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Leasing News is a web site that posts information, news, and
entertainment for the commercial bank, finance and leasing industry


Wednesday, April 15, 2015

Today's Equipment Leasing Headlines

Finra bars owner of Commonwealth Capital Securities Corp
  Kimberly Springsteen-Abbott charged, fined her $100,000
Equipment Leasing & Finance Foundation Q2 Update
Top Stories:  April 7---April 9
“How Many References Should I Provide”
   Career Crossroad---By Emily Fitzpatrick/RII
 Leasing Industry Help Wanted
Leasing 102
  Margins by Terry Winders
9th Annual Women in Leasing
Luncheon April 30th
 Sales Make it Happen by Steve Chriest
  The Mighty Middle
Are PC’s Days Best Days Behind Us
   Israeli Startup Leapfrogs Apple Watch Payments
  Weekly Sales Tip
    Prospecting Touches
 If Prime Rate to Go Up, Expect it in September
   or Not This Year
San Diego, California  Adopt-a-Dog
News Briefs---
You'll be able to rent an Apple watch, but should you?
 Protect your assets by practicing common-sense cybersecurity
  Airplane seat swapping turns rough and tumble
   Tax Deadline: Filing late will cost you
    Oil Layoffs Hit 100,000 and Counting

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Finra bars owner of B-D that sells equipment-leasing funds

Regulator charges Kimberly Springsteen-Abbott with misusing investors funds, fines her $100,000
by Bruce Kelly,

Finra has barred Kimberly Springsteen-Abbott, owner of a broker-dealer that packages and distributes illiquid equipment-leasing funds, from the securities industry for misusing investor funds by improperly allocating expenses to the funds that were not related to the funds' business.

Ms. Springsteen-Abbott is the CEO, chief compliance officer and chairman of Commonwealth Capital Corp., parent of the wholesaling broker-dealer, Commonwealth Capital Securities Corp.

“The practice of charging personal expenses to the funds was a way of life for [Ms.] Springsteen-Abbott and her husband, Hank Abbott,” according to the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority Inc. panel's decision.

Mr. Abbott is a director at the broker-dealer, Commonwealth Capital Securities Corp., and president of the parent company, Commonwealth Capital Corp.

The two “regularly charged thousands of dollars of personal expenses on the same American Express credit card they used for business expenses, and then, when she received the monthly American Express bills, [Ms.] Springsteen-Abbott allocated to the funds many of those personal expenses,” according to the Finra panel's decision.

The personal expenses charged to the funds included those related to a birthday cruise in Alaska; Mother's Day, Thanksgiving and post-Christmas holiday family meals; and a Disney family vacation, according to the decision.

She also improperly allocated to the funds expenses for holiday decorations for her home, car rentals her husband used for personal purposes, clothes, accessories, and pharmacy and grocery expenses.

“In the hope of concealing her misconduct and avoiding regulatory action, [Ms. Springsteen-Abbott] then lied to Finra staff investigating the matter and later lied to the hearing panel regarding the purposes for which she spent the money,” according to the panel's decision.

Ms. Springsteen-Abbott's conduct was in violation of Finra rule 2010, which requires a Finra broker-dealer and rep to “observe high standards of commercial honor and just and equitable principals of trade” when conducting business, according to the Finra panel's order, which was released on March 30.

She “abused her authority by improperly allocating to the funds two types of expenses that were not related to the funds' business: personal expenses and broker-dealer expenses,” according to the Finra panel's decision. “It was a misuse of money belonging to investors in the funds,” according to the panel's decision.

Finra's investigation covered three years, from early 2009 to early 2012. Finra enforcement filed its original complaint in May 2013 and later filed an amended complaint.

Finra's department of enforcement “alleged — and proved — that [Ms.] Springsteen-Abbott purposefully used investor monies as though they were her own, to her personal benefit and to the investors' detriment, and in violation of limitations imposed by the offering documents for the investments,” according to the Finra panel's decision. She also was ordered to pay $209,000 in disgorgement, plus interest, and was fined $100,000.

In an email to InvestmentNews, Commonwealth Capital Corp. on Tuesday said Ms. Springsteen-Abbot “believes the Finra panel erred and plans to pursue a vigorous appeal of the ruling in order to clear her name.”

Calling the FINRA ruling “unjust and disproportionate,” the email stated that “for more than 35 years, Ms. Springsteen-Abbott has been a respected member of the securities industry during which [time] she has proudly served thousands of investors.”

“In fact, she has made voluntary contributions totaling more than $3.1 million to the funds under her management during the years 2008 through 2014,” according to the email. “These contributions on behalf of her investors were in the form of direct capital contributions, forgiveness of reimbursable expenses and waiver of fees, all during a period when her companies also absorbed approximately 10% of all expenses otherwise allocable to the funds.”

From December 1993 to October 2013, Commonwealth Capital Securities Corp. created and sold 13 different funds to investors through independent broker-dealers, raising over $240 million, according to the panel's decision.

In September 2013, Ms. Springsteen-Abbott reached a $1.5 million settlement with the Securities and Exchange Commission after the agency alleged that a related fund group misled investors regarding compensation practices at the equipment-leasing funds.





Equipment Leasing & Finance Foundation released its Q2 update to the 2015 Equipment Leasing & Finance U.S. Economic Outlook forecasting investment in equipment and software to grow 5% in 2015.  The press release below has details focusing on the $903 billion equipment finance industry, and includes equipment investment expectations for 12 key verticals.

The report is available at

Equipment & Software Investment Outlook: Equipment and software investment growth decelerated to 1.6% in Q4 of 2014, following two quarters of strong growth. Overall growth in 2014 was 5.8%, and we expect slightly slower growth of 5.0% in 2015. Positive drivers of business investment include healthy credit markets, robust job growth, and improving business and consumer confidence, while investment headwinds include a strong dollar (which harms exports) and low oil prices (which decreases investment in the energy industry — although overall, the U.S. economy benefits from low oil prices). Growth prospects for individual equipment and software verticals are mixed:

  • Agriculture Machinery investment growth will likely remain negative over the next three to six months.
  • Construction Machinery investment could pick up over the next three to six months.
  • Materials Handling Equipment investment growth should remain steady over the next three to six months.
  • All Other Industrial Equipment investment will likely remain steady over the next three to six months.
  • Medical Equipment investment growth is expected to remain strong over the next three to six months.
  • Mining & Oilfield Machinery investment should continue to decline in the next three to six months.
  • Aircraft investment growth may slow over the next three to six months.
  • Ships & Boats investment growth may increase in the next three to six months.
  • Railroad Equipment investment growth rates could decline over the next three to six months.
  • Trucks investment growth should remain steady or potentially decline over the next three to six months.
  • Computers investment growth rates could slip over the next three to six months.
  • Software investment growth will likely remain stable over the next three to six months.

U.S. Capital Investment & Credit Markets: Capital spending slowed in 2014 Q4, yet steady economic growth should sustain investment and borrowing by businesses and households. Both supply and demand for credit continues to improve, and financial stress remains subdued. The Federal Reserve's first interest rate increase in more than six years is looking increasingly likely this summer or early autumn, which may create trigger some volatility in financial markets. However, it also could cause some businesses and households to "pull forward" some investments in order to lock in lower rates. Capacity utilization remains below 80%, but could trigger a new round of equipment investment if it rebounds in the coming months.

Overview of the U.S. Economy: Following the strongest 6-month period of economic growth in over a decade, GDP growth slowed to 2.2% in the fourth quarter. Consumer spending propelled growth, while business investment slowed, government spending declined, and the trade deficit widened. Notwithstanding March's soft data, the labor market has been a bright spot, with over three million jobs added in 2014 and nearly 200,000 jobs added per month in 2015. CPI inflation was 0% year-onyear in February, but this is temporarily depressed due to low oil prices. Expect inflation to rebound to 2% by year's end. Several headwinds — notably the strong U.S. dollar and harsh winter storms — present challenges in 2015, yet we still expect growth to hit 3% for the first time since 2005. Growth drivers include a brighter jobs picture, greater access to credit, rebounding consumer confidence, and a housing market that should finally accelerate in 2015. Oil markets are a wild card, as sustained low prices could provide a significant boost to the economy despite hurting investment in certain equipment sectors. In addition, employment data in the coming months will shed light on whether March's soft jobs data was merely a blip or something more meaningful. Overall, we predict GDP to grow 3.1% in 2015, as confidence spreads. The equipment finance industry started 2015 on solid footing, and industry confidence is at a multi-year high. Improved business confidence and a healing labor market are the principle bases for industry growth in 2015. Oil prices, capacity utilization, and Fed interest-rate policy are key developments to watch this year.

As an FYI, the Foundation will release the Monthly Confidence Index for the Equipment Finance Industry (MCI-EFI) on Tuesday, April 21, and the Equipment Leasing and Finance Association will release the Monthly Leasing and Finance Index (MFLI-25) on Thursday, April 23.


Classified Ads---Credit

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As a Commercial Credit Analyst/Underwriter, I have evaluated transactions from sole proprietorships to listed companies, across a broad spectrum of industries, embracing a multitude of asset types. Sound understanding of balance sheet, income statement and cash flow dynamics which impact credit decisions. Strong appreciation for credit/asset risk.
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Free Posting for those seeking employment in Leasing:

All “free” categories “job wanted” ads:


Receivables Management LLC
John Kenny

• End of Lease Negotiations & Enforcement 
• Third-Party Commercial Collections | ph 315-866-1167

(Leasing News provides this ad as a trade for investigative
reporting provided by John Kenny)


Top Stories:  April 7---April 9
 Opened Most by Readers of Leasing News

(1) Bulletin Board Complaint
  Balboa Capital, Irvine, California

(2)   Addition--- Seventh Response
    "Attempted to Pledge Fraudulent Collateral"

(3) New Hires---Promotions in the Leasing Industry

(4) Leasing Conferences 2015
        Save the Date

(5) Quick Bridge Funding Announces Expansion
       to Irvine and New York City


(7) Rinaldi Brothers and CI Finance/PNC

(8) Perfecting a Security Interest in Lease Contracts
     When Originals Are Imaged Then Destroyed
   by Tom McCurnin, Leasing News Legal Editor

(9) Provide “Added Value” by Protecting Your Customer
   Get Repeat Customer/Vendor Business with These Tips
         By Christopher Menkin

(10) How to Mitigate the Impact of New Lease Accounting Rules


“How Many References Should I Provide”
Career Crossroad---By Emily Fitzpatrick/RII


How many references should I provide to a potential employer …and should I include them on my resume?

References should be provided as a separate document from your resume and should include three to five carefully selected individuals. These references should be career related only, and should include at least two to three previous individuals who managed or supervised you, e.g. supervisor, owner, president, national sales manager. The others should colleagues whom you have worked with. 

The phrase “references available” on a resume is old school; it is understood - delete the phrase. Additionally, when handing or emailing your resume to a potential employer, do not to include any references on your resume or with your resume. Let the employers make the request when they are getting close to preparing a job offer. 

Though it is rare that an interviewer will request references on a first interview, it could happen; make sure you are prepared to hand them a reference sheet along with any letters of recommendation. Again, save for a second interview, when they most likely will ask you to bring references. 

Note:  make sure you check in with chosen references to reacquaint them with any relevant areas the employer might wish to discuss

For Letters of Recommendation Samples, contact

Emily Fitzpatrick
Sr. Recruiter
Recruiters International, Inc.
Phone:  954-885-9241
Cell:  954-612-0567
Invite me to Connect on LinkedIn
Also follow us on Twitter #RIIINFO

Career Crossroads Previous Columns



Leasing Industry Help Wanted

For information on placing a help wanted ad, please click here:

Please see our Job Wanted section for possible new employees.


(Terry retired January 1, 2015.  To honor him and his many years of writing for readers of Leasing News, is repeating several of his columns that are still meaningful today. Here is a July 7, 2008.)


One of the most important tasks a lease salesperson has is to obtain the best margin possible from each deal, as well as know the rate that they are competing against. Most lessor’s have some knowledge about their money cost, but not always. Brokers do not know the buy rate until the credit is reviewed, and for some reason, bank lessor’s rarely know their actual money cost other than what is allocated. Occasionally leasing subsidiaries have to add a management load or their cost of money is high because there are too many firms in the money chain, and each adds a extra charge. What all this means is that it is difficult to know your true margin without some knowledge of your cost of money.

One thing is for sure… everyone believes that their rates are too high and the competition must have a lower cost of money or why are their rates so low. This is a common statement from every lease sales person I have ever spoken with. The question is “How do I raise the roof if I do not know how far it is from the basement?” Usually, management just tells the sales force what is the lowest rate they will except so sales has to deal with what I call a false bottom. So once you know the lowest rate or your actual cost of money …. how do we increase margins?

As important, you should be able to determine your competitions real rate so you can compare it to what you are offering. To begin with you should know, or have a chart as to the value of advance payments, fees, security deposits, structured payments, income tax effect on true leases, delay payment to vendor, vendor subsidies or discounts, residuals, termination fees, exit fees, and anything else you can think of that affects the rate. Knowledge of the value of each fee or procedure is of vital importance to being able to act on the moment. Which addition can add to get maximum value? Have these charts available to use and begin to memorize each value

To illustrate I will use a transaction for $100,000 where the initial yield is 8% with one payment in advance with a $100 closing costs to show how a chart on closing costs would increase the yield:

In addition you can create a chart that shows the opposite… how much you can lower the lessee’s payments and maintain your yield by using a higher closing to and lower the payment. You should create charts from 33 months to 63 months and beyond on all of the ways to impact yield and become familiar with the results.

Also you need to be diligent because some competitors that understand the lessee’s fixation on stream or running rates use all of these structuring issues to make the payment look lower while they are actually getting a higher yield. If the lessee does not ask the proper questions then things like closing costs are only presented at the time of closing making it hard to become part of the evaluation process.

Charts as to the value of all these structuring issues are important to have and use until the values stick in your mind so they can be used on the spot when discussing your terms with vendors or potential lessees. One of the most important charts to have is on one residuals and one on security deposits. Please remember that a security deposit and the last payment in advance are not the same thing. For accounting purposes they are dealt with much different. To have value from a security deposit you must have a co-mingling agreement in your lease agreement.

The more you know about the values of different structuring issues the better prepared you are to help your firm increase yield or win deals. Please get familiar with a good computer pricing program so you can structure your leases both competitively and profitable.

Previous #102 Columns:


(Leasing News provides this ad as a trade for appraisals and equipment valuations provided by Ed Castagna)


9th Annual Women in Leasing Luncheon April 30th




Sales Make it Happen
by Steve Chriest

"The Mighty Middle"

Anyone who has ever lead a team of employees, or an organization, knows the feeling of doing or saying something that deflates the morale of an employee or an entire team. This can happen in any segment of the business, but the sales organization is particularly vulnerable to morale deflation from well-intentioned – and old style – reward programs.

The natural tendency of most sales managers is to reward top performers. Elite salespeople often receive large bonuses, free trips and other rewards in recognition of their superior performance. While it is critical to recognize and reward extraordinary sales performance, doing so at the exclusion of a reward program for improved performance, even by the least productive, but willing performers, can devastate the morale of a sales team.

When managing a team of sales professionals, it is well advised for managers to become familiar with Constraint Theory. A simple example is an easy way to explain the theory. If you are coaching a team of Girl Scout runners, and your team is racing against four other teams of girl scouts, at what precise moment does the winning team of scouts win the race? The answer: When the last scout on the winning team crosses the finish line.

The fastest team in the race, then, is as fast as it's slowest runner. To create an even faster racing team, an inexperienced coach might be tempted to spend the majority of coaching time on the team's fleetest runners.

Constraint Theory teaches that improvement occurs only when constraints are eased or eliminated. It may be true that additional coaching might help fast runners become even faster, but coaching the slowest members of the team, and gaining even moderate improvement in their performance, will result in an overall faster team performance!

Neglecting what someone once called the “mighty middle” can be disastrous for a company. Not only does the company's attrition rate increase dramatically as middle performers sense that they are being ignored, but competitors gain an opportunity to develop these experienced salespeople who, after all, had the self-confidence and motivation to seek out employers who value their potential.

Becoming familiar with Constraint Theory is important for any sales manager. Understanding the theory brings sales managers to the realization that the only thing worse than losing all your top talent is losing your “mighty middle.”

Working hard to improve the less talented, less productive - but willing - team members will make the most difference in the team's overall performance.

Steve Chriest is the CEO of Open Advance and author of Selling to the E-Suite, The Proven System for Reaching and Selling Senior Executives and Business Acumen 101. He recently re-named his company from Selling-Up.  He produces video and radio blogs, as well as continues as a columnist for Leasing News.

Sales Makes It Happen Articles:


Are PC’s Days Best Days Behind Us
By Eugene Kim,

For years, we’ve been hearing about the death of the PC, and the latest data paints a clearly shrinking market.

Worldwide PC shipments have continued to show negative growth in the past three years, according to data from the IDC and Gartner charted for us by BI Intelligence. It seemed to recover a bit in the last couple of years, but dipped back to under negative-5% growth in the latest quarter.

IDC says PC shipments totaled 68.5 million units in the first quarter of 2015, down 6.7% from a year ago. Gartner had slightly better numbers at 71.7 million units shipped, but still down 5.2% from the previous year.

Yet, Gartner still predicted a slow and consistent growth in the long term, saying that mobile PCs such as notebooks, laptop-tablet hybrids, and Windows tablets will continue to make way into the market over the next five years.



Israeli Startup Leapfrogs Apple Watch Payments

24me, an elegant “personal organizer” app built in Israel, has quietly figured out how to facilitate payments via Apple Watch.

Before Apple Watch is even in consumers’ hands.

The 24me Apple Watch app allows users to tap a pay feature when reviewing tasks on the Apple Watch. The Apple Watch app from 24me is an extension of 24me’s iOS application, co-founder Liat Mordechay Hertanu told Bank Innovation.

The payments feature is predicated on “connecting” 24me to users’ payment providers, including banks and credit cards. In the back end, 24me utilizes a Mint Bills API to facilitate the payments, Hertanu said.

Here’s what the payments feature looks like:

Pre-ordering of the Apple Watch started just last weekend, but 24me already made its Watch app available.

It is interesting to note that 24me is not a “fintech company.” 24me aims to create a “smart personal assistant” with digital devices. The payment functionality as just another way of making the mobile device more useful — not to make the mobile device a payments vehicle, per se.

Yes, there is Apple Pay for Apple Watch, but Apple Pay will not be a built-in, default app on Apple Watches — at least for now. Which means that 24me might be the only non-Apple Pay payments service available on Apple Watch — again, at least for now. (Paybyphone allows for payments as well, but only for parking.) Even Mint’s Apple Watch app, which is on the app list, does not facilitate payments.


((Please Click on Bulletin Board to learn more information))
(Leasing News provides this ad “gratis” as a means
to help support the growth of Lease Police)





If Prime Rate to Go Up, Expect it in September
 or Not This Year

The Fed is likely to choose September for a rate hike
because June is too soon and December is too late.

A relatively weak first quarter may convince the Fed to push the rate hike to September. June is too soon because the second quarter results will not be available, and December is too late because it is over the critical holiday shopping season.

The Fed Open Market Committee (FOMC) has three more meetings this year that are followed by a press conference - June, September and December. Due to the importance of the initial Fed rate hike, it's highly likely that the first move will occur during one of these meetings.

In the March 18 FOMC meeting, the votes were almost evenly split between an initial rate hike in June and September. However, in the March FOMC meeting the committee did not have the March disappointing job report, which means that more members of the committee will push for a September initial hike in order to better evaluate the employment situation. A December hike is not very likely because it is too late in the year and is right over the holidays' season.

Lately, consumers have been exhibiting signs of financial nervousness about the economic recovery. The April Money Anxiety Index is flat at 65.7, indicating that the level of financial anxiety among consumers is not improving as evident from their spending level. February personal consumption expenditures increased by only 0.1 percent in nominal terms, which shows that consumers are holding back on spending.

The Money Anxiety Index measures the level of consumers' financial worry and stress based on their spending and savings pattern. Historically, the Money Anxiety Index fluctuated from a high of 135.3 during the recession of the early 1980s, to a low of 38.7 in the mid 1960s. The Money Anxiety Index is highly predictive. It signaled the arrival of the Great Recession over a year prior to the official declaration of the recession in December of 2007.

Dr. Dan Geller is a financial behavior scientist exploring the link between the level of financial fear and the savings and spending habits of consumers. In his book, Money Anxiety, Dr. Geller uncovers the mystery of the financial mind, explaining why we hate to lose more than we love to win and why we spend when safe and save when scared.



Labrador Retriever / Coonhound / Mixed
San Diego, California  Adopt-a-Dog

This is Kayenne but she goes by Chloe Bear or Queen. She is beautiful, weighs 76 pounds and turned 4 years old in January. She is micro-chipped up to date on all her shots and spayed. She knows how to sit, shake, lay down, drop it, leave it and get in your bed for commands. She is also housebroken and crate trained. She loves to be indoors with her family. She loves to go on walks and to the beach and parks but she is territorial in nature and needs to be the only dog in the house. Kayenne is great with all people and would be fine in a house with older mature kids over 14. Young children can make her nervous until she gets to know them.

Second Chance Dog Rescue
2801 B Street, #55
San Diego, CA 92102
(619) 721-3647


Adopt a Pet



Classified ads— Lease Advocate

My primary focus is negotiating end of lease terms and options for the equipment lessee, as well as consulting on lease contracts, terms, and conditions before the lease is signed; negotiating end of term. Over 25 years in leasing management positions. Contact: Kimberly Lusk.


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News Briefs----

You'll be able to rent an Apple watch, but should you? 

Protect your assets by practicing common-sense cybersecurity

Airplane seat swapping turns rough and tumble

Tax Deadline: Filing late will cost you

Oil Layoffs Hit 100,000 and Counting




--You May Have Missed It

Tom Brokaw Breaks Silence on Brian Williams: ‘Really, Really Serious Case


SparkPeople--Live Healthier and Longer

11 Healthy Habits You Can Learn from Your Dog


Spring Poem

The storm came up so very quick 
It couldn't have been quicker. 
I should have brought my hat along, 
I should have brought my slicker.

My hair is wet, my feet are wet, 
I couldn't be much wetter. 
I fell into a river once 
But this is even better.




Sports Briefs----

Mariota, Winston no slouches on Wonderlic

Browns reveal nine new uniform combinations

Crabtree announces deal to Raiders


California Nuts Briefs---

Drought won't have impact on economy

Nestle investigated for taking water from national forest with expired permit


“Gimme that Wine”

Top Ten Wine Brands 2015

How to Be a Wine Expert in Four Hours

How Well Do You Know Legal Regulations for Winery Social Media?

Free Mobile Wine Program

Wine Prices by vintage

US/International Wine Events

Leasing News Wine & Spirits Page


This Day in American History

    1452 – Birthday of Italian painter, sculptor, and architect Leonardo da Vinci in Florence.
    1741 - Birthday of Charles Willson Peale at Queen Anne County, MD.  American portrait painter best known for his many portraits of colonial and American Revolutionary War figures. His children Raphael, Rembrandt, Titian and Sarah were also artists. Died at Philadelphia, PA, Feb 22, 1827. ttp://
    [delete-dupe]1741 - birthday of Charles Willson Peale, American portrait painter (best known for his many portraits of colonial and American Revolutionary War figures) was born at Queen Anne County, MD. His children Raphael, Rembrandt, Titian and Sarah were also artists. Died at Philadelphia , PA , Feb 22, 1827.        
    1783 - Preliminary articles of peace ending the Revolutionary War (or American War of Independence) are ratified. Peace with Britain until 1812. Through seven long years of war, the longest war the United States ever fought until Vietnam, the army under Washington remained true to the cause. But the spirit of sacrifice even among army men wasn’t universal. Desertions became so common that some scheduled attacks had to be canceled for lack of men to fight them.  Gelb tells of a general in the South who discovered in the midst of a major assault that the seven thousand troops under his command had dwindled to only three thousand, resulting in a disastrous rout. It’s estimated that up to a third of the soldiers in the Revolutionary army deserted. Some left to return home to their families or to join their state militias, but probably most got tired of the war or were scared of dying.
    1817 - The Erie Canal was authorized. When completed and open for traffic on October 26, 1825, this 360 mile wide canal connecting the waters of Lake Erie at Buffalo with the waters of the Hudson River at Albany, New York became a major transportation hub for the growth of the area.
    1817 - Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet and Laurent Clerc founded the first US public school for the deaf, Connecticut Asylum for the Education and Instruction of Deaf and Dumb Persons (now the American School for the Deaf), at Hartford, CT.
    1829 - Birthday of Dr. Mary Harris Thompson in Ft. Ann, NY.  U.S. physician. She founded Chicago Hospital for Women and Children and was the first female surgeon in the U.S. She studied a year with the Elizabeth and Emily Blackwell, the first woman doctors. When in training in a regular hospital, she received a great deal of the same kind of sexually harassing ridicule that the Blackwells had received while studying to be doctors.
    1841 – Joseph Seagram founder of Seagram Company, was born in what is now Ontario, Canada.
    1843 - Birthday of Henry James, novelist and critic, born at New York, NY. Among his best-known works are “The Portrait of a Lady”, “Washington Square” and “The Ambassadors”. James died Feb 28, 1916, at London, England.
     1850 - Birthday of John Longyear at Lansing, MI.  American capitalist, landowner, philanthropist, one-time mayor of Marquette, MI. Disapproving of a railway route through Marquette, he caused his home, a stone castle-like showplace, to be torn down in 1903 and moved, stone by stone and stick by stick, in more than 190 freight cars and re-erected at Brookline, MA. He died May 28, 1922.
    1850 - First City Charter went into effect as San Francisco was incorporated as a city. During the year ended today, 60,244 men and 1979 women arrived in San Francisco.
    1862 - Thomas Wentworth Higginson receives a letter from Emily Dickinson containing four poems, which launches her "career." Only a few are published in her lifetime.
    1865 - Abraham Lincoln, 16th President of the United States of America, died at 7:22 a.m. Lincoln had been shot in the back of the head the previous evening while attending a performance of "Our American Cousin" at Ford’s Theatre in Washington, D.C. The assassin, John Wilkes Booth, escaped, only to be hunted down and shot to death. Lincoln was carried to a boarding house across the street from the theatre. He never regained consciousness. This was Booth’s second attempt, but a change in Theater plans a month earlier thwarted it. When this became known, it was thought the April 14th assassination was planned by a group. In the afternoon of the 15th, Vice-President Andrew Johnson was sworn in as 17th President. He completed Lincoln’s term and changed the course of reconstruction. Five days earlier, General Lee had surrendered at the Appomattox Court House, virtually ending the war. It would be eleven days later that General Joseph E. Johnson surrendered the Confederate Army of Tennessee to General Sherman near Durham Station, NC, and a few weeks later, on May 10th, Jefferson Davis was captured at Irwinville, GA, by a contingent of General James H. Wilson’s cavalry, led by Lt. Col. Benjamin Pritchard.
    1865 - Birthday of Emily Smith Putnam in Canandaigua, NY.  She became the first dean of Barnard College and was a writer of a major historical study of women: “The Lady: Studies of Certain Significant Phases of Her History” (1910). As a dean, a trustee, and a teacher, she was one of the great women who developed Barnard into a major educational opportunity for women. She resigned as dean in 1899 to marry and then became a trustee of the college to continue her drive to equalize Barnard's academic relationship with Columbia University. She returned to teaching at Barnard in 1914, permanently retiring in 1930. She authored a number of important historical studies and biographies.
    1869 - Birthday of Thomas Hart Benton at Neosho, MO.  He was an artist whose work was indicative of the American style of painting known as Regionalism. His works of life in the Midwest and South were not always flattering to their subjects, but his style became known as a truly American style of painting. He died at Kansas City, MO, Jan 19, 1971.
    1873 - A famous Easter blizzard raged across Kansas, Nebraska and South Dakota. Gale force winds blew the wet snow into massive drifts; however there were few deaths due to the sparse population and due to the gradual increase of the storm.
    1874 – New York passed a compulsory education law.
    1875 – One of boxing’s early great heavyweight champs, Jim Jeffries, was born in Carroll, OH. 
    1877 – The first telephone was installed, in Somerville, MA.
    1878 – Ivory Soap was introduced “…99 and 44/100 per cent pure…”
    1886 - A devastating tornado, 800 yards in width at times, cut a twenty mile path through Saint Cloud, MN killing 74 persons. The bottom of the Mississippi River was said to have been seen during the tornado's crossing. Eleven persons were killed at a wedding party near the town of Rice.
    1892 – One of the biggest tax-evading enterprises of all-time, General Electric, was formed.
    1894 - Birthday of jazz/blues singer legend Bessie Smith in Chattanooga, TN. She was known as the Empress of the Blues. Her voice and songs tore the heart out of her listeners as she demanded they weep, laugh, and then face life as it was dealt. Her first recording, "Downhearted Blues," sold two million copies. She was queen of all she surveyed during the 20s and early 30s but a disastrous marriage and unwise financial decisions left her impoverished. Her more than 150 records are greatness preserved and her one movie “St. Louis Blues” that was banned for being too realistic, is part of the Museum of Modern Art movies section.
Her vocal greatness was recognized early by the great Ma Rainey who hired the 12-year-old to sing in her minstrel review. Like so many of her sister blues singers, the bottle became her refuge in a life that just didn't seem to hang together. Unlike Billie Holiday who went the same disastrous booze and drugs route, her voice continued strong. She died in 1937 after an automobile accident in Mississippi. A white hospital refused her admittance and she died on the operating table of the black hospital some miles away.
    1896 - Birthday of May Edward Chinn in Great Barrington, MA.  Although she was considered one of the first Black women physicians in New York City, she was half Amerind. Her mother was a full-blooded Chickahominy. It was her mother whose respect for education drove her. Her research work led to the development of the Pap smear to detect cervical cancer. She was the first non-white woman to graduate from Bellevue Hospital. For years, she was only allowed to practice medicine at Harlem Hospital which necessitated her starting her own private practice. During her training, she rode ambulances as a paramedic, one of the first women to do so in the U.S. Chinn's father escaped slavery from a Virginia plantation at the age of 11. She continued in private practice until she was 81 and she died in 1980.      
    1896 – The first Olympic Games closed in Athens.
    [Wiki IDs Molly as Marian Jordan] 1898 - Birthday of Molly McGreethe - U.S. comedic radio actor. During the golden era of radio, she was the Molly of one of its most popular shows, Fibber McGee and Molly. She portrayed the much suffering wife married to a dreaming impractical husband. Well, it was funny on radio.
    [chron] 1898 - Birthday of trumpet player Theodore Wingie Carpenter, St. Louis, MO
    1909 – The New York Giants’ Red Ames pitched a no-hitter for 9 innings but lost in 13.  In his debut in 1903, he pitched an abbreviated five-inning no-hitter against the Cardinals.
    1912 - The unsinkable luxury liner Titanic on its maiden voyage from Southampton, England, to New York, NY, struck an iceberg just before midnight Apr 14, and sank at 2:27 AM, Apr 15. The Titanic had 2,224 persons aboard. Of these, more than 1,500 were lost. About 700 people were rescued from the icy waters off Newfoundland by the liner Carpathia, which reached the scene about two hours after the Titanic went down. It is reported a ship closer did not come to the rescue due to illegalities aboard. Many movies and documentaries about the monumental disaster have been filmed over the years. However, none had the exacting data gleaned by scientists from the 1986 expedition aboard "Atlantis II". Dr. Robert Ballard headed a crew and a robot named Jason in a descent to the deck of the "Titanic" aboard "Alvin", a submersible craft. They returned with information and photos that challenged and verified stories from the past. After years of studying the facts, the 1997 Academy Award-winning film, "Titanic", recreated the ship to the tiniest detail including the design on the elegant china. Although the film’s love story is fictitious, the true tragedy of the Titanic can now be seen by the world some eight decades later.
    1917 – Actor Hans Conried was born in Baltimore.  His work includes “My Friend Irma”, “Bus Stop”, “Oh! God: Book 2”, “Tut & Tuttle”, “The Monster that Challenged the World”; host: “Fractured Flickers” TV Series and other great cartoons. Also played Uncle Tonoose in “The Danny Thomas Show”.  He was a frequent guest on the Jack Paar “Tonight Show”. A great influence on the humor of This Day in History written by the editor of Leasing News; died Jan 5, 1982.,7621,
    1918 – Singer Eddy Arnold was born in Henderson, TN.
    1920 - Birthday of Hilda Simms, American stage and film actress, born Hilda Moses at Minneapolis, MN. She joined the American Negro Theater at Harlem, NY, in 1943 and was given the title role in “Anna Lucasta”. When the production moved to Broadway in 1944, it became the first all-black production to be performed on Broadway without a racial theme. Simms was the creative arts director of New York State's human rights division, through which she was instrumental in bringing discrimination against black actors to public attention during the 1960s. She died at Buffalo, NY, Feb 6, 1994.
    1920 - Two security guards are killed during a mid-afternoon armed robbery of Slater-Morrill Shoe Company in South Braintree, Massachusetts. Out of this rather unremarkable crime grew one of the most famous trials in American history and a landmark case in forensic crime detection.  Police did manage to catch Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, who were each carrying loaded weapons at the time of their arrest. Sacco had a .32 caliber handgun, the same type as was used to kill the security guards, and bullets from the same manufacturer as those recovered from the shooting. Vanzetti was identified as a participant in a previous robbery attempt of a different shoe company. Sacco and Vanzetti were anarchists, believing that social justice would come only through the destruction of governments.  Sacco and Vanzetti were found guilty and sentenced to die. However, the ballistics issue refused to go away as Sacco and Vanzetti waited on death row. In addition, a jailhouse confession by another criminal fueled the controversy. In 1927, Massachusetts Governor A. T. Fuller ordered another inquiry to advise him on the clemency request of the two anarchists. In the meantime, there had been many scientific advances in the field of forensics. The comparison microscope was now available for new ballistics tests and proved beyond a doubt that Sacco's gun was indeed the murder weapon. A defense expert was even reported to have remarked upon seeing the new results, "Well, what do you know about that?" Sacco and Vanzetti were executed in August 1927, but even the new evidence didn't completely quell the controversy. In October 1961, and again in March 1983, new investigations were conducted into the matter, but both revealed that Sacco's revolver was indeed the one that fired the bullet and killed the security guards.
    [chron] 1921 - Two mile high Silver Lake, CO, received 76 inches of snow in 24 hours, the heaviest 24 hour total of record for North America. The storm left a total of 87 inches in twenty-seven and a half hours.
    1922 - Birthday of Harold Washington, Illinois legislator and Mayor of Chicago (1983-87). Born at Chicago, IL, and died there Nov 25, 1987. Harold Washington was one of the first African-Americans to head a major US city. He was instrumental in tearing down Chicago's famed Democratic machine, a holdover from the many decades of domination by the Richard J. Daley administration.
    1923 - Insulin became available for general use on this day. It was first discovered in 1922. Today, insulin is used daily in the treatment of diabetes. It is extracted from the pancreas of sheep, oxen and by other means, including systemization in the laboratory. Insulin, a natural and vital hormone for carbohydrate metabolism in the body, is manufactured by the pancreas. An overabundance of insulin causes insulin shock and leads to a variety of symptoms, including coma.
    1923 - Dr. Lee DeForest’s Phonofilm, the first sound-on-sound film, motion picture, was demonstrated for an invitation-only audience at the Rivoli Theatre in New York City. The guests saw "The Gavotte", a man and woman dancing to old-time music and "The Serenade", four musicians who played on wind, percussion and string instruments.
    1924 – Rand McNally published its first road atlas.
    1927 - Serge Koussevitsky directed the Boston Symphony in the first performance of Frederick Converses symphony, "Flivver Ten Million", a salute to the Tin Lizzie automobile.
    1927 - New Orleans LA was drenched with 14.01 inches of rain, which established a 24 hour rainfall record for the state.
    1927 – Babe Ruth hit the first of his 60 HRs, off the A’s Howard Ehmke
    1933 - Birthday of actress Elizabeth Montgomery in LA.  Although she starred in a number of TV films, she will always be remembered for her portrayal of Samantha in the long running TV series “Bewitched” (1954-72), outliving two husbands on the show.   She died in 1995 of cancer.
    1940 - Birthday of William Henry “Willie” Davis in Mineral Springs, AR.  Long-time Dodger CF (World Series: 1963, 1965, 1966/all-star: 1971, 1973) he also played for the Montreal Expos, St. Louis Cardinals, Texas Rangers, San Diego Padres, and California Angels.  His total of 2,237 games in center field ranks behind only Willie Mays (2,827) and Tris Speaker (2,690) in Major League history.  He died in 2010.
    1940 - Birthday of Phil Lesh in Berkeley, California. Lesh is a bassist and a founding member of the Grateful Dead. After the band's disbanding in 1995, Lesh continued on the tradition of Grateful Dead family music with a side project “Phil Lesh and Friends”, which pays homage to the Dead's music by playing their originals, common covers, and the songs of the members of his band, which changed consistently. “Phil and Friends” are viewed by many fans as the premier post-Dead band.
    1942 - Birthday of Walt Hazzard in Wilmington, DE.  Hazzard was point guard at UCLA for John Wooden’s first NCAA championship team in 1964 and was a 1964 Olympic Gold Medalist.  He would later return to coach his alma mater in the 1980s.  His NBA career was less spectacular with stops at LA Lakers, Seattle Supersonics, Atlanta Hawks, Buffalo Braves, Golden State Warriors.  He died in 2011.
    1942 – Former Enron CEO, Ken Lay was born in Tyrone, MO.  An excellent read on this entire saga of corporate greed, and why we have Sarbanes-Oxley today, is “Conspiracy of Fools” by WSJ reporter Kurt Eichenwald.  You will not believe what they got away with.
    1943 - Birthday of singer Sam Mighty McClain, Monroe, LA.,7621,

    1945 - Lionel Hampton big band, along with guest trumpet player Dizzy Gillespie, play Carnegie Hall, New York City.
    1945 - GONSALVES, HAROLD, Medal of Honor
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve. Born: 28 January 1926, Alameda, Calif. Accredited to: California. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as Acting Scout Sergeant with the 4th Battalion, 15th Marines, 6th Marine Division, during action against enemy Japanese forces on Okinawa Shima in the Ryukyu Chain, 15 April 1945. Undaunted by the powerfully organized opposition encountered on Motobu Peninsula during the fierce assault waged by his battalion against the Japanese stronghold at Mount Yaetake, Pfc. Gonsalves repeatedly braved the terrific enemy bombardment to aid his forward observation team in directing well-placed artillery fire. When his commanding officer determined to move into the front lines in order to register a more effective bombardment in the enemy's defensive position, he unhesitatingly advanced uphill with the officer and another Marine despite a slashing barrage of enemy mortar and rifle fire. As they reached the front and a Japanese grenade fell close within the group, instantly Pfc. Gonsalves dived on the deadly missile, absorbing the exploding charge in his own body and thereby protecting the others from serious and perhaps fatal wounds. Stouthearted and indomitable, Pfc. Gonsalves readily yielded his own chances of survival that his fellow marines might carry on the relentless battle against a fanatic enemy and his cool decision, prompt action and valiant spirit of self-sacrifice in the face of certain death reflect the highest credit upon himself and upon the U.S. Naval Service.
    1945 – President Franklin Roosevelt was buried at his Hyde Park, NY home.
    1947 - Jackie Robinson became the first black American to play in the Major Leagues in the 20th century when he made his debut for the Brooklyn Dodgers against the Boston Braves. Robinson went 0-for 3 but scored the deciding run as the Dodgers prevailed 5-3.  
    1950 - Buck Rogers appears on TV. At first a radio show, "Buck Rogers" premiered on ABC with Kem Dibbs. Buck was an average American who woke up from a cave behind Niagara Falls to find himself in the year 2430. The show featured Lou Prentis as Lieutenant Wilma Deering; Harry Sothern as Dr. Huer and Harry Kingston as Black Barney Wade. Buck was later played by Robert Pastene.
    1952 - Franklin National Bank, Franklin Square, NY issued the first bank credit card. Purchases were charged to the bank, which made the payments and then billed the card holders. The service was extended to its branches. The first bank credit card to gain national acceptance was the BankAmericard (later called Visa) issued by the Bank of America, San Francisco, in 1959. There was no membership fee or service charge. Full-scale services were offered to cardholders and merchants. Mastercard, originally called Master Charge, was founded by a consortium of 77 western banks led by the Wells Fargo bank.
    1952 – Boeing’s B-52 bomber makes its maiden flight.
    1953 - Top Hits
I Believe - Frankie Laine
Doggie in the Window - Patti Page
Till I Waltz Again with You - Teresa Brewer
Your Cheatin Heart - Hank Williams
    1954 – Having moved over the winter from St. Louis where they were the Browns, the Baltimore Orioles opened the 1954 season at Memorial Stadium.
    1955 - The first franchised McDonald’s was opened at Des Plaines, IL., by Ray Kroc, who had gotten the idea from a hamburger joint at San Bernardino, CA, run by the McDonald brothers. On opening day, a hamburger was 15 cents. The Big Mac was introduced in 1968 for 49 cents; the Quarter Pounder in 1971 for 53 cents. There are more than 35,000 McDonalds in 119 countries serving over 68 million daily.
    1956 - General Motors announced that the first, free piston automobile had been developed.
    1956 - Mitch Miller, music director of Columbia Records, engages in a spirited debate with Allan Freed over the "potentially negative effects of Rock 'n' Roll on teenagers" on Eric Sevareid's news program on CBS-TV. Two psychiatrists also joined the discussion.
    1958 - Major League Baseball came to California as the San Francisco Giants, transplanted from Harlem’s The Polo Grounds,  opened the season against the Los Angeles Dodgers, formerly of Brooklyn, at San Francisco’s Seals Stadium. The Giants shut out their rivals, 8-0.
    1958 - Buddy Holly has his guitar, a Fender Stratocaster, stolen from the Crickets' station wagon while the group stopped for lunch before a concert in St. Louis, MO.
    1960 – At Shaw University in Raleigh, NC, Ella Baker led a conference that results in the creation of the SNCC, the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee, one of the principal organizations of the Civil Rights movement in the 1960s.
    1961 - Top Hits
Blue Moon - The Marcels
Apache - Jorgen Ingmann
Dedicated to the One I Love - The Shirelles
Don’t Worry - Marty Robbins
    1964 – It remains one of the most successful new car launches in the industry’s history.  Ford rolled out the first Mustang before going on sale two days hence at New York’s World Fair.  Thus dubbed as a "1964½" model by its fans, the Mustang was the automaker's most successful launch since the Model A.
    1964 - After a long day of filming for their first movie, which is still titled Beatlemania!”, The Beatles relax as Ringo Starr declares, oddly, that it's been "a hard day's night." John immediately begins writing the song of the same name on the back of an old greeting card; it will eventually become the title track for the film.
    1964 – Connecting the Maryland Eastern Shore with the mainland, the Chesapeake Bay Bridge opened.
    1966 - Fifth-Annual San Francisco State College Folk Festival with Malvina Reynolds, Mark Spoelstra, & Richard ("Been down so long it looks like up to me") & Mimi Fariña, The Blues Project, Doc Watson & others. ~Poster artist: Michael Ferguson, From The Art of Rock.
    1966 - The Rolling Stones release "Aftermath", their first LP to feature all original material.
    1967 - The first mass burning of draft cards occurred as 400,000 marched in New York City opposing the Vietnam War. It was the culmination of the April 10-15 Vietnam Week featuring draft card burnings and turn-ins and anti-draft recruiter demonstrations all over the country. In NY, speakers included Dr Martin Luther King, Jr., Floyd McKissick, Stokely Carmichael and Dr Benjamin Spock.  In San Francisco, 100,000 people marched from Second and Market to Kezar Stadium at Golden Gate Park. Vietnam veteran David Duncan gave the keynote speech.
    1967 - Nancy and Frank Sinatra had the #1 song on the Billboard Hot 100, "Something Stupid".  To this day, they are the only father and daughter team to have a US chart topping single. ("Unforgettable" by Natalie Cole and Nat "King" Cole reached #14 in 1991, recorded posthumously with her father.)
    1967 - Birthday of Dara Torres, U.S. swimmer, in Beverly Hills.  She is the only American woman to win a swimming medal at three consecutive Olympics - and then added a fourth in the 2000 Olympics at age 33.
    1967 - The Who's second album, "Happy Jack," was released in the US. The LP contained a ten-minute mini-opera, "A Quick One," which was also the album's title in Britain.
    1969 - Top Hits
Aquarius/Let the Sun Shine In - The 5th Dimension
You’ve Made Me So Very Happy - Blood, Sweat & Tears
Galveston - Glen Campbell
Woman of the World (Leave My World Alone) - Loretta Lynn
    1969 – North Korea shot down a US Navy aircraft over the Sea of Japan, killing all 31 on board.
    1971 - George C. Scott refused the Oscar for his Best Actor performance in "Patton" at the 43rd Annual Academy Awards ceremony at LA’s Dorothy Chandler Pavilion. He had previously told reporters that he did not want the honor, saying (after the votes had been cast and tallied), “It is degrading to have actors in competition with each other”. Scott called the Oscar ceremony, “a two-hour meat parade, a public display with contrived suspense for economic reasons”. Others who did accept the golden statuette as recognition for their works that evening include: Glenda Jackson, Best Actress ("Women in Love"); Helen Hayes, Best Supporting Actress ("Airport"); John Mills, Best Supporting Actor ("Ryan’s Daughter"); Fred Karlin (music), Robb Royer and James Griffin (lyrics), Best Music/Song, "For All We Know" from "Lovers and Other Strangers"; and Franklin J. Schaffner, Best Director ("Patton") ... "Patton" (Frank McCarthy, producer) also received the Best Picture honors. Other notable flicks from 1970 (some Oscar winners, some not): "Five Easy Pieces", "Love Story", "MASH", "Tora! Tora! Tora!", "Diary of a Mad Housewife".
    1971 - The Illinois Crime Commission released a list of "drug-oriented rock records" that include Jefferson Airplane's "White Rabbit" and Procol Harum's "A Whiter Shade of Pale," but also, for some reason, The Beatles' "With A Little Help From My Friends" and "Puff The Magic Dragon," by Peter, Paul and Mary.
    1972 - Roberta Flack's "The First Time Ever I Saw Your Face" became an unlikely number one hit after it was featured in the Clint Eastwood film “Play Misty For Me”. It had been originally released as an album cut three years earlier. After Eastwood included it in his film, Atlantic Records rush released it as a single.
    1972 - Commander Cody and his Lost Planet Airmen's "Hot Rod Lincoln" enters the charts…and all this time I thought it was an early 50s hit!!
    1973 - The richest women’s golf tournament held (to that day) was won by Mickey Wright. She won the $25,000 first prize in the Colgate-Dinah Shore Golf Classic in Palm Springs, CA.
    1974 - Kidnapped heiress Patricia Hearst is filmed participating in a bank robbery, along with 8 other members of the SLA (Symbionese Liberation Army), in Sacramento, California.
    1977 - Top Hits
Dancing Queen - Abba
Don’t Give Up on Us - David Soul
Don’t Leave Me This Way - Thelma Houston
Lucille - Kenny Rogers
    1980 - Country star Willie Nelson held two fundraising concerts in Atlanta, Georgia, for Jimmy Carter's US presidential campaign.
    1985 - Marvelous Marvin Hagler helped Thomas “The Hit Man” Hearns go nighty-night a littler earlier than expected, with a third round knockout to retain the world middleweight boxing title. Some have called the fight the greatest three rounds in boxing history.
    1985 - Top Hits
We are the World - USA for Africa
Crazy for You - Madonna
Nightshift - Commodores
Honor Bound - Earl Thomas Conley
    1988 - A weather disturbance off the southern coast of California brought parts of southern California their first rain in six weeks. Rain-slickened roads resulted in numerous accidents in southern California, including a ten car pile-up at Riverside.
    1989 - Roy Orbison had his final Top 10 single on the US chart with "You Got It", four months after he passed away. The song was written by Jeff Lynne and Tom Petty and appeared on Orbison's "Mystery Girl" album that was released posthumously.
    1990 – “In Living Color” premiered on TV. Fox's sketch comedy series was modeled after "Saturday Night Live." The show was created by Keenen Ivory Wayans. Between skits, the Fly Girls would entertain the studio audience with hip dances (actress Rosie Perez choreographed the dances before breaking into movies). The show featured Wayans, his brothers Damon, Marlon and Shawn, his sister Kim, Tommy Davidson, David Alan Grier, T'Keyah "Crystal" Keymáh, Kelly Coffield, Kim Coles and Jim Carrey before he was Ace Ventura. Some of the most popular recurring characters were Homey, the embittered clown, the flammable Fire Marshall Bill and the effeminate movie critics of "Men on Film."
    1992 – “The Queen of Mean”, Leona Helmsley was sentenced to 16 years in prison for tax evasion and other charges.  At trial, one of the key witnesses was a former housekeeper at the Helmsley home, Elizabeth Baum, who recounted having the following exchange with Leona Helmsley four to six weeks after being hired in September 1983:  I said: "You must pay a lot of taxes". She said: "We don't pay taxes. Only the little people pay taxes."  She served 19 months.
    1996 - The rest of Jerry Garcia's ashes are scattered near the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco. A small portion had been scattered in the Ganges River in India 11 days ago.
    1997 - In ceremonies marking the 50th anniversary of the debut of Jackie Robinson in the major leagues, Bud Selig, chairman of baseball’s Executive Committee, announced that Robinson’s uniform number 42 would be retired by all Major League teams. Players then wearing 42 were allowed to continue to do so, but no team would ever assign 42 again. Now that Mariano Rivera has retired, no player will wear that number again.  On April 15 every season, ALL players wear 42 in Robinson’s memory.
    1998 - The New York Yankees and the New York Mets each played a home game at Shea Stadium, with the Yankees defeating the Anaheim Angeles, 3-2, in the afternoon, and the Mets beating the Chicago Cubs, 2-1, at night. This unique doubleheader was occasioned by a structural accident at Yankee Stadium.  A 500-pound steel beam fell from the upper deck on April 14, forcing New York City to close the park temporarily for inspection and repairs. The Yankees returned to their own home on April 25 beating the Detroit Tigers, 8-4.  A new Yankee Stadium was opened for the 2009 season across River Ave from the original ballpark.
    1999 - Astronomers from San Francisco State University, working at an observatory in Arizona, announced the discovery of the first multi-planet system ever found orbiting around a star other than our own. Three planets orbit the star Upsilon Andromedae, which can be seen with the naked eye. This suggests that the Milky Way probably teems with similar planetary systems.
    2013 – Two bombs exploded near the finish line at the Boston Marathon, killing three people and injuring 264 others.  The perpetrators were identified as Chechen brothers Dzhokhar and Tamerlan Tsarnaev.  Shortly after the FBI released the images, the suspects killed an MIT policeman, carjacked and SUV, and initiated an exchange of gunfire with the police in Watertown, MA. During the firefight, an MBTA police officer was injured but survived with severe blood loss. Tamerlan was shot several times in the firefight and his brother subsequently ran him over with the stolen SUV in his escape. He was pronounced dead at the scene.  A manhunt for Dzhokhar ensued on April 19, with thousands of law enforcement officers searching a 20-block area of Watertown.  A resident discovered Dzhokhar hiding in a boat in his back yard. Located within the boat by thermal imaging, he was shot while in the boat, then arrested and taken to a hospital shortly thereafter.  On April 8, 2015, Tsarnaev was found guilty on all thirty counts of the indictment. The charges of usage of a weapon of mass destruction resulting in death, in addition to aiding and abetting make Tsarnaev eligible for the death penalty.

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1937 - Detroit Red Wings
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