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Monday, September 19, 2022

Today's Leasing News Headlines

The Certified Lease & Finance Professional Foundation
    Presents Three Lifetime Membership Awards
"New York State of Mind"
  Completes Disclosure New Commercial Finance Law             
    By Ken Greene, Leasing News Legal Editor
Leasing and Finance Industry Help Wanted
    Excellent Compensation/Marketing Support/Work Home
Work Hard!
    The Ultimate Hire by Ken Lubin, ZRG Partners
Top Ten Leasing News Read by Readers
    September 12 to September 19
August Rise in Retail Sales is an Inflation Illusion
  – Consumers are Paying More for Less
    By Dr. Dan Geller
Types of Fraud
    Six Most Common in Commercial Finance
Change in How to Get to "Groups"
    in LinkedIn
Australian Shepherd
    Plano, Texas  Adopt-a-Dog
Registration to Close September 26, 2022
  ELFA 6st Annual Convention Oct. 9 - 11
    Marco Island, Florida   
News Briefs---
Allstate auto insurance rates jump 14% in Illinois.
    State Farm up more than 8%. Inflation is to blame
Catalytic converter theft rising in Chicago: Removing auto
    exhaust device takes a minute, but replacing it could take months
Electric Vehicles Took Off
    Car Makers Weren’t Ready
Big Regional Banks Might Face New Rules
    for Dealing With a Crisis

You May Have Missed ---
Games That Push the Brain to the Limit
    Get Scientists’ Attention in Fight Against Dementia

Broker/Funder/Industry Lists | Features (wrilter's columns)
Top Ten Stories Chosen by Readers | Top Stories last six months
Sales Make It Happen

Sports Brief----
 California Nuts Brief---
   "Gimme that wine"
    This Day in History
      Daily Puzzle
        Weather, USA or specific area
         Traffic Live----

######## surrounding the article denotes it is a “press release,” it was not written by Leasing News nor has the information been verified. The source noted. When an article is signed by the writer, it is considered a “byline.” It reflects the opinion and research of the writer.


The Certified Lease & Finance Professional Foundation
Presents Three Lifetime Membership Awards

Robert "Bob" Fisher, CLFP, contributed to the Handbook and instructed various sessions. He is most known for assisting with the development of the Associate designation.

He is a long time member of the UAEL (now NEFA) Board of Directors, serving as conference chairman, several director positions, including President, and active in the industry until his recent retirement.

“Suffice to say that I am honored and humbled to receive a Lifetime Membership in the CLFP Foundation. Today the CLFP Foundation and its designation is recognized worldwide as the go-to standard for professionalism and education in our industry. I would like to thank the Foundation's Board and Executive team for this honor.  Even today I find the industry as fresh and enjoyable as it was 40 years ago.”

John Rosenlund, CLFP, now also retired, obtained his designation in 2000 and held various Board positions, contributed to the Handbook and exam, and taught many sessions for candidates. He is past president of the National Equipment Finance Association (NEFA), serving on the executive committee for five years. In 2013, he received a special award for his service from the CLFP.

(David Normandin, left, presents award)

“During my tenure, we had about a 1,000 less CLFPs and were negotiating the 2008-2010 financial downturns, where many lessors were forced out of business, consolidated, and our membership was declining.  The CLFP is a Foundation that depends on volunteers and I enjoyed of all my work with CLP/CLFPs as I met many friends and business associates, as well as provided the education to others to be successful in our business. I am honored to be recognized!”

Robert "Bob" Teichman, CLFP, obtained his designation in 1995 and held various Board positions, including Chairman and President. He was also a contributing author for the handbook and exam, has taught classes, mentored individuals and most notably, co-created the CLS designation in Ukraine. He is also the Leasing News Advisory Board Chairman Emeritus. He still is semi-active in contributing to the industry.

He was active in leasing associations, having served on the Board of Directors of the United Association of Equipment Leasing (UAEL) for four years. For three years he was the Chairman of their Education Committee with responsibility for the Certification Program and Educational Programs. He was also a member of other committees including the Standards Committee.

“It is a remarkable honor to be included in the inaugural class of Lifetime Members, and in such august company. The certification program has been a major part of my professional life for many years, but I never expected to receive such an accolade from my peers.”


"New York State of Mind"
 Completes Disclosure of New Commercial Finance Law
                 By Ken Greene, Leasing News Legal Editor

On September 14, 2022, New York released a new set of proposed commercial finance disclosure regulations. For those of you who are interested in reading them in their entirety, here they are:
https://www.dfs.New Yorkcrr600_text_20220914.pdf

This article provides a synopsis of the new regulations for those who prefer not to slog through 55 pages.

It is noteworthy that the New York regulations are very similar and probably modeled after, the California regulations. But they are not the same.

I will outline the key elements of the NEW YORK rules, and point out some important differences between the two states. Also, like California, the disclosure obligations will not become operative until six months after these regulations are approved. It appears there will be substantial blowback from various segments of the finance industry, so that might take some time.

Like California, these regulations only apply to transactions involving borrowers principally directed or managed from New York, or borrowers who are legal residents. Unlike California, the regulations also state that the disclosure obligations apply to a New York provider directed or managed from NEW YORK or negotiated from a location in New York.

There is also a conflict of law provision in the New York regulations which states that if there is a conflict of laws in which a provider is required to provide disclosures based on the laws of another state, the law of the state in which the recipient is directed or managed shall govern. NEW YORKCCR 600.24.

Let’s begin with one of the key differences. Most significant, the threshold for CALIFORNIA transactions is $500,000. California. Code of Regulations.(CCR) 921. NEW YORK’s is $2,500,000. New York Codes Rules and Regulations (NEW YORKCCR) 600.19.

The lease financing transaction (not true leases) formatting and contents are similar but not identical to those in California. NEW YORKCCR 600.14.Here is an abbreviated list of what would need to be disclosed in NEW YORK. The asterisks represent the items that are not in the CALIFORNIA regulations.Amount of funding provided

Amount financed
Whether a New York portion of the financing includes payment of   unpaid finance charges   and fees (aka “double dipping”) and if so, the amount.

  1. APR
  2. Finance charge
  3. Total payment amount
  4. Each payment amount, including an explanation of a New York periodic payments that vary   (i.e. purchase option, taxes, etc.)
  5. Term 
  6. Prepayment terms
  7. Collateral requirements*
  8. Avoidable fees and charges (i.e. late payment fees)
  9. Broker fees*
  10. If the periodic payments are not monthly, the average monthly cost

The New York regulations, similar to California, limit the obligations of the broker to:

  1. Timely providing the borrower with the disclosures prepared by the financer
  2. Maintaining proof of #1
  3. Obtaining the borrower(s)’ signature(s)
  4. Relaying the signed disclosure statement to the financer/provider
  5. Retaining records of compliance for four years

NEW YORK would also have a reporting requirement, presumably similar to the annual reporting requirement required by California for CFL lenders and brokers. On or before the 30th day of April each year, beginning in 2024, certain providers will have to submit statements to the superintendent (the NEW YORK equivalent to the California commissioner) of the commercial transactions they have done the preceding year. It does not appear that brokers have the same obligations.  

Ken Greene Leasing & Finance Observations

Ken Greene
Tel: 818.575.9095
Fax: 805.435.7464



Leasing and Finance Industry Help Wanted
Excellent Compensation/Marketing Support/Work


Work Hard!

The Ultimate Hire by Ken Lubin, ZRG Partners

Where has the notion gone that hard work is no longer necessary?  Have we created a society that has minimized hard work? Have we created a society of entitlement?

Recently, I have witnessed multiple generations of people that think everything should be handed to them: from 14 year olds to 50 year olds, I don’t get it!  Mediocrity is a disease that stems from the lack of hard work. Where has the notion gone that we don't have to work hard?

Work when your competition is sleeping, work when others are partying, and work towards your goals! (Assuming you have some, if not get some)

If you want to be great, you have to work harder, learn more, and be willing to delay instant gratification; that is what makes the great ones great!  Work your ass off and be the best you can be, don’t stand for status quo! Be the 1% who does, versus the 99% who don’t!

Managing Director
ZRG Partners, LLC
Americas I EMEA I Asia Pacific
C: 508-733-4789

"What is the Ultimate Hire? The Ultimate Hire is the professional that every business, team or leader needs in their organization. This is the high performance individual that always rises to the top, brings the team to the next level and can significantly add to the bottom line. The Ultimate Hire is the person that you can't afford to be without. Finding, Attracting, Hiring and Retaining these professionals is critical to the success of your business. We have identified these traits and can help you find these top professionals."

The Ultimate Hire Collection:


Top Ten Leasing News Read by Readers
September 12 to September 19

(1) Complaint on Marlin Capital Solutions Now Listed in
Leasing Companies Out of Business

(2) Funders Looking for Broker Business
Free listings

(3) New Hires/Promotions in the Leasing Business
and Related Industries

(4)  New Hires/Promotions in the Leasing Business
and Related Industries

(5) Time to Get Ready for the New Utah Disclosure Law
By Ken Greene, Leasing News Legal Editor

(6) From the Past: September 15, 2016
  Employee Exodus at Direct Capital, Portsmouth, NH
Customers and Vendors to Follow

(7) AACFB Commercial Financing Expo
  By Nuria Blais, CLFP Associate
American Lease Insurance

(8) Do New State Licensing Laws Require the Disclosure
  to the Client’s Vendor Kickback Dollar Amounts?
by Terry Winders

(9)Think the New California Disclosure Law is
Just About a Disclosure Form? Think Again

(10)  Tips For Employers Hiring Competitor’s Employees
  By Tom McCurnin
Former Leasing News Legal Editor


August Rise in Retail Sales is an Inflation Illusion
– Consumers are Paying More for Less
By Dr. Dan Geller

August retail sales give the impression that consumers are buying more goods and services and that the economy is robust. This is an illusion caused by inflation. In reality, consumes purchased fewer goods and services in August, yet paid more for less because of the increase of 0.6% in the August core inflation.

The retail sales control group, which excludes restaurants, autos, building materials and gasoline, reveals the true picture of consumer spending. Many goods categories such as furniture, health and personal care stores, and even e-commerce, were negative in August.  The inflation-adjusted figure for August is actually negative -0.5%.

This finding is supported by the August Money Anxiety Index, which increased 3.5 index points as a result of higher financial anxiety and economic uncertainty among consumers. Higher Money Anxiety means lower consumer confidence. The 0.6% increase in core inflation is affecting the financial behavior of consumers, who are buying less goods and services but paying higher prices for them.

The Money Anxiety Index is used as a behavioral predictor in the Scientifically Predictable investing model, a model for Low risk, high-confidence investors. The model measures the impact of behavioral economics factors on sector ETFs, and projects the trend for each featured ETF for the next 30-90 days. The projected trend has very high statistical confidence and is updated a behavioral predictor in many models used by financial institutions and investors nationally.

Dr. Dan Geller



Types of Fraud
Six Most Common in Commercial Finance

Originally written by the Late Bernie Boettigheimer, CLFP, best
known as Founder and President of Lease Police.

Methods of lease fraud are constantly evolving.  Individuals perpetrating these frauds have studied our industry's practices and methods.  Many of these frauds involve Vendors and Lessees who meet most of the screening criteria utilized by leasing companies - directory assistance listing, time in business, and physical storefronts.  Lease Police, Inc. has identified the following general types of lease fraud:
Disguised Working Capital Fraud - In this scenario, a vendor presents himself as a legitimate seller of equipment; however, he is nothing other than someone soliciting for working capital loans. He will take a customer's current equipment and disguise it as his equipment and lease it back to the customer (the lessee). The vendor will keep 30% to 50% of the lease proceeds and will give the remainder to the lessee. This type of fraud can be very damaging and hard to detect, as many of the re-liquefied lessees will make payments for a while after funding.  Most funders will experience a default rate between 10% to 40% with these transactions. Many of these vendors will "spread their paper" among several sources to further conceal their detection. Using, detecting these vendors is easy - just take note of excessive early termination activity.
Overpriced Equipment Working Capital Fraud - A vendor will overprice a piece of equipment and offer the debtor or lessee money back.  For example, a vendor will lease a $5,000 computer for $30,000 and give the debtor or lessee $15,000 as an inducement to enter into the lease. This type of fraud will have higher loss rates over the portfolio life, but because the debtor/lessee has just received a "lump sum" from the vendor, they will make payments for a while. Using, detecting these vendors is easy - just take note of excessive early termination activity.
Product Representation Fraud - In this scenario, the vendor may offer a deal that is "too good to be true." It may involve a 100% money back guarantee, inflated promises on the equipment, or a "promise and disappear" scheme. These vendors appear to be tremendous engines of new leases.  They can produce hundreds of new leases per month from the beginning of their existence. In most of these cases, the vendor is gone after one to two years, leaving funders an endless stream of litigation. Using, detecting these vendors is easy - just take note of a high number of recent inquiries for a newer vendor.
"Broken Up" Transaction Fraud - This type of fraud includes activity by Vendors and Debtors/Lessees who break up a larger deal into smaller pieces to avoid financial disclosure (without disclosing their other requests to the lenders). In most cases, those involved are aware of the application-only limits and apply for a large number of smaller transactions due to poor financial information. Imagine a $350,000 deal that is achieved by "splitting the transaction into five $70,000 transactions with five different funders. Some of these deals are further disguised by applying for corporation-only signatures - with no credit bureaus reports reviewed. In many cases, the debtor/lessee is already in distress and they fold under the higher debt levels. Using, detecting these lessees is easy - just take note of a high number of recent inquiries. Even corporation only transactions are shown in
Past Due Account "Layoff" Fraud - This is one of the oldest and least reported types of fraud in the industry. A Vendor has an internal delinquent open account with a customer. They usually threaten the customer to either pay the past due balance or they will pick up the equipment. As an option, they offer the past due customer the option to convert their account into a lease. By converting the delinquent customer into a lease, they get paid by the equipment leasing company and the leasing company gets an almost instantaneous delinquency. Many of these deals show up as first payment defaults. All participants are legitimate companies and fraud is almost never suspected!  Using, detecting these Vendors is easy - just take note of a high number of early terminations/defaults using the system. 
General Misrepresentations By Vendors and Lessees - This general category includes activities such as submitting altered financial statements, hiding prior bankruptcies, hiding ownership, false references, misrepresenting used equipment as new, falsifying actual date of sale or delivery, equipment being sent to other locations without disclosure, concealing large judgments or liens, and leasing the same collateral twice. Using, detecting these transactions is easy. subscribers can report any suspicious activities and they will be posted in our data files for future review.


Change in How to Get to "Groups"
in LinkedIn

Group postings were moved from the tool bar and a new procedure may be necessary to add groups.

There are many groups from associations to funders, lessors, and subjects that are very informational.

In the section called "Work," upper right, click on it and you will see the groups icon to click. It will bring you to "My Groups" and Groups.  You need to click that. Often, after you click it, you need to click X and then it will open.


Australian Shepherd
Plano, Texas  Adopt-a-Dog


19 months
Vaccinations up-to-date
Good in a Home with
Other dogs, cats, children
Adoption Fee: $80.00

Gracie is a sweet youngster who loves bones. She is crate trained and will sleep in her crate. Gracie is about 19 months of age and is friendly with children, other dogs and cats. She recently went on a group dog walk and was very loving and stayed close to her handler on the walk. Gracie did walk well on leash and rode well in the car uncrated. She LOVES petting and head scratches and would love to get in your lap and take a nap if you'll let her! She is a wonderful dog who was given up by her owner.

Adoptions are first come first serve, and no appointment or application is needed. When asking about an animal, please provide the identification number that starts with A.

For more information, please call the shelter at 972.769.4360.

Plano Animal Shelter
4028 Plano Parkway
Plano, Texas 75093
(972) 769-4360


Registration to Close September 26, 2022
ELFA 6st Annual Convention Oct. 9 - 11
Marco Island, Florida

Registration to Close September 26, 2022

Over 800 Participants Registered

Full Convention Brochure:



News Briefs---

Allstate auto insurance rates jump 14% in Illinois.
    State Farm up more than 8%. Inflation is to blame.

Catalytic converter theft rising in Chicago: Removing auto
    exhaust device takes a minute, but replacing it could take months

Electric Vehicles Took Off
    Car Makers Weren’t Ready

Big Regional Banks Might Face New Rules
    for Dealing With a Crisis


Games That Push the Brain to the Limit
Get Scientists’ Attention in Fight Against Dementia



Sports Briefs---

49ers overcome Lance’s year-ending injury, beat Seahawks 27-7 behind Jimmy G.

Yes, OK, the Patriots beat the Steelers, but so far
what have we learned about Mac Jones?

Bucs-Saints brawl as defense helps
Tampa Bay pull away in fourth quarter

Injured SF Giants starter Alex Wood
shut down for the season

Las Vegas Aces Win First W.N.B.A. Championship

NBA free agents: Dennis Schroder to Lakers;
ex-Heat forward James Johnson to Pacers

Oregon Ducks move into top 20 of polls after beating BYU


California Nuts Briefs---

Big change for big rigs: California unveils
     mandate to phase out diesel trucks

The Revenue States Get from Consumer Wine Shipping
California Leader with $120 Million

Big transit-oriented complex pushes ahead
in South San Francisco

Murder and intrigue at California's
last great Gilded Age mansion



"Gimme that wine"

Wine of the week: Duckhorn, 2021
    Sauvignon Blanc, North Coast

Sonoma County Wine Auction returns at
Healdsburg’s Chalk Hill Estate Vineyards

Wine Harvest Events Planned throughout
Paso Robles, California this October

“Gimme that Wine”

Free Wine App

Wine Prices by vintage

US/International Wine Events


This Day in History

    1676 - Bacon's Rebellion, Jamestown, Virginia. Perhaps the first revolt against the British, who formed an alliance with the Indians, was led by Nathaniel Bacon, a colonist.  He was successful, but shortly after winning the town, he caught a disease and died (common in the day, unfortunately).  The rebellion then collapsed and his followers were hunted down, some executed and their properties confiscated. Virginia Governor Sir William Berkeley was replaced the next year and peace was restored, so says history. (Full story at the end for those interested***).
    1692 – Giles Corey is pressed to death after refusing to plead in the Salem witch trials.
    1737 - Charles Carroll (d. 1832), American patriot and legislator, was born in Annapolis, Maryland colony. He was the only Roman Catholic signer of the Declaration and his signature read Charles Carroll of Carrollton. He lived in Maryland where, as a Roman Catholic, he was forbidden from voting and holding public office. However, the wealthy Carrolls moved in the highest social circle and entertained George Washington and the Marquis de Lafayette at their estate.
    1777 - Battle of Saratoga, New York. After a series of defeats, American General Horatio Gates has a major victory.
    1778 – The Continental Congress passed the first federal budget.
    1796 – George Washington’s Farewell Address was printed across America as an open letter to the public.  The work was Washington's valedictory after 20 years of service to the new nation. It is a classic statement of republicanism, warning Americans of the political dangers they can and must avoid if they are to remain true to their values.  The first draft was originally prepared in 1792 with the assistance of James Madison, as Washington prepared to retire following a single term in office. However, he set aside the letter and ran for a second term after the rancor between Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton and Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson convinced him that the growing divisions between the newly formed Federalist and Republican parties, along with the current state of foreign affairs, would rip the country apart in the absence of his leadership.  Four years later, as his second term came to a close, Washington revisited the letter and, with the help of Alexander Hamilton, prepared a revision of the original draft to announce his intention to decline a third term in office.

    1849 - First commercial laundry on the West Coast established in Oakland, California. The actual world's first commercial laundry was founded by a Mrs. Steel in New York in the early 1800s, and followed by others: The Troy (New York) Laundry -first of many Troy laundries nationwide; The Cambridge (Massachusetts) Laundry in 1840; the Boston and Roxbury Laundry in 1847; and the Contra Costa Laundry (Oakland, California) in 1849, eventually one of the largest in the west.
1863 – The second day of the Battle of Chickamauga, TN, near Chattanooga.  They are considered the two bloodiest days of the Civil War.
1864 - Third Battle of Winchester, Virginia: Union General Phillip Sheridan defeated Confederate General Jubal Early's forces, ending Early's raids on the North. Early's troops were again soundly beaten on September 22 at Fisher's Hill. After defeating Early, Sheridan turned his attention to destroy the food resources of the Shenandoah Valley. The strategy of the North was to cut off supplies from Europe, purchased by the Confederates, and to burn and destroy all food and manufacturing facilities thus cutting off all ammunition, clothing, food and other supplies that supported the Confederate troops. The movie "Gone with the Wind" centers on Sheridan's march through the south. A trivia fact: General George S. Patton's grandfather, who was his namesake, was killed fighting for the Confederacy in this battle.
1865 - Atlanta University Founded. On July 1, 1988, two private historically black institutions, Atlanta University and Clark College, consolidated to form Clark Atlanta University (CAU). CAU is a comprehensive, private, urban, coeducational institution of higher education with a predominantly African American heritage.
1873 - Black Friday: Jay Cooke & Co fails, causing a securities panic.
(It is said that JP Morgan pulled the country out from bankruptcy by guaranteeing loans from European banks, but I am getting ahead of this terrible day in history as perhaps the worst depression the country has ever seen followed this collapse of the stock market).

1876 - Melville Reuben Bissell of Grand Rapids, MI, obtained a patent for a “carpet sweeper.” Although the idea had been introduced earlier, none of the early sweepers worked well. Bissell devised the” broom-action” principle, by which the application of variable pressure on the handle made the sweeper responsive to different grades of floor covering. Bissell organized the Bissell Carpet Sweeper Company in Grand Rapids, MI.
1876 - Birthday of Vera Charlotte Scott Cushman (d. 1946), Ottawa, IL.  U.S. YWCA leader who served on the board of directors 31 years. She was an amazing fund raiser under whose co-direction about $170 million was raised to finance 140 "hostess houses" to house and feed women who were involved in World War I war work. Lodgings for women without a male escort were hard to find as well as dangerous before the modern women's movement.
1881 - Eighty days after a failed office seeker shot him in Washington, D.C., President James A. Garfield dies of complications from his wounds.  On July 2, 1881, only four months into his administration, President Garfield was shot as he walked through a railroad waiting room in Washington. His assailant, Charles J. Guiteau, was a disgruntled and possibly insane man who had unsuccessfully sought an appointment to the U.S. consul in Paris.  While Garfield was attempting to get well, Vice President Chester A. Arthur generally served as acting president, but there was confusion over whether he had the authority to do so, as the Constitution was ambiguous on the matter of presidential succession. On September 19, President Garfield died of blood poisoning. The following day, Arthur was inaugurated as the 21st President of the United States.
1905 – Leon Jaworski (d. 1982) was born Waco, TX.  Attorney and law professor who served as the second special prosecutor during Watergate.  Jaworski's greatest fame came from his tenure as Watergate Special Prosecutor, when he assumed leadership of a protracted contest with President Nixon to secure evidence for the trial of former senior administration officials on charges relating to the Watergate cover-up.  Because of testimony from Nixon's deputy assistant Alexander Butterfield, Cox learned that Nixon had discussed the Watergate cover-up with the accused on numerous occasions and that these conversations had been recorded by the White House taping system. This discovery caused Cox to subpoena tapes of sixty-four presidential conversations as evidence for the upcoming criminal trial, but Nixon refused to release them, citing executive privilege.  Nixon offered Cox a compromise: instead of supplying the tapes, he would supply Cox with transcripts of the recordings, subject to Nixon's discretion, and allow one senator to listen to the recordings and verify the transcripts' accuracy. Cox rejected the compromise, whereupon Nixon fired Cox in the Saturday Night Massacre of October 19–20, 1973.  Under extreme criticism for the firing, Nixon appointed Jaworski to replace Cox. Jaworski subsequently subpoenaed sixty-four taped conversations. Nixon appealed on two grounds: first, that the office of Special Prosecutor did not have the right to sue the office of President; and second, that the requested materials were privileged presidential conversations. Aware that an important constitutional issue was at stake, and unwilling to wait any longer, Jaworski asked the Supreme Court to take the case directly, bypassing the Court of Appeals.  On July 24, 1974, the Supreme Court ruled that the Special Prosecutor did have the right to sue the President; and that the "generalized assertion of [executive] privilege must yield to the demonstrated, specific need for evidence in a pending criminal trial". Nixon was forced to give the unedited tapes to Jaworski, including the so-called Smoking Gun Tape which included a compromising discussion of June 23, 1972. The President's remaining support waned, and he resigned on August 9, 1974.
1916 - Birthday of jazz singer Helen Ward (d. 1998), New York City.
1921 – Birthday of singer, musician Billy Ward (d. 2002) at Savannah, Ga.  He is best known as Billy Ward and the Dominoes or perhaps just, “the Dominoes,” an early rock ‘n’ roll group.  Early Dominoes included Jackie Wilson and Clyde McPhatter.  Their big hit, “Sixty Minute Man” hit #1 on the R&B charts in May, 1951 and stayed there for 14 weeks.  It has arguably been considered among the first true rock ‘n’ roll hits.
full bio:
1926 - Birthday of Brooklyn Dodger Hall of Famer centerfielder Edwin Donald “Duke” Snider (d. 2011), Los Angeles, CA.  Over his 18-year career, mostly with the Dodgers, he was an All-Star 8 times and went to eight World Series, winning two.  He was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1980. 
1928 - Mickey Mouse's screen debut as Steamboat Willie at Colony Theater, NYC.  In 1928, Disney created the character Mickey Mouse in the silent film “Plane Crazy.”That same year, Mickey also appeared in “Steamboat Willie,”a short that initiated the concept of making a separate cartoon for each animated movement. Instantly famous, the film was also Disney's first attempt to use sound using his own voice for Mickey. He also experimented with the use of music (“The Skeleton Dance”), the portrayal of speed (“The Tortoise and the Hare”), three-dimensional effects (“The Old Mill”), and the use of color. Disney produced the first feature-length cartoon, “Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs” (1938), which took three years to complete. Additional features included Pinocchio (1939), Fantasia (1940), Dumbo (1941), and Bambi (1942). In Song of the South (1946), he merged live actors and animated figures. During World War II, Disney's studio produced cartoons for the armed services as training tools and morale builders.
1928 - Birthday of Adam West (d. 2017), actor, perhaps best known for the TV series “Batman” and “The Last Precinct,” born William West Anderson, Walla Walla, Washington.
1931 - Birthday of singer Brook Benton, born Benjamin Franklin Peay (d. 1988), in Camden, South Carolina. Benton's baritone style showed the influences of Nat King Cole and Billy Eckstine. "It's Just a Matter of Time" and "So Many Ways," a double-sided million-seller in 1959, were the first of nearly a score of top-20 hits for him. Benton also recorded two popular 1960 duets with Dinah Washington, "Baby (You Got What It Takes)" and "A Rockin' Good Way." Benton's last big hit was "Rainy Night in Georgia," which reached number four on the Billboard Hot 100 in 1974.
1931 – Lefty Grove became the first pitcher to win 30 games since Jim Bagby did it in 1920.  Grove’s Athletics beat the White Sox, 2-1.
1933 - Birthday of David McCalllum, actor (“NCIS,” “The Man from U.N.C.L.E., “The Great Escape,” born Glasgow, Scotland.
1934 - Bruno Hauptmann arrested for kidnapping the Lindbergh baby. Historians believe Lindbergh was covering for his sister, who was in and out of mental institutions and had a history of trying to harm her brother's child. It is said that many people were aware of this, and it one of the reasons his family moved to Europe, so authorities could not question his sister or family. It was proven through hard detective work that Hauptmann was the man who wrote the ransom and collected the money, but he maintained he was innocent of the kidnapping itself, which was based solely that he wrote a ransom note and collected the money.
1940 - Birthday of Canadian folk singer Sylvia Tyson, born Sylvia Fricker in Chatham, Ontario. She started performing with future husband Ian Tyson in 1961. They married three years later. Ian and Sylvia were at the forefront of the '60s folk revival, and performed throughout North America at clubs, colleges and festivals. Ian and Sylvia's hits included "Four Strong Winds," "You Were On My Mind" and "Lovin' Sound." The couple made their last appearances together in 1975. Sylvia continued to perform and record on her own, and was the host for the CBC Radio folk music show "Touch the Earth."
1940 – Bill Medley (with Bobby Hatfield, they were The Righteous Brothers), was born in Santa Ana, CA.  He is noted for his bass-baritone voice, exemplified in songs such as "You’ve Lost That Lovin’ Feelin’." Medley produced a number of the duo's songs, including "Unchained Melody" and "Soul and Inspiration."
1941 - Birthday of African-American author James Haskins (d. 2005), Demopolis, AL.  A prolific and award-winning author with more than one hundred books for both adults and children, many of his books highlight the achievements of African-Americans and cover the history and culture of Africa and the African-American experience. His work also included many biographical subjects, ranging from Hank Aaron to Scatman Crothers to Malcom X.
1941 – Birthday of "Mama" Cass Elliott, born Ellen Naomi Cohen (d. 1974), at Baltimore, MD.  American folk-pop singer with The Mamas & The Papas.
1945 - Top Hits
“Till the End of Time” - Perry Como
“On the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe” - Johnny Mercer
“If I Loved You” - Perry Como
“You Two Timed Me One Time Too Often” - Tex Ritter
1947 - The eye of a hurricane passed directly over New Orleans, and the barometric pressure dipped to 28.61 inches. The hurricane killed fifty-one persons, and caused $110 million damage. It produced wind gusts to 155 mph while making landfall over Fort Lauderdale FL two days earlier.
1949 - Ralph Kiner of the Pittsburgh Pirates hit his 50th home run of the season to become the first player in National League history to reach the 50 mark twice. After hitting 51 homers in 1947, Kiner finished the year with 54.
1950 - COLLIER, JOHN W., Medal of Honor
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company C, 27th Infantry Regiment. Place and date: Near Chindong-ni, Korea, 19 September 1950. Entered service at: Worthington, Ky. Born: 3 April 1929, Worthington, Ky. G.O. No.: 86, 2 August 1951. Citation: Cpl. Collier, Company C, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action. While engaged in an assault on a strategic ridge strongly defended by a fanatical enemy, the leading elements of his company encountered intense automatic weapons and grenade fire. Cpl. Collier and 3 comrades volunteered and moved forward to neutralize an enemy machine gun position which was hampering the company’s advance, but they were twice repulsed. On the third attempt, Cpl. Collier, despite heavy enemy fire and grenade barrages, moved to an exposed position ahead of his comrades, assaulted and destroyed the machine gun nest, killing at least 4 enemy soldiers. As he returned down the rocky, fire-swept hill and joined his squad, an enemy grenade landed in their midst. Shouting a warning to his comrades, he, selflessly and unhesitatingly, threw himself upon the grenade and smothered its explosion with his body. This intrepid action saved his comrades from death or injury. Cpl. Collier’s supreme, personal bravery, consummate gallantry, and noble self-sacrifice reflect untold glory upon himself and uphold the honored traditions of the military service.
1950 - JECELIN, WILLIAM R., Medal of Honor
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company C, 35th Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Saga, Korea, 19 September 1950. Entered service at: Baltimore, Md. Birth: Baltimore, Md. G.O. No.: 24, 25 April 1951. Citation: Sgt. Jecelin, Company C, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and Intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. His company was ordered to secure a prominent, saw-toothed ridge from a well-entrenched and heavily armed enemy. Unable to capture the objective in the first attempt, a frontal and flanking assault was launched. He led his platoon through heavy enemy fire and bursting shells, across rice fields and rocky terrain, in direct frontal attack on the ridge in order to draw fire away from the flanks. The unit advanced to the base of the cliff, where intense, accurate hostile fire stopped the attack. Realizing that an assault was the only solution, Sgt. Jecelin rose from his position firing his rifle and throwing grenades as he called on his men to follow him. Despite the intense enemy fire this attack carried to the crest of the ridge where the men were forced to take cover. Again he rallied his men and stormed the enemy strongpoint. With fixed bayonets they charged into the face of antitank fire and engaged the enemy in hand-to-hand combat. After clubbing and slashing this force into submission the platoon was forced to take cover from direct frontal fire of a self-propelled gun. Refusing to be stopped he leaped to his feet and through sheer personal courage and fierce determination led his men in a new attack. At this instant a well-camouflaged enemy soldier threw a grenade at the remaining members of the platoon. He immediately lunged and covered the grenade with his body, absorbing the full force of the explosion to save those around him. This incredible courage and willingness to sacrifice himself for his comrades so imbued them with fury that they completely eliminated the enemy force. Sgt. Jecelin’s heroic leadership and outstanding gallantry reflect the highest credit upon himself and uphold the esteemed traditions of the military service.
1953 - Top Hits
You, You, You - The Ames Brothers
Vaya Con Dios - Les Paul & Mary Ford
Crying in the Chapel - June Valli
A Dear John Letter - Jean Shepard & Ferlin Husky
1953 - Singer Gisele MacKenzie took over as host on NBC-TV's “Your Hit Parade.” Her biggest hit during that stint, 1953 to 1957, was “Hard to Get” in June of 1955. Ironically, the song was first sung by Gisele in an episode of the NBC-TV show, “Justice.” It became a hit and she performed it again on “Your Hit Parade.” Born Gisele Marie-Louise Marguerite LaFleche, she studied piano and violin at the Royal Conservatory in Toronto. For appearing on her own CBC radio show, ''Meet Gisele,'' she became known as Canada's first lady of song. Died September 5, 2003 of colon cancer.
1954 - “People are Funny” premiered on television. This half-hour show combined audience participation and stunts. One feature was a Univac computer that played matchmaker for eligible men and women. Art Linkletter hosted the show until 1958; reruns were shown for the next few seasons. The show was revived for a short time in 1984; Flip Wilson was the host.
1955 - Pat Boone gains everlasting notoriety when his cleaned-up version of Fats Domino's "Ain't That a Shame" goes to the top of the charts, kicking off a string of bland copies of rock and roll hits that will deprive black artists of exposure in the still-segregated world of radio. It was his first US #1 hit with a cover version of Fats Domino's "Ain't It A Shame", re-named "Ain't That A Shame." Boone would continue recording cleaned-up versions of R&B hits and would enjoy a string of five US chart toppers over the next two years.
1955 - Errol Garner records “Concert by the Sea,” Carmel, CA.
1955 - Stan Kenton Band satirizes blues idiom with “Blues in Burlesque,” a two-sided record with drummer Shelly Mann doing one of his rare vocals. The record is quite a jazz collector's item.
1955 - Eva Marie Saint, Frank Sinatra and Paul Newman starred in the Producer's Showcase presentation of “Our Town” on NBC-TV.
1955 - Hurricane Ione made landfall near Morehead City, NC with winds over 100 mph. 16.63 inches of rain fell at Maysville, NC. 40 blocks of New Bern, NC were underwater at one point. 7 people lost their lives and total damage was $88 million. This was the third hurricane to cross eastern North Carolina in 5 weeks.
1956 – The Dodgers’ pitcher Don Newcombe hit 2 HRs for the third time in his career.  For the year, he won both the NL MVP and NL Cy Young Award after a 27-7 season with a 3.09 ERA.
1957 - The United States conducted its first underground nuclear test, in the Nevada desert.
1960 - "The Twist" by Chubby Checker topped the charts and stayed there for a week.
1960 - Now at the peak of their popularity, Hank Ballard and the Midnighters become the first artists to have three songs in the Billboard Hot 100 at the same time: "Finger Poppin’ Time," "Let’s Go, Let’s Go, Let’s Go," and "The Twist," recently given more exposure by Chubby Checker's hit version.
1961 - Top Hits
“Take Good Care of My Baby” - Bobby Vee
“My True Story” - The Jive Five
“(Marie's the Name) His Latest Flame” - Elvis Presley
“Walk on By” - Leroy Van Dyke
1962 - “The Virginian” premiered on television. My father Lawrence Menkin wrote several episodes. It was TV's first 90-minute western and starred James Drury as The Virginian, a foreman trying to come to terms with the westward expansion of technology and civilization. It was set on the Shiloh Ranch, in Wyoming. Key players included Doug McClure (with Drury, the only cast members to stay for the entire run), Lee J. Cobb, Roberta Shore, Pippa Scott, Gary Clarke, David Hartman and Tim Matheson.  In the last season, the title was changed to “The Men from Shiloh,” and Stewart Granger and Lee Majors joined the cast.
1964 – “A Summer Song" by the British duo of Chad and Jeremy enters the Billboard chart, on its way to #7. Although they would place a total of seven hits in the Top 40, this will be their only Top 10 hit.
1964 - “Flipper” premiered. An adventure series starring Flipper, the intelligent, communicative and helpful dolphin. The human cast members included Brian Kelly as Chief Ranger Porter Ricks, Luke Halpin as his son Sandy, Tommy Norden as his son Bud and Ulla Stromstedt as biochemist Ulla Norstrand. Although the last telecast of this series was Sept 1, 1968, the series was recreated under the same title in the ‘90's.
1966 – At the height of their popularity, Herb Alpert and The Tijuana Brass perform for Princess Grace (Kelly) at her Monaco palace.
1966 – Co-owner Dan Topping sold his 10% ownership of the Yankees to CBS.  Topping, along with Del Webb and Larry MacPhail, purchased the Yankees for $2.8 million from the estate of the late Jacob Ruppert on January 25, 1945. MacPhail sold his share of the team to Topping and Webb in 1947, and the two sold controlling interest in the team to CBS in 1964, after which Topping remained as team president until 1966, when he sold his remaining stake.
1967 - The beleaguered Beatles search desperately for a place in which to wrap filming on their trouble-plagued Magical Mystery Tour film. Having forgotten to book their primary choice, Surrey's Shepperton Film Studios, in advance, the band settles on an abandoned US Air Force station in Kent, filming most of the uncompleted movie on and around the grounds over the next week.
1967 - Hurricane Beulah deluged Brownsville, TX, with 12.19 inches of rain in 24 hours, to establish a record for that location. Hurricane Beulah made landfall on the 20th near the mouth of the Rio Grande River, where a wind gust to 135 mph was reported by a ship in the port.
1968 – Denny McLain’s 31st win was overshadowed by Mickey Mantle’s 535th homer. McLain allegedly calls C Jim Price out and tells him to inform Mantle he's throwing the slugger nothing but fastballs. The home run gives Mantle undisputed hold of 3rd place on the all-time list. Mantle tips his cap to Denny as he rounds third base. Joe Pepitone, the next batter, signals where he would like the ball, and McLain dusts him. The Tigers win the game, 6-2, the 12th straight complete game for the Tigers staff.
1969 - President Nixon announces the cancellation of the draft calls for November and December. He reduced the draft call by 50,000 (32,000 in November and 18,000 in December). This move accompanied his twin program of turning the war over to the South Vietnamese concurrent with U.S. troop withdrawals and was calculated to quell antiwar protests by students returning to college campuses after the summer.
1969 - Top Hits
“Honky Tonk Women” - The Rolling Stones
“Sugar, Sugar” - The Archies
“I'll Never Fall in Love Again” - Tom Jones
“A Boy Named Sue” - Johnny Cash
1969 - Creedence Clearwater Revival scored their only UK #1 single with "Bad Moon Rising.”
1970 - "Ain't No Mountain High Enough" by Diana Ross topped the charts and stayed there for 3 weeks.
1970 - She could turn the world on with her smile. "The Mary Tyler Moore Show" was seen for the first time on CBS-TV. It was the first of a new wave of contemporary sitcoms, combining good writing, an effective supporting cast and contemporary attitudes. It was also television’s first sitcom about a single woman.  The show centered on the two most important places in Mary Richard's (Mary Tyler Moore) life—the WJM-TV newsroom and her apartment at Minneapolis. At home, she shared the ups and downs of life with her friend Rhoda Morgenstern (Valerie Harper) and the manager of her apartment building, Phyllis Lynstrom (Cloris Leachman). At work, as the associate producer (later producer) for the “Six O'clock News,” Mary struggled to function in a man's world. Figuring in her professional life were her irascible boss Lou Grant (Ed Asner), levelheaded and softhearted news writer Murray Slaughter (Gavin MacLeod) and self-obsessed, narcissist anchorman Ted Baxter (Ted Knight). In the last episode, the unthinkable happened:  everyone in the WJM newsroom except the inept Ted was fired.  The show ran for 168 episodes with the finale show on March 19, 1977.
1974 - Eric Clapton received a gold record for "I Shot the Sheriff". The song reached #1 on the pop charts on September 14th
1974 - Birthday of Jimmy Fallon, talk show host, comedian, actor, born Brooklyn, New York.
1977 - Top Hits
“I Just Want to Be Your Everything” - Andy Gibb
“Float On” - The Floaters
“Don't Stop” - Fleetwood Mac
“Don't It Make My Brown Eyes Blue” - Crystal Gayle
1978 - Linda Ronstadt's latest release, "Living in the U.S.A." is issued with advance orders of two million units, making it a double platinum LP before it even hit the stores.
1979 - Singer Elton John, accompanied only by percussionist Ray Cooper, began his first US tour in four years. John had just completed a similar tour of the Soviet Union - the first Western pop star to visit that country.     
1981 - Singers Paul Simon and Art Garfunkel reunited for a free concert in New York's Central Park. More than 400,000 people gathered to hear Simon and Garfunkel's first full concert in 11 years, although Garfunkel had joined Simon for occasional guest numbers since the duo's breakup in 1970. A double LP, "The Concert in Central Park," and a video of the event were issued. Simon and Garfunkel then launched a six-week European tour. Both Simon and Garfunkel received much-needed exposure at a time when their solo careers seemed to have stalled.
1982 - Streetcars stop running on Market St in San Francisco after 122 years of service to make way for Bay Area Rapid Transit, which now runs as a subway beneath Market Street.
1982 - Emoticons were born when Carnegie Mellon University professor Scott E. Fahlman proposed using a colon followed by a hyphen and a parenthesis – :–) – to depict a horizontal smiley face.
1983 - New York City had a record 92 degrees while snows fell out west.
1983 - 14 inches of snow fell just south of Great falls, MT. Temperatures fall to 6 degrees below zero at West Yellowstone, MT following the snow.
1985 - Top Hits
“St. Elmo's Fire (Man in Motion)” - John Parr
“We Don't Need Another Hero” (Thunderdome) - Tina Turner
“Money for Nothing” - Dire Straits
“Modern Day Romance” - Nitty Gritty Dirt Band
1985 - In Mexico City, Mexico, the first of two killer earthquakes hit the city. This one, 8.1 on the Richter scale, followed the next day by a 7.5er, crumbled buildings (damages were estimated at more than one billion dollars) and killed almost 10,000 people.
1986 – The Franchise, Tom Seaver, pitched the final game of his Hall of Fame career, for the Red Sox against the Blue Jays, a four-inning effort resulting in a loss.  One of the greatest pitchers of the 20th century, he won 311 games and three Cy Young Awards.  He was elected to the Hall of Fame in 1992 with the then highest votes percentage in history, 98.8%, until that was surpassed by Ken Griffey, Jr. with 99.32% in 2016.
1987 - Michael Jackson's "I Just Can't Stop Loving You" rose to #1 in the U.S. on the "Billboard Hot 100." The single, from Jackson's "Bad" LP, stayed at the top of the hit heap for one week.
1987 - Dick Clark's "American Bandstand" left the ABC TV network after more than 30 years and went into first-run syndication. ABC had cut the show to half an hour and Clark wanted to return to the program's original hour-long format. "Bandstand" began as a local show in Philadelphia in 1952 before going national five years later.
1988 - U.S. diver Greg Louganis struck and injured his head on the board in a preliminary round of springboard diving at the Summer Olympics in Seoul, South Korea. Days later, however, Louganis won the gold medal in springboard diving.
1989 - Showers and thunderstorms produced heavy rain in the Middle and Northern Atlantic Coast Region. Cape Hatteras, NC was deluged with nearly 3.50 inches of rain in three hours. Syracuse, NY reported 1.77 inches of rain, a record for the date, and Chatham, NJ reported an all-time record of 3.45 inches in one day. Hurricane Hugo headed for the Bahamas, and Tropical Storm Iris, following close on its heels, strengthened to near hurricane force.
1991 - Michael Jackson performed an unaccredited voice-over on "The Simpsons" animated series on the Fox network. He provided the voice for a white mental patient who thinks he's Michael Jackson.
1991 – While not found in America, perhaps the oldest archeological event, the Iceman, named Ötzi by scientists, was found by a German tourist, Helmut Simon, on the Similaun Glacier in the Tirolean Ötztal Alps on the Italian-Austrian border. The body is that of a man aged 25 to 35 who had been about 5 feet 2 inches (1.6 meters) tall and had weighed about 50 kg (110 pounds).  It is the oldest mummified human body ever found intact -- some 5000 years old. And his few remaining scalp hairs provided the earliest archaeological evidence of haircutting. And, if that's not enough, Ötzi was found to have a number of ‘points' tattooed on his body, 80% of which are considered valid modern acupuncture points and dates acupuncture back to at least 3300 B.C.
1991 - In Pasadena, an all-star benefit concert honoring Ray Charles features performances of Ray songs by Stevie Wonder, Willie Nelson, Michael McDonald and more. Entitled “Ray Charles: 50 Years in Music, Uh-Huh!,” the concert (and accompanying TV show) benefits the Starlight and Starbright Pavilion Foundations for terminally ill children.
1994 - “ER” premiered. This medical drama takes place in the emergency room of the fictional County General Hospital in Chicago. Doctors and nurses take care of life and death patients while conducting their personal traumas as well. Cast includes Anthony Edwards, George Clooney, Sherry Stringfield, Noah Wylie, Laura lnnes, Gloria Reubens, Eriq La Salle and Alex Kingston.
1995 - The Washington Post publishes the "Unabomber's Manifesto." It leads the brother to realize the bomber is his brother and he notifies authorities.
1999 - On a warm September afternoon at Wrigley Field, Chicago, Sammy Sosa hit the 60 home-run mark for the second year in row, setting himself above all others in baseball's history books. “A lot of people said at the beginning of the year it would be impossible to hit 60 two years in a row,” Sosa said. “Here I am.”
2001 - The Pentagon ordered combat aircraft to the Persian Gulf in response to the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks.
2002 - President George W. Bush asked Congress for authority to use military force if necessary to disarm and overthrow Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein if he did not abandon weapons of mass destruction.
2004 - With their latest hit, "You'll Come Around," Status Quo become the artists with the most all-time chart hits in the UK, an amazing 61 charted singles from 1968's "Pictures of Matchstick Men" (their only US hit).
2011 – The Yankees’ Mariano Rivera recorded his 602d save to pass Trevor Hoffman for the all-time Major League mark.  Rivera finished his career in 2013 with 652 plus another 42 in postseason.
2012 - Randy Bachman, of Bachman-Turner Overdrive, was named to Canada's Walk of Fame for the second time. He was also inducted in 2001 as a member of The Guess Who.
2012 – The Department of Justice inspector general reported that Operation Fast and Furious created significant danger to public safety but states that Attorney General Eric Holder had no prior knowledge of the operations.  Project Gunrunner began in Laredo, Texas, in 2005 and was expanded in 2006. Operation Fast and Furious was operational from 2009 to 2011.  Fast and Furious was a “gun-walking” operation conducted by the Phoenix, Arizona branch of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (or the ATF) from 2009 and 2011. The idea was to encourage licensed Arizona gun merchants to sell firearms to known criminals in the hope that law enforcement would be able to then trace the weapons from Arizona as they crossed the border into Mexico, slowly making their way into the hands of bloodthirsty Mexican drug cartels. Fast and Furious was part of a broader series of investigations called Project Gunrunner, all of which had the collective long-term goal of halting the flow of weapons to criminals in Mexico. Arizona gun sellers sold about 2,000 weapons to “straw” buyers, often young kids lured by a reported $100 per transaction.  The ATF lost track of an estimated 1,700 of those guns. One buyer alone is reported to have purchased 600 of the weapons. In another incident, one buyer went on a spree, snapping up 34 firearms in about three weeks.  On December 14, 2010, Customs and Border Protection Agent Brian Terry and other officers were on patrol in the Arizona desert when gunfire erupted. In the firefight that ensued, Terry was killed. Afterward, two AK-47 assault rifles were recovered from the site of the encounter, both of which had been sold as part of Operation Fast and Furious. While ATF officials at first cited an FBI ballistics report that showed that a gun sold through Fast and Furious was not the murder weapon, later reports showed that it was inconclusive.  Following Terry’s death, President Obama ordered the Justice Department’s inspector general to conduct an investigation of Fast and Furious.
2013 - The Recording Academy named Carole King as the MusiCares person of the year. The presentation would be made during the 2014 Grammy Awards week.

***Bacon's Rebellion: In the Virginia colony every adult male could vote. When Charles II was restored to the English throne, he sought to exploit the colony to the fullest. Virginia Governor Sir William Berkeley, supporting the king, adopted new laws to facilitate these efforts including measures allowing only property holders to vote, raising taxes to build up the town of Jamestown and raising the cost of shipping while lowering the price for tobacco. The resulting discontent exploded when the frontier of the colony was attacked by Indians and the governor refused to defend the settlers. Nathaniel Bacon, a colonist on the governor's council, was made leader by the frontier farmers, and his troops successfully defeated the Indians. Denounced by Berkeley as rebels, Bacon and his men occupied Jamestown, forcing the governor to call an election, the first in 15 years. The Berkeley laws were repealed and election and tax reforms were instituted. While Bacon and his troops were gone on a raiding party against the Indians, Berkeley again denounced them. They returned and attacked Berkeley's forces, defeating them and burning Jamestown on Sept 19, 1676Berkeley again fled and Bacon became ruler of Virginia. When he died suddenly a short time later, the rebellion collapsed. Berkeley returned to power and Bacon's followers were hunted down, some executed and their property confiscated. Berkeley was replaced the next year and peace was restored,



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