1900, when the American Postage Meter Company was organized in Chicago, it was not until September 1, 1920, that the Post Office Department approved it. About $2 million was spent on research and development of the machine. [delete-dated]Today they have a near monopoly on this device. You cannot purchase the meter, you must "rent" it.
    1931 - Singer Bob Gibson (d. 1996) birthday, New York City.
    1933 - The United States and the Soviet Union established diplomatic relations. President Roosevelt sent a telegram to Soviet leader Maxim Litvinov, expressing hope that United States-Soviet relations would "forever remain normal and friendly.''
    1937 - Bob Crosby records "South Rampart St. Parade," LA, Decca 15038
    1940 - Cornell University played Dartmouth College in football and came away with a victory. Cornell entered the contest with 18 straight victories over a two-year period.  With less than a minute left in the game, Cornell got the ball on Dartmouth's six-yard line, first and goal. On first down, fullback Mort Landsberg gained three yards. On its second down, Cornell halfback Walt Scholl managed to run the ball to the one-yard line. On the third down, Landsberg tried to run up the middle but did not gain more than a few inches. On the fourth down, Cornell was penalized for delay of game, and Referee Red Friesell spotted the ball just over the 5-yard line in order to replay the fourth down. With nine seconds left on the clock, Scholl threw an incomplete pass into the end zone. Normally, the ball would have gone to Dartmouth, which would have used up the remaining seconds and won the game, 3–0.  But following the fourth down, Linesman Joe McKenny signaled that it was first down and that the ball should go to Dartmouth at the 20 yard line. Referee Friesell did not agree and gave the ball to Cornell and placed it on the 6 yard line on fourth down when in actuality it was "fifth" down. Making the most of the unexpected opportunity, Scholl threw a touchdown pass to William Murphy, and following the extra-point kick, Cornell won the game 7–3.  Officials discovered their error after reviewing the game films. Cornell's players, Coach Carl Snavely, acting athletic director Bob Kane, and President Edmund Ezra Day, a Dartmouth alumnus, agreed that Cornell should send a telegram to Dartmouth offering to forfeit the game. Dartmouth accepted.  This is described as the only time in the history of football that a game was decided off the field.  A footnote, William Murphy, Jr and I were freshman football teammates at Cornell in 1964.  He, too, was a receiver.
    1940 - New York City's "Mad Bomber", George Metesky placed his first bomb at the office building used by Consolidate Edison.
    1944 - LINDSEY, JAKE W., Medal of Honor
Rank and organization: Technical Sergeant, U.S. Army, 16th Infantry, 1st Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Hamich, Germany, 16 November 1944. Entered service at: Lucedale, Miss. Birth: Isney, Ala. G.O. No.: 43, 30 May 1945. Citation: For gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty on 16 November 1944, in Germany. T/Sgt. Lindsey assumed a position about 10 yards to the front of his platoon during an intense enemy infantry-tank counterattack, and by his unerringly accurate fire destroyed 2 enemy machinegun nests, forced the withdrawal of 2 tanks, and effectively halted enemy flanking patrols. Later, although painfully wounded, he engaged 8 Germans, who were reestablishing machinegun positions, in hand-to-hand combat, killing 3, capturing 3, and causing the other 2 to flee. By his gallantry, T/Sgt. Lindsey secured his unit's position, and reflected great credit upon himself and the U.S. Army.
    1944 - MILLER, ANDREW,  Medal of Honor
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company G, 377th Infantry, 95th Infantry Division. Place and date: From Woippy, France, through Metz to Kerprich Hemmersdorf, Germany, 1629 November 1944. Entered service at: Two Rivers, Wis. Birth: Manitowoc, Wis. G.O. No.: 74, 1 September 1945. Citation: For performing a series of heroic deeds from 1629 November 1944, during his company's relentless drive from Woippy, France, through Metz to Kerprich Hemmersdorf, Germany. As he led a rifle squad on 16 November at Woippy, crossfire from enemy machineguns pinned down his unit. Ordering his men to remain under cover, he went forward alone, entered a building housing 1 of the guns and forced S Germans to surrender at bayonet point. He then took the second gun single-handedly by hurling grenades into the enemy position, killing 2, wounding 3 more, and taking 2 additional prisoners. At the outskirts of Metz the next day, when his platoon, confused by heavy explosions and the withdrawal of friendly tanks, retired, he fearlessly remained behind armed with an automatic rifle and exchanged bursts with a German machinegun until he silenced the enemy weapon. His quick action in covering his comrades gave the platoon time to regroup and carry on the fight. On 19 November S/Sgt. Miller led an attack on large enemy barracks. Covered by his squad, he crawled to a barracks window, climbed in, and captured 6 riflemen occupying the room. His men, and then the entire company, followed through the window, scoured the building, and took 75 prisoners. S/Sgt. Miller volunteered, with 3 comrades, to capture Gestapo officers who were preventing the surrender of German troops in another building. He ran a gauntlet of machinegun fire and was lifted through a window. Inside, he found himself covered by a machine pistol, but he persuaded the 4 Gestapo agents confronting him to surrender. Early the next morning, when strong hostile forces punished his company with heavy fire, S/Sgt. Miller assumed the task of destroying a well-placed machinegun. He was knocked down by a rifle grenade as he climbed an open stairway in a house, but pressed on with a bazooka to find an advantageous spot from which to launch his rocket. He discovered that he could fire only from the roof, a position where he would draw tremendous enemy fire. Facing the risk, he moved into the open, coolly took aim, and scored a direct hit on the hostile emplacement, wreaking such havoc that the enemy troops became completely demoralized and began surrendering by the score. The following day, in Metz, he captured 12 more prisoners and silenced an enemy machinegun after volunteering for a hazardous mission in advance of his company's position. On 29 November, as Company G climbed a hill overlooking Kerprich Hemmersdorf, enemy fire pinned the unit to the ground. S/Sgt. Miller, on his own initiative, pressed ahead with his squad past the company's leading element to meet the surprise resistance. His men stood up and advanced deliberately, firing as they went. Inspired by S/Sgt. Miller's leadership, the platoon followed, and then another platoon arose and grimly closed with the Germans. The enemy action was smothered, but at the cost of S/Sgt. Miller's life. His tenacious devotion to the attack, his gallant choice to expose himself to enemy action rather than endanger his men, his limitless bravery, assured the success of Company G.
    1944 - HORNER, FREEMAN V., Medal of Honor
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company K, 119th Infantry, 30th Infantry Division. Place and date: Wurselen, Germany, 16 November 1944. Entered service at: Shamokin, Pa. Birth: Mount Carmel, Pa. G.O. No.: 95, 30 October 1945. Citation: S/Sgt. Horner and other members of his company were attacking Wurselen, Germany, against stubborn resistance on 16 November 1944, when machinegun fire from houses on the edge of the town pinned the attackers in flat, open terrain 100 yards from their objective. As they lay in the field, enemy artillery observers directed fire upon them, causing serious casualties. Realizing that the machineguns must be eliminated in order to permit the company to advance from its precarious position, S/Sgt. Horner voluntarily stood up with his submachine gun and rushed into the teeth of concentrated fire, burdened by a heavy load of ammunition and hand grenades. Just as he reached a position of seeming safety, he was fired on by a machinegun which had remained silent up until that time. He coolly wheeled in his fully exposed position while bullets barely missed him and killed 2 hostile gunners with a single, devastating burst. He turned to face the fire of the other 2 machineguns, and dodging fire as he ran, charged the 2 positions 50 yards away. Demoralized by their inability to hit the intrepid infantryman, the enemy abandoned their guns and took cover in the cellar of the house they occupied. S/Sgt. Horner burst into the building, hurled 2 grenades down the cellar stairs, and called for the Germans to surrender. Four men gave up to him. By his extraordinary courage, S/Sgt. Horner destroyed 3 enemy machinegun positions, killed or captured 7 enemy, and cleared the path for his company's successful assault on Wurselen.
    1945, Woody Herman waxes "Wildroot," Columbia 36949.
    1945 - Eighty-eight German scientists, holding Nazi secrets, arrived in the U.S. In a move that stirs up some controversy, the United States ships 88 German scientists to America to assist the nation in its production of rocket technology. Most of these men had served under the Nazi regime and critics in the United States questioned the morality of placing them in the service of America.  The situation pointed out one of the many ironies connected with the Cold War. The United States and the Soviet Union, once allies against Germany and the Nazi regime during World War II, were now in a fierce contest to acquire the best and brightest scientists who had helped arm the German forces in order to construct weapons systems to threaten each other.
    1947 - Top Hits
“I Wish I Didn't Love You So” - Vaughn Monroe
“Near You” - The Francis Craig Orchestra (vocal: Bob Lamm)
“You Do” - Dinah Shore
“I'll Hold You in My Heart (Till I Can Hold You in My Arms)” - Eddy Arnold
    1952 - "Our Goodly Heritage" debuted over CBS television. This Sunday morning Bible study program, hosted by William Rush Baer of New York University, aired a little over five years.
    1952 - Birthday of Glenn Burke (d. 1995), baseball player, born at Oakland, CA. Burke spent four seasons in the majors (1976-79) with the Los Angeles Dodgers and the Oakland Athletics. He was the first former baseball player whose cause of death was acknowledged as AIDS.
    1952 - John Clellon Holmes article, "This is the Beat Generation", appears in NY Times Magazine. His novel, “Go”, often call the first published "Beat" novel, which presented characters based on Kerouac, Ginsberg and Neal Cassady, five years before Kerouac would turn the same cast of characters into legends with 'On the Road'. Also during this month, Jack Kerouac works as student brakeman for a railroad in California and his “Book of Dreams” project is begun here in Los Gatos, Ca. He and Cassady would die deaths related to alcoholism.
    1955 - Top Hits
“Sixteen Tons” - Tennessee Ernie Ford
“Autumn Leaves” - Roger Williams
“Only You” - The Platters
“Love, Love, Love” - Webb Pierce
    1955 - The Four Lads record "No, Not Much"
    1955 - 'Tennessee' Ernie Ford drove to the top spot on the record charts. “Sixteen Tons”, where he owed his "soul to the company store..." became the fastest-selling record in history, jumping to #1 in just 3 weeks. The tune, on Capitol Records, stayed at #1 for eight weeks.
    1956 - Elvis Presley's film debut, "Love Me Tender," opens in New York. Despite critical reaction, it takes in nearly $4 million in just two months.
    1958 - Golfers enjoying an autumn day got a surprise when over six inches of snow fell on Tucson, Arizona.
    1959 - The Rodgers and Hammerstein musical, “The Sound of Music'' opened on Broadway, originally staring Theodore Bikel and Mary Martin. The show played 1,443 performances (the second longest running musical at that time.) In 1965, it was released as a movie starring Julie Andrews and Christopher Plummer. It is based on an original true story from the book, first made into a German film, very popular in Europe. Maria von Trapp's book, “The Story of the Trapp Family Singers” was published in 1949 and shortly after, Hollywood approached Maria with an offer to buy the book title. They wanted to buy the title but create their own story. Maria refused to sell the title without the whole story and produced the film herself in Germany.
    1959 - Beat author Jack Kerouac appears on the Steve Allen Show in Hollywood. After the show, he has dinner with sex kitten Mamie Van Doren.
    1959 - The most severe November cold wave in U.S. history was in progress. A weather observation station located 14 miles northeast of Lincoln, MT reported a reading of 53 degrees below zero, which established an all-time record low temperature for the nation for the month of November. Their high that day was one degree above zero.
    1959 - "Mr. Blue" by the Fleetwoods topped the charts and stayed there for a week.
    1959 - The Boston Patriots become the AFL's eighth and final franchise under the ownership of William H. Sullivan, Jr.  After moving to Foxboro, they are now the four-time Super Bowl Champion New England Patriots.
    1960 - After Brenda Lee had turned it down for being "too Country", Patsy Cline records "I Fall to Pieces" for Decca Records in Nashville. The song will enter the US charts the following summer and rise to #12.
    1961 - President John F. Kennedy decides to increase military aid to South Vietnam without committing U.S. combat troops. Kennedy was concerned at the advances being made by the communist Viet Cong, but did not want to become involved in a land war in Vietnam. He hoped that the military aid would be sufficient to strengthen the Saigon government and its armed forces against the Viet Cong. Ultimately it was not, and Kennedy ended up sending additional support in the form of U.S. military advisors and American helicopter units. By the time of his assassination in 1963, there were 16,000 U.S. soldiers in South Vietnam.
    1962 - Wilt Chamberlain of NBA San Francisco Warriors scores 73 points vs. NY
    1963 - Top Hits
“Deep Purple” - Nino Tempo & April Stevens
“Washington Square” - The Village Stompers
“I'm Leaving It Up to You” - Dale & Grace
“Love's Gonna Live Here” - Buck Owens
    1963 - "Deep Purple" by Nino Tempo & April Stevens topped the charts and stayed there for a week.
    1964 - Jay and The Americans record "Let's Lock the Door", which will reach #11 on the Billboard chart early the next year.
    1964 – “Doctor K”, Dwight Gooden, was born in Tampa.  Gooden is a four-time All-Star and three-time World Series champion. He won the NL Rookie of the Year Award in 1984, as he led the league in strikeouts, and then won the NL Cy Young award in 1985. While a member of the Yankees, Gooden threw a no-hitter in 1996. Gooden made his major-league debut on April 7, 1984 with the New York Mets at the age of 19. He quickly developed a reputation of unitability with his 98 MPH fastball and sweeping curve.  He became the youngest player to appear in an All-Star Game in 1984. He led MLB with 24 wins, 268 strikeouts, and a 1.53 ERA, the second lowest in the Live Ball Era, trailing only Bob Gibson's 1.12 in 1968. At age 20, he was the youngest pitcher of the last half-century to have an ERA+ above 200. Gooden's ERA+ was 229.  It all went up in the smoke of coke because in 1994, he tested positive for cocaine use and was suspended for 60 days. He tested positive again while serving the suspension, and was further suspended for the entire 1995 season.
    1965 - First public announcement about Walt Disney World.
    1965 - CBS-TV airs the Frank Sinatra documentary “Sinatra: An American Original”, hosted by Walter Cronkite.
    1966 - Dr. Sam Sheppard freed after 9 years in jail, by a jury. His story is the basis of several television series and movie, "The Fugitive."
    1968 - B.J. Thomas' "Hooked on a Feeling" is released.
    1969 - News reports charged a U.S. infantry unit with massacre at My Lai 4, a village in the Song My district in South Vietnam, on March 16, 1968. More than 450 villagers including many women and babies were said to have been slain. Pending an investigation, Lt. William L. Calley, Jr. in charge of the U.S. unit at the time, was kept on active duty beyond his official tour. He later would receive several months in jail in one of the many military cover-ups about the war in Vietnam.
    1971 - Top Hits
“Gypsys, Tramps & Thieves” - Cher
“Theme from ‘Shaft’” - Isaac Hayes
“Imagine” - John Lennon Plastic Ono Band
“Lead Me On” - Conway Twitty & Loretta Lynn
    1972 - A coastal storm gave New England a lashing. Heavy, wet snow in parts of New Hampshire and Vermont downing power and utility lines while heavy rains in southern New England producing some flooding
    1973 - 30th manned US space flight launched with three astronauts, G.P. Carr, W.R. Page and E.G. Gibson, who spent 84 days on the space station. Space walks totaled 22 hours. Returned to Earth on Feb 8, 1974.
    1973 - President Nixon authorizes construction of the Alaskan pipeline.
   1974 - "Whatever Gets You Thru the Night" by John Lennon with the Plastic Ono Nuclear Band topped the charts and stayed there for a week.  Helping out on piano and vocals is Elton John.  In his homeland, it could do no better than #36. His girlfriend, May Pang, would later recall that John got the inspiration for the song when he saw TV evangelist Reverend Ike utter the phrase "Let me tell you guys, it doesn't matter, it's whatever gets you through the night."
    1974 - NBC-TV began a two-night showing of the award-winning film, "The Godfather", starring Marlon Brando. The film was the highest price paid for a shown on television movie when NBC paid Paramount Pictures $10 million to show it.
    1974 - Stevie Wonder's "Boogie on Reggae Woman" is released.
    1975 - Chicago Bear Walter Payton rushed for 105 yards in a game against the San Francisco 49ers, for his first game of 100 plus yards. He would reach this feat over 50 times throughout his career, adding two 200-yard games, as well.
    1977 - The Canadian trio Rush receive three gold records for "2112," "All the World's a Stage" and "A Farewell to Kings." The group, which started out as a Led Zeppelin-inspired power trio, opted for a more experimental progressive direction on those LPs and found itself a sizable audience.
    1979 - Top Hits
“Heartache Tonight” - Eagles
“Dim All the Lights” - Donna Summer
“Still” - Commodores
“You Decorated My Life” - Kenny Rogers
    1983 – Baltimore Oriole Cal Ripken is named the American League's MVP becoming the first player to win the Rookie of the Year (1982) and Most Valuable Player Award in consecutive years.
    1984 - Dr. Anna L. Fisher was the first astronaut who was a mother. She was a member of the crew of Space Shuttle "Discovery" mission that lifted off Cape Canaveral, FL. She participated in the world's first satellite retrieval and repair operation.
    1985 - "We Built This City" by Starship topped the charts and stayed there for 2 weeks.
    1987 - Top Hits
“I Think We're Alone Now” - Tiffany
“Mony Mony ‘Live’" - Billy Idol
“(I've Had) The Time of My Life” - Bill Medley & Jennifer Warnes
“Maybe Your Baby's Got the Blues” - The Judds
    1987 - High winds and heavy snow created blizzard conditions across parts of eastern Colorado. Wind gusts reached 68 mph at Pueblo, and snowfall totals ranged up to 37 inches at Echo Lake. In Wyoming, the temperature dipped to 14 degrees below zero at Laramie. Strong thunderstorms in Louisiana drenched Alexandria with 16.65 inches of rain in thirty hours, with an unofficial total of 21.21 inches north of Olla. Flash flooding in Louisiana caused five to six million dollars damage.
    1989 - Severe thunderstorms produced 22 tornadoes from Virginia to New York. Winds gusted to 80 mph caused a wall at the Coldenham School in Newburgh, NY to collapse, killing 9 children.  Snow and gusty winds invaded the north central U.S.  Winds gusting to 40 mph produced wind chill readings as cold as 25 degrees below zero, and blizzard conditions were reported in Nebraska during the late morning hours. High winds around a powerful low pressure system produced squalls in the Great Lakes Region. Winds gusted to 63 mph at Whitefish Point, MI, and snowfall totals in Michigan ranged up to 19 inches at Hart, north of Muskegon
    1992 - For the first time since 1563, the Roman Catholic Church issued a new universal catechism, which addressed modern-day issues.
    1994 - Bernette Johnson was sworn in as the first black woman ever elected to the Louisiana Supreme Court.
    1994 - Top Hits
“I'll Make Love To You” - Boyz II Men
“Here Comes The Hotstepper” (From "Ready To Wear") - Ini Kamoze
“All I Wanna Do” - Sheryl Crow
“Another Night” - Real McCoy
    1996 - "Head Over Feet" by Alanis Morissette topped the charts and stayed there for 4 weeks.
    1999 - Top Hits
“Smooth” - Santana Featuring Rob Thomas
“Back At One” - Brian McKnight
“Mambo No. 5” (“A Little Bit Of...”) - Lou Bega
“I Need To Know” - Marc Anthony
    2001 - Yankee right hander Roger Clemens (20-3, 3.51 ERA) wins the Cy Young Award for an unprecedented sixth time (Red Sox: 1986, '87, '91 and Blue Jays: 1997, '98). The 'Rocket' becomes the first Pinstriper to win the award since 1978 when Ron Guidry copped the honor.
    2001 - The city of Palm Springs, CA unveils a statue in its downtown area honoring the late Sonny Bono, half of Sonny and Cher and mayor of the city for a time in the Eighties.
    2001 - Congress passed a law mandating that airport screeners be federal employees.
    2002 - The New York Yankees and the Yomiuri Giants in Japan signed an agreement to form a working relationship. Being the most successful teams in their respective leagues, the organizations hope to establish scouting and marketing ties which will benefit both teams.  
    2003 - Top Hits
“Baby Boy” - Beyonce Featuring Sean Paul
“Stand Up” - Ludacris Featuring Shawnna
“Holidae In” - Chingy Featuring Ludacris & Snoop Dogg
“Damn!” - YoungBloodZ Featuring Lil Jon
    2005 - Severe thunderstorms produced over 30 tornadoes in 6 states, resulting in one fatality and at least 35 injuries (Associated Press). Some of the worst damage occurred in Henry County, Tennessee, where numerous homes and businesses were damaged or destroyed.
    2006 – “Queen's Greatest Hits” is declared the most popular album of all time in Britain, with more than five-and-a-half million units sold. At Number Two: the Beatles' “Sgt. Pepper”.
    2010 - U.S. Rep. Charles Rangel (D-Harlem) was convicted on 11 of 13 charges related to financial misconduct, including income tax evasion, prompting fellow lawmakers to censure the 80-year-old New York Democrat.
    2012 - Hostess Brands – Twinkies, Ho-Hos, Wonder Bread, Ding Dongs - revealed its plan to file for bankruptcy and liquidate its assets, claiming contract disputes from the bakery's union worker strike crippled its operations; about 18,500 workers were laid off.  As part of the BK adjudication, the several brands were sold to multiple buyers.  Hostess Brands, LLC is a bakery company formed in June 2013. It now owns several bakeries in the United States that produce snack cakes under the Hostess and Dolly Madison brand names.



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