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Wednesday, October 26, 2022

Today's Leasing News Headlines

Equipment Leasing and Finance Association’s Survey
    of Economic Activity: Monthly Leasing and Finance Index
New Hires/Promotions in the Leasing Business
    and Related Industries
Leasing and Finance Industry Help Wanted
    Unlimited Income Potential/Marketing Support
A Meaningful Database
    Sales Makes it Happen by Scott Wheeler, CLFP
EV Charging Stations Across the U.S. Mapped
    States with Most, Free, Fastest
UCLA Scientists Close to Finalizing
    Marijuana Breathalyzer
Financing Cannabis Funding Sources
    Many Work with Third Party Originators
Siberian Husky Mix
    Santa Clara, California   Adopt-a-Dog
Is California an Unfriendly Business State?
   by Legal Editor Ken Greene
California Poised to Overtake Germany
    as World’s No. 4 Economy
News Briefs ----
Elon Musk’s Twitter Takeover Seen Swelling
    the Company’s Debt (about $13 Billion)
Elon Musk pledges to close $44B Twitter deal
    by Friday: report
Google’s ad sales slow dramatically,
    eroding parent’s profit
Snap, makers of Snapchat, shutters its 33,000 square-foot
    downtown San Francisco office
A new system for online passport renewal
    is here and this is how it works

You May Have Missed ---
Tip: 5 Ways to Help Your Team to Shine
and Not Burn Out

Broker/Funder/Industry Lists | Features (wrilter's columns)
Top Ten Stories Chosen by Readers | Top Stories last six months
Sales Make It Happen

Sports Brief----
 California Nuts Brief---
   "Gimme that wine"
    This Day in History
      Daily Puzzle
        Weather, USA or specific area
         Traffic Live----

######## surrounding the article denotes it is a “press release,” it was not written by Leasing News nor has the information been verified. The source noted. When an article is signed by the writer, it is considered a “byline.” It reflects the opinion and research of the writer.


####Press Release##############################

Equipment Leasing and Finance Association’s Survey
of Economic Activity: Monthly Leasing and Finance Index

September New Business Volume Up 11 Percent Year-over-year,----16 Percent Month-to-month and Nearly 6 Percent Year-to-date

Washington, DC,—The Equipment Leasing and Finance Association’s (ELFA) Monthly Leasing and Finance Index (MLFI-25), which reports economic activity from 25 companies representing a cross section of the $1 trillion equipment finance sector, showed their overall new business volume for September was $10.2 billion, up 11 percent year-over-year from new business volume in September 2021. Volume was up 16 percent from $8.8 billion in August. Year-to-date, cumulative new business volume was up nearly 6 percent compared to 2021.

ELFA President and CEO Ralph Petta said, “Third quarter new business volume in the over-$1 trillion equipment finance industry is exceptionally strong, providing fresh evidence that the economic contraction projected by many economists has not yet arrived.  Another data point supporting this relatively benign economic scenario is extremely low delinquencies, indicating that end users of commercial equipment continue to make on-time payments to their finance providers.”

Hollis Bufferd, CEO, Star Hill Financial LLC
, said, “Despite continued challenges in the supply chain, inflationary pressures and rising interest rates, the industry and our finance company continue to grow. Like our peers, we have continued expectations for the balance of 2022, as end-users plan for year-end capital acquisitions. Charge-offs and delinquencies remain at historic lows. The probability of continued Fed interest rate increases on the horizon creates some uncertainty, but we are seeing increased demand for fixed rate leases and loans to support our clients’ capital expenditures. With an eye on global economic disruptions, I am cautiously optimistic.”

Receivables over 30 days were 1.5 percent, unchanged from the previous month and down from 1.6 percent in the same period in 2021. Charge-offs were 0.17 percent, unchanged from the previous month and down from 0.35 percent in the year-earlier period.

Credit approvals totaled 77.3 percent, up from 75.2 percent in August. Total headcount for equipment finance companies was down 2.4 percent year-over-year.

Separately, the Equipment Leasing & Finance Foundation’s Monthly Confidence Index (MCI-EFI) in October is 45, a decrease from the September index of 48.7.

#### Press Release###############################


New Hires/Promotions in the Leasing Business
and Related Industries

Chase Aiken, CLFP, was hired as Senior Equipment Specialist, Vendor Finance, PNC, Los Angeles, California. Previously, he was President, Merrick Equipment (July, 2021 - Present); Sales and Finance Consultant, Independent Fleet Management Services, LLC (May, 2013 - July, 2021). He began his career at Russell Equipment Company, starting August, 2006, Sales and Purchasing, promoted September, 2009, Chief Operating Officer.

Gregory Amendola was promoted to Vice President of Sales, ROK Financial, Great River, New York. He joined the firm August, 2020, as Finance Manager. Previously, he was at National Business Capital and Services, starting March, 2010, Business Loan Officer/Team Lead, promoted June, 2018, Finance Manager; Sales/Customer Service, TruGreen LawnCare (January, 2002 - 2010).

Ida Profera Bove was hired as Senior Business Underwriter, CAN Capital, Kennesaw, Georgia. She is located in greater Philadelphia area. She began her career as Senior Mortgage Processor, First Keystone Mortgage (1988 - 1994); Joined Advanta Business Services, 1994, Senior Credit Analyst, went to work at Marlin Capital Solutions April Capital Solutions., April, 2001, which became Marlin Leasing, and rose to Team Leader/Senior Credit Analyst.

Scott Chait is now partner at Rimon PC Law Firm, San Francisco, California.  He is located in New York, New York. He joined Sumitomo Mitsui Banking May, 2018, Vice President and Counsel, Equipment Leasing and Finance, promoted September 2021, Vice President and Counsel, Practice Group Head, Equipment Leasing and Finance. Previously he was at Societe Generale Equipment Finance, SGEF, starting October, 2016, Operations Consultant, promoted April, 2017, Operations Associate, promoted August, 2018, Counsel. He began his career as Associate Attorney, Equipment Leasing and Finance, Peretore & Peretore, P.C. (May, 2009 - June 2016).

Dan Grafenauer was hired as Vice President, Syndications, JPMorgan Chase & Company, New York, New York. He is located in Muskego, Wisconsin. He joined BMO Harris Equipment Finance Company in 2008 as Credit Analyst, promoted February, 2010, Credit Analyst II, promoted August, 2011, Relationship Manager Associate, promoted November, 2012, Officer, Capital Markets, promoted January, 2014, Assistant Vice President, Indirect Originations, promoted January, 2014, Vice President, Indirect Originations; Participant Account Associate, M&J Institutional Trust Services, 2006).

Brian C. Kemp, CLFP, was hired as Vice President, Business Development, Financial Partners Group, Troy, Michigan.  Previously, he was at Lease Corporation of America, starting August, 1992, in Sales and Marketing, promoted December, 2019, Senior Vice President of Sales.

Scott Lipka was hired as Sales Team Lead, Meridian Equipment Finance, Malvern, Pennsylvania. He is located in West Chester, Pennsylvania. Previously, he was Broker Relations Manager, FirstLease (September, 2018 - October 2022); Vice President, Director of Syndications and Broker Services, Conestoga Equipment Finance (February, 2014 - September, 2018); Senior Account Executive, Susquehanna Commercial Finance (August, 2012 - January, 2014); National Sales Director, Court Square Leasing Corporation (December, 2004) - June, 2009).

Jennifer Wirth
was promoted to Vice President, Operations, Verdant Commercial Capital, Cincinnati, Ohio. She joined the firm May, 2018, as Senior Program Manager/Senior Documentation Specialist. She joined PNC Equipment Finance September, 1997, AVP, Equipment Finance Technical Specialist, promoted February, 2012, AVP Closing coordinator promoted September, 1997, Operations Manager. Full Bio:


Leasing and Finance Industry Help Wanted
Excellent Compensation/Marketing Support/Work



A Meaningful Database

Sales Makes it Happen by Scott Wheeler, CLFP

Top producers in the commercial equipment leasing and finance industry are building their network to succeed in 2023 and beyond. They are determining their position within the market and building more meaningful databases. There will be long-term winners and losers in every industry as top producing companies and originators adjust and quickly connect the dots for future business.

Every new prospect and customer lead to multiple new opportunities for the best originators. New vendor relationships refer new end-users and every end-user knows of other vendors that are potentially new relationships to be tapped for additional business. One of the benefits of the commercial equipment leasing and finance industry is the tremendous opportunity that exists to take new paths for business development. The vast opportunities and unlimited paths to success can be daunting.

 There are so many options that originators often get overwhelmed, distracted, and confused. They become a jack of all trades, master of none. Their databases become disjointed, disconnected, and unworkable. Top producers connect the dots; their vendors and end-users are connected by similar attributes (industry, equipment type, geographic area, credit quality, etc.) Top producers are focused and deliberate when prospecting and driving new business opportunities. They are committed to growing a well-connected database.

Naysayers often claim that too much focus or niche concentration inhibits the development of new channels of business. The opposite actually occurs. An originator that is correctly focused on one (or just a few niches) has more opportunity to enter new channels of business with purpose.
Top producers do not aimlessly push into unknown areas of business; they are pulled into new channels of business by their strong relationships with both vendors and end-users. They enter a new channel because it is interrelated with their past expertise. They enter a new channel because they are connecting the dots of past relationships with new potential. They enter a new channel more successfully because they have a well-thought-out plan.

Scott A. Wheeler, CLFP
Wheeler Business Consulting
1314 Marquis Ct.
Fallston, Maryland 21047
Phone: 410 877 0428
Fax: 410 877 8161

Sales Makes it Happen articles:



EV Charging Stations Across the U.S. Mapped
States with Most, Free, and Fastest

Currently, the U.S. has about 140,000 public EV chargers distributed across almost 53,000 charging stations, which are still far outnumbered by the 145,000 gas fueling stations in the country.

California has the highest number of EV charging stations at 15,182, making up an impressive 29% of all charging stations in America. In fact, the Golden State has nearly double the chargers of the following three states, New York (3,085), Florida (2,858), and Texas (2,419) combined.

While California leads in terms of the raw amount of free chargers available in the state, it’s actually the second worst in the top 10 states when it comes to the share of chargers, at only 11% of them free for 30 minutes or more.

Meanwhile, Maryland leads with almost 30% of the chargers in the state that offer a minimum of 30 minutes of free charging. On the other hand, Massachusetts is the stingiest state of the top 10, with only 6% of charging stations (150 total) in the state offering free charging for electric vehicle drivers.

The States with the Best DC Fast Charger Availability

While free EV chargers are great, having access to fast chargers can matter just as much, depending on how much you value your time. Most EV drivers across the U.S. will have access to level 2 chargers, with more than 86% of charging stations in the country having level 2 chargers available.

Although level 2 charging (4-10 hours from empty to full charge) beats the snail’s pace of level 1 charging (40-50 hours from empty to full charge), between busy schedules and many charging stations that are only free for the first 30 minutes, DC fast charger availability is almost a necessity.

Direct current fast chargers can charge an electric vehicle from empty to 80% in 20-60 minutes but are only available at 12% of America’s EV charging stations today.

Just like free stations, Maryland leads the top 10 states in having the highest share of DC fast chargers at 16%. While Massachusetts was the worst state for DC charger availability at 6%, the state of New York was second-worst at 8% despite its large number of chargers overall. All other states in the top 10 have DC chargers available in at least one in 10 charging stations.

As for the holy grail of charging stations, with free charging and DC fast charger availability, almost 1% of the country’s charging stations are there. So if you’re hoping for free and DC fast charging, the chances in most states are around one in 100.

Source - National Renewable Energy Lab

Full story:


UCLA Scientists Close to Finalizing
Marijuana Breathalyzer

New research by scientists at UCLA has developed a cannabinoid fuel cell prototype that can detect THC, the compound responsible for inducing a high when marijuana is consumed, in a person’s breath. ElectraTect, a UCLA startup, is testing the device, which it believes offers a foundation for the development of a cannabis breath analyzer that is similar to the breathalyzers used to test for alcohol in an individual’s breath. The lab device has been designed to detect the presence of THC and measure its concentration in a solution.

The researchers reported their findings in the “Organic Letters” journal. They stated that this technology could offer an accurate gauge of how much THC was present in an individual’s system, in comparison to current methods. They also explained that using saliva, urine or blood to test for THC presence could produce skewed results, especially since this psychoactive compound could remain in an individual’s bodily fluids for weeks after they had consumed cannabis.

In their report, the researchers stated that there existed a need for a fair forensic tool which could detect THC in a short window of impairment. They explained that this would be welcome, especially in countries and states where cannabis had been legalized or decriminalized, because traditional methods could lead to prosecution, imprisonment, loss of employment or fines, even if the person in question wasn’t intoxicated when they were tested.

Source: CannabisNewsWire


Financing Cannabis Funding Sources
  Many Work with Third Party Originators

Alliance Commercial Capital
Alternative Finance Network
Cannabis Equipment Leasing
International Financial Services (IFS)
NEC Financial Services
Number One Enterprise
Prime Commercial Lending
Slim Capital
Vertical Companies
XS Equipment Leasing Solutions


Siberian Husky Mix
Santa Clara, California   Adopt-a-Dog


16 Weeks

Shelter Staff made the following comments about this animal:

Hello Ladies and Gentlemen, my name is Bee! I'm an active girl whose affection for you grows and grows the more time we spend together! I will put my paw on you to request some petting and I certainly enjoy sitting on laps. There's so much to learn in life and I'm ready to take it on with your guidance. Could we be meant for each other?

For more information contact the Silicon Valley Animal Control Authority (SVACA) at 408-764-0344 or visit

Silicon Valley Animal Control
3370 Thomas Road
Santa Clara, CA 95054
408) 764-0344
Contact Form:


Is California an Unfriendly Business State?
Leasing News Legal Editor Ken Greene

Behold the new California mantra! “This state is impossible for business. The regulators and the courts are hostile and overbearing. We’re moving to [Texas/North Carolina/Canada].”

This article addresses the legitimacy of these claims. Mind you, it is no urban myth. A 2021 Hoover Institution report found that 74 major corporate headquarters had left the state in the first six months of year! That included Tesla, Oracle, Hewlett Packard, Charles Schwab and many more.

This begets the question, why, with its climate, beautiful beaches, forests, mountains, and lakes, would anyone leave California? One could say the climate has rebelled, in that it hasn’t provided adequate rain or tolerable temperatures for years, the beaches are polluted, the forests scorched and burned, the lakes dried up, and so much more. But these are lifestyle issues. What causes a $76 billion behemoth like Tesla to ditch the surfboards and head to Texas?

According to the “World Economic Forum” (“WEF”) study, in collaboration with the “Visual Capitalist,” California ranks only 29TH in business friendly states! Here are some of the reasons (all ranked based on the WEF study unless otherwise noted):


1. TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION: California ranks first for obvious reasons, as Silicon Valley, its tech gurus and venture capitalists, have defined California for years. Note though, that other states and countries are hot on its heels. Technology and innovation, long a mainstay of Silicon Valley and other hot spots in California, now thrive in Austin, New York, Dallas, Raleigh, Charlotte, Seattle and Atlanta, not to mention other countries.

2. ACCESS TO CAPITAL: First again, much due to the tech and startup venture capital. But New York, Texas, Illinois and Florida follow closely behind.

3. EDUCATION: Rated 11th. Yes, California has excellent school systems and universities, but the cost is high for the best schools, often rendering enrollment cost-prohibitive, even for state residents.

4. ESTATE TAX: California has neither an estate nor an inheritance tax. Good, unqualified news for a change.

5. IMMIGRATION: Per “Monito”, California is #1 in immigrant friendly states. Of course, you may view this as a pro or con depending upon your perspective.


1. COST OF LIVING: California is almost the worst at #48! Only Hawaii and New York are more expensive. To put it in perspective, California costs about 46 times what it costs to live in bucolic Pennsylvania.

2. COST OF DOING BUSINESS: According to “Chief Executive,” California is the worst at #50. Texas is first, Florida and Tennessee right behind.

3. BUSINESS FRIENDLINESS/HOSPITALITY: North Carolina, Washington and Virginia top the list. California is #29.

4. BUREAUCRATIC POLICIES: California again sits in the middle of the pack at #29, according to CNBC. New Hampshire, DC (!) and Rhode Island are best.

5. CRIME RATES:  California sits in 17th place, behind New Jersey, New York, and many other much maligned urban centers.

6. ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY: According to Fox weather, California is #3 for eco-friendly behaviors, but last for air quality. Thank you, Los Angeles.

7. LIFE, HEALTH AND INCLUSION: This category, according to CNBC, includes crime rates, environmental quality and health care. Vermont is #1. California is #26.

8.  ACCESS TO CHILDCARE: According to “We Can Do Better,” California is #46.

9. SALES TAX: Per “Tax Foundation,” California is the highest at 7.25%. It is #7 in combined state and local taxes at 8.82%.

10. INCOME TAXES: California takes the top prize again, ranging from 1% to 12.3% (the latter by far the highest in the country).

11. COMMERCIAL FINANCE LAWS: As most readers know, California has the strictest and most intricate licensing laws, with the sole exception of perhaps Hawaii. It also has the most pervasive and game-changing commercial finance disclosure laws.

12. PRIVACY LAWS: According to “InfoSec,” California has by far the strictest privacy laws.

13. TRAFFIC/INFRASTRUCTURE: “Report Card for American’s Infrastructure” gives California a C-, including negative scores for inland waterways, energy, dams, hazardous waste, public parks, and roads.

14.  HEALTH INSURANCE RULES: According to “eHealth,” California is one of only five states (plus DC) where health insurance is required and you may be subject to a tax penalty if you do not carry it.

15.  MINIMUM WAGES: California again tops the charts (though tied with Massachusetts and Washington) at $12. The national average is $8.60.    

16. WORKFORCE: Per the “World Population Review”, California is #16.

17.  ECONOMY: CNBC ranks California at #17.

Here are CNBC’S complete rankings of America’s Top States for Business in 2022:

You may ask why some of these “lifestyle” issues are considered components of the “business climate” analysis. In fact, people, i.e. workforce, directly depend on such things as cost-of-living, access to childcare, taxes, climate, crime rate etc. to live their lives. Unfriendly living environments make for unhappy workforces, which of course hurts the business attractiveness.

Before you go packing, keep in mind that California can be a beautiful place and, for some, may have a lot to offer. But the metrics don’t lie and there are good reasons for the pervasive dissatisfaction, particularly from the business owners, in the Golden State.

Ken Greene
Tel: 818.575.9095
Fax: 805.435.7464



California Poised to Overtake Germany
as World’s No. 4 Economy


News Briefs---

Elon Musk’s Twitter Takeover Seen Swelling
   the Company’s Debt (about $13 Billion)

Elon Musk pledges to close $44B Twitter deal
by Friday: report

Google’s ad sales slow dramatically,
eroding parent’s profit

Snap, makers of Snapchat, shutters its 33,000 square-foot
downtown San Francisco office

A new system for online passport renewal
is here and this is how it works


Tip: 5 Ways to Help Your Team to Shine
     and Not Burn Out



Sports Briefs---

A day later, Bill Belichick provides no clarity
    on Patriots’ quarterback situation

Mike Tomlin is facing his toughest challenge yet
to maintain the Steelers standard | Opinion

Chiefs DE Frank Clark suspended two games by NFL

A transparent roof and outdoor terraces:
Titans release new stadium renderings

Pac-12 has fueled a women’s basketball frenzy.
What happens when USC, UCLA leave?

Plans emerge for Negro Leagues Baseball
museum in north St. Louis.\, Missouri

Lakers' Darvin Ham Says He's Not Considering
Lineup Changes after 0-3 Start

Yankees reflect on how, when season fell apart

Petaluma’s Minna Stess finishes third
in world skateboarding event


California Nuts Briefs---

5.1 magnitude earthquake jolts Silicon Valley (Felt here in Saratoga)
     Here’s why officials said it caused such little damage

Why the Nordstrom parking lot that could have been
housing remains a ‘poster child for the insanity’ in S.F.

Former owner of Atherton estate with buried Mercedes
collected $87,000 in insurance for it, DA says



"Gimme that wine"

Some Bay Area wineries will soon ask you
     to return bottles after drinking

Wine of the week: Davis Bynum, 2018 Chardonnay,
Russian River Valley, Gravel Lens River West Vineyard

Strong Demand to Fill Production Jobs

With No Vine Pulls or Distillation, "2023 is Going
to Be a Tough Year for Bulk Wine"

“Gimme that Wine”

Free Wine App

Wine Prices by vintage

US/International Wine Events


This Day in History

      1682 - William Penn accepted the area around Delaware River from Duke of York.  In 1681, King Charles II handed over a large piece of his American land holdings to William Penn to satisfy a debt the king owed to Penn’s father. This land included present-day Pennsylvania and Delaware. Penn immediately sailed to America and his first step on American soil took place on this day in New Castle. On this occasion, the colonists pledged allegiance to Penn as their new proprietor and the first general assembly was held in the colony. Penn then journeyed up river and founded Philadelphia. However, Penn's Quaker government was not viewed favorably by the Dutch, Swedish, and English settlers in what is now Delaware so they almost immediately began petitioning for their own assembly. In 1704, they achieved their goal when the three southernmost counties of Pennsylvania were permitted to split off and become the new semi-autonomous colony of Lower Delaware. As one of the earlier supporters of colonial unification, Penn wrote and urged for a union of all the English colonies in what was to become the United States of America. The democratic principles that he set forth in the Pennsylvania Frame of Government served as an inspiration for the US Constitution.
    1774 - The First Continental Congress adjourned in Philadelphia.  The First Continental Congress was a meeting of delegates from twelve of the thirteen colonies that met on September 5 to October 26, 1774 in Philadelphia. It was called in response to "The passage of the Coercive Acts," also known as Intolerable Acts by the Colonial Americans, by the British Parliament. The Intolerable Acts had punished Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party.  The Congress was attended by 56 delegates appointed by the legislatures of twelve of the thirteen colonies. Georgia declined to send delegates because they were hoping for British assistance with Native American problems on its frontier and did not want to upset the British.  The Congress met briefly to consider options, including an economic boycott of British trade; rights and grievances; and petitioned King George III for redress of those grievances.  The Congress also called for another Continental Congress in the event that their petition was unsuccessful in halting enforcement of the Intolerable Acts. Their appeal to the Crown had no effect, and so the Second Continental Congress was convened the following year to organize the defense of the colonies at the onset of the Revolution. The delegates also urged each colony to set up and train its own militia.
    1774 - Minutemen were selected in the American colonies. The terms militia and minutemen are sometimes used interchangeably, but there was a difference between them.  Militias were military units formed to protect their towns from foreign invasion. Minutemen, on the other hand, were a small elite force, hand-picked by militia commanders, which were required to be able to assemble quickly. Usually 25 years of age or younger, they were chosen for their enthusiasm, reliability, and physical strength. Usually about a fourth of the militia served as Minutemen. Although today Minutemen are thought of as originating in the War for Independence, they actually began in Massachusetts during as early as 1645. Equipped with matchlocks or pikes, they were to report within half an hour of being warned. One thing the Minutemen lacked was central leadership, a flaw that would lead to their dissolution. At Concord, Minutemen companies from Concord, Acton, Littleton, and other towns combined their units. They were sent to the North Bridge in Concord with a number of light infantry. After a few volleys were fired, the British light infantry retreated back to the Concord Common area. Lacking central command, each company of Minutemen chose their own action and they did not pursue the redcoats. In the running battle that ensued fifteen miles back to Boston, the Massachusetts militia would see their last action as Minutemen in history. The militia would go on to form an army, surrounding Boston and inflicting heavy casualties on the British army at Bunker and Breed's Hill.
    1775 - King George III went before Parliament to declare the American colonies in rebellion, and authorized a military response to quell the Revolution. 
    1776 – Benjamin Franklin departed for France on a mission to seek French support for the Revolution
    1785 - The first mule born in the United States was bred from a jackass sent to President George Washington, which arrived this day in Boston. The exportation of full-blooded jacks from Spain was prohibited, but King Charles III of Spain, learning of Washington’s interest, sent him two jacks and two jennets. Mules became the staple of farmers in the US for many years to come. Washington was also the first to start producing whiskey in the United States in wooden barrels. His farm manager was from Scotland, had a plan for the surplus corn and other plantings they could not sell to turn into whiskey to trade and store. Washington looked into it and made the investment. While others were making this product in America, Washington decided to expand the product and use wooden barrels as they did in Scotland to store the whiskey, and also age it. Most domestic whiskey was distilled, bottled, and sold or stored. Washington’s one and five year old whiskey was sought after and if you tour his house and property, there are still examples of this product for view, some in special wooden boxes, another idea he had to make it different than the rest. Like Jefferson, Washington was a “farmer” but a businessman looking for new ideas and products.
    1787 - "Federalist Papers," originally published as “The Federalist,” a series of 85 articles written under the pen name of Publius by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay, were published and called for ratification of Constitution. Madison, widely recognized as the Father of the Constitution, would later go on to become President of the United States. Jay would become the first Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court. Hamilton would serve in the Cabinet as the first Secretary of the Treasury and become a major force in setting economic policy for the US.
    1825 - The Erie Canal, the first US major man-made waterway, was opened this day in 1825, providing a water route from Lake Erie to the Hudson River. It originally ran about 363 miles from Albany to Buffalo. It was built to create a navigable water route from New York City and the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes. First proposed in 1807, its construction started July 4, 1817, and the canal cost $7,602,000. Cannons fired and celebrations were held all along the route for the opening. It enhanced commerce and the expansion of the country westward.
    1850 - Reports from Sacramento City, California, say 57,000 miners are at work in the gold fields.
    1858 - Hamilton Smith of Philadelphia, PA, obtained a patent for a washing machine with rotary motion. It was equipped with a crank that was turned by hand, caused a perforated cylinder with a wooden shell to revolve. Smith continued to improve his machine and in 1863 secured patent protection on a self-reversing-motion attachment to the machine.
    1859 - New York City had its earliest substantial snow of record as four inches blanketed the city.
    1861 – The Pony Express ceased operations.  During its 19 months of operation, it reduced the time for messages to travel between the oceans to about 10 days.  From April 3, 1860, it became the West's most direct mean of east–west communication before the telegraph was established and was vital for tying the new state of California with the rest of the US.    
    1881 – Gun Fight at OK Corral. Newspapers, the media, the enactment at fairs and circuses that traveled the country have made this 30 second event the defining moment of the Wild West. In the small town of Tombstone, Arizona Territory, the famous gun fight occurred when a group of drunken ranch hands threatened to kill the popular town gamblers and players, and Wyatt Earp, Morgan Earp, Virgil Earp, and Doc Holliday if they didn't get out of Tombstone.  The whole town watched to see the outcome. In the 1880's, Tombstone was largest city between St. Louis and San Francisco and had become the most cultivated city in the West. (Underground water found in the mines and falling silver prices ended Tombstone's mining and population boom in 1886).  On October 26, 1881, Virgil received word that the cowboys were gathering at the O.K. Corral, and that they were armed, which was against city law. Doc met the Earps on Fourth Street on their way to the O.K. Corral and demanded that he be allowed to join them in their little walk. Five men, potential killers, lay in wait. When Wyatt Earp and Billy Clanton opened the battle, Doc shot Billy in the chest, then cut Tom McLaury down with a double charge of buckshot. The life was blasted from McLaury before he struck the ground. Although, Wyatt allowed Ike Clanton to run from the fight scene, Holliday was not so generous. He was a lady’s man, a dentist who made his living gambling, a known drug addict and alcoholic, who was the angriest. He threw two shots at Ike as he fled, missing him narrowly. A bullet from Frank McLaury cut into Doc's pistol holster and burned a painful crease across his hip. Doc's return shot smashed into McLaury's brain. Less than thirty seconds after the opening shot, three men lay dead and three were wounded. Doc had shot each of the dead cowboys at least once. Virgil had been shot in the leg and Morgan through both shoulders. Only Wyatt Earp has survived the fight untouched. He later traveled the West, promoting the famous gun fight, and was known as a man who also made his living by gambling and the support of women who were attracted to this handsome, traveling man. Tom and Frank McLaury and Billy Clanton are among those buried in Tombstone's infamous Boot Hill Cemetery, visited by many tourists yearly. Tombstone had survived the Great Depression and removal of the County Seat to Bisbee, located 25 miles south of Tombstone. Tombstone's survival in the 1930's earned it the title of the "Town Too Tough to Die," as reported by the St. Louis Post Dispatch in 1932. In 1962, the Department of the Interior named Tombstone a Registered Historic Landmark. The late 1950’s television show “The Life and Legend of Wyatt Earp” starring handsome Hugh O’Brien with his famous flat hat and long nose pistol was one of the highest rated shows of its time. It was considered the first “adult” TV western. My late father, Lawrence Menkin, wrote many of the episodes. Following the cowboy movie re-runs in the early 1950’s as television was primarily local, when it became a network medium, westerns became the rage among viewers.
    1899 - William Julius "Judy" Johnson (d. 1989) was born in Snow Hill, MD.  He was considered one of the greatest third basemen in the Negro Leagues and he played for the Hilldale Club, the Homestead Grays, and the Pittsburgh Crawfords from 1921 to 1936.  Johnson was elected to the Baseball of Fame in 1975.
    1911 - Singer Mahalia Jackson (d. 1972) birthday, New Orleans. Some wonderful albums are available of this singer.
    1911 – Pro Football Hall of Fame coach Sid Gillman (d. 2003) was born in Minneapolis.  An innovator, Gillman's insistence on stretching the football field by throwing deep downfield passes, now known as the vertical passing game, instead of short passes at the sides of the line of scrimmage, was instrumental in making football into the modern game that it is today.  After coaching in college through 1954, he moved to the NFL and AFL where his 1963 San Diego Chargers won the AFL Championship.  He is the sole coach in the history of American football to have earned Hall of Fame induction into both the Pro Football and College Football Halls. 
    1913 - Bandleader Charlie Barnet (d. 1991) born, New York City.  By sixteen, Barnet had done road work with a band in New York, where he joined Frank Winegar's Pennsylvania Boys on tenor sax.  The height of Barnet's popularity—and his first truly permanent band—came between 1939 and 1941, a period that began with his hit version of “Cherokee.”  In 1944, Barnet had another big hit with "Skyliner." In 1947, he started to switch from swing to bebop. He was one of the first bandleaders to integrate his band; the year is variously given as 1935 or 1937. He was an outspoken admirer of Count Basie and Duke Ellington. Ellington recorded the Charlie Barnet composition "In a Mizz." In 1939, Basie lent Barnet his charts after Barnet’s had been destroyed in a fire in Los Angeles. Barnet's was a notorious party band where drinking and vandalism were not uncommon. While Glenn Miller enforced strict standards of dress and deportment, Barnet was more interested in having fun, according to his autobiography, “The Swinging Years.”
    1916 - Margaret Sanger arrested for obscenity (advocating birth control)
    1919 - The temperature at Bismarck, ND, plunged to ten degrees below zero, the earliest subzero reading of record for the city, and a record for the month of October.
    1927 - Tenor sax player Wayne Marsh born.
    1927 - Adelaide Hall records “Creole Love Call” with Duke Ellington.
    1934 - Cole Porter records "You're The Top"
    1934 - While Washington Senators player-manager Joe Cronin honeymoons with Mildred Robertson, owner Clark Griffith's niece and adopted daughter, Griffith sold him to the Red Sox.
    1935 - The NBC Radio show “Lux Radio Theatre” presents its newest find -- a 12-year-old girl singer named Judy Garland.
    1936 – The first electric generator at Hoover Dam went into full operation.    
    1940 – Detroit Tigers outfielder Hank Greenberg won the MVP in the AL while Cleveland Indians P Bob Feller finished second. Greenberg hit .340 with 41 home runs and 150 RBI, while Feller posted a 27-11 record with a 2.61 ERA. Having won the award in 1935 as a first baseman, Greenberg becomes the first player to win the MVP again playing a different position.
    1942 - In the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands at Guadalcanal, one U.S. aircraft carrier, Hornet sunk and another aircraft carrier, Enterprise, was heavily damaged, while two Japanese carriers and one cruiser are heavily damaged. 
    1942 - PAIGE, MITCHELL, Medal of Honor
Rank and organization: Platoon Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Place and date: Solomon Islands, 26 October 1942. Entered service at: Pennsylvania. Born: 31 August 1918, Charleroi, Pa. Citation: For extraordinary heroism and conspicuous gallantry in action above and beyond the call of duty while serving with a company of marines in combat against enemy Japanese forces in the Solomon Islands on 26 October 1942. When the enemy broke through the line directly in front of his position, P/Sgt. Paige, commanding a machinegun section with fearless determination, continued to direct the fire of his gunners until all his men were either killed or wounded. Alone, against the deadly hail of Japanese shells, he fought with his gun and when it was destroyed, took over another, moving from gun to gun, never ceasing his withering fire against the advancing hordes until reinforcements finally arrived. Then, forming a new line, he dauntlessly and aggressively led a bayonet charge, driving the enemy back and preventing a breakthrough in our lines. His great personal valor and unyielding devotion to duty were in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
    1944 - The United States Navy beat the Japanese at Leyte Gulf in the Philippines after three days of what is seen as one of history's great sea battles. More than 30 ships were sunk, most of them Japanese including their last four aircraft carriers.
    1946 - CARSWELL, HORACE S., JR., (Air Mission) Medal of Honor
Rank and organization: Major, 308th Bombardment Group, U.S. Army Air Corps. Place and date: Over South China Sea, 26 October 1944. Entered service at: San Angelo, Tex. Birth: Fort Worth, Tex. G.O. No.: 14, 4 February 1946. Citation: He piloted a B-24 bomber in a one-plane strike against a Japanese convoy in the South China Sea on the night of 26 October 1944. Taking the enemy force of 12 ships escorted by at least 2 destroyers by surprise, he made 1 bombing run at 600 feet, scoring a near miss on 1 warship and escaping without drawing fire. He circled. and fully realizing that the convoy was thoroughly alerted and would meet his next attack with a barrage of antiaircraft fire, began a second low-level run which culminated in 2 direct hits on a large tanker. A hail of steel from Japanese guns, riddled the bomber, knocking out 2 engines, damaging a third, crippling the hydraulic system, puncturing 1 gasoline tank, ripping uncounted holes in the aircraft, and wounding the copilot; but by magnificent display of flying skill, Maj. Carswell controlled the plane's plunge toward the sea and carefully forced it into a halting climb in the direction of the China shore. On reaching land, where it would have been possible to abandon the staggering bomber, one of the crew discovered that his parachute had been ripped by flak and rendered useless; the pilot, hoping to cross mountainous terrain and reach a base. continued onward until the third engine failed. He ordered the crew to bail out while he struggled to maintain altitude. and, refusing to save himself, chose to remain with his comrade and attempt a crash landing. He died when the airplane struck a mountainside and burned. With consummate gallantry and intrepidity, Maj. Carswell gave his life in a supreme effort to save all members of his crew. His sacrifice. far beyond that required of him, was in keeping with the traditional bravery of America's war heroes.
    1946 – Pat Sajak was born Patrick Leonard Sajdak in Chicago.  best known as the host of the television game show, “Wheel of Fortune,” Sajak has received 19 nominations for the Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Game Show Host, winning 3 times.  With Sajak returning for his 36th season in 2018–19, he became the longest-running host of any game show, surpassing Bob Barker, who hosted “The Price is Right” from 1972 to 2007. Sajak was officially honored as such by the Guinness World Records with the episode taped March 22, 2019 and aired May 8, 2019 (two days before the primetime version's 7,000th episode).
    1947 – Hillary Rodham Clinton was born in Park Ridge, IL.
    1949 - President Truman signed a bill raising the minimum wage in certain industries engaged in interstate commerce from 40 cents to 75 cents an hour.
    1949 - The San Francisco Seals of the Pacific Coast League complete an Asian tour which includes five Japanese games. One of the Japanese games draws over 100,000 fans to watch Lefty O'Doul's team.
    1950 - Top Hits
“Goodnight Irene” - The Weavers
“All My Love” - Patti Page
“Harbor Lights” - The Sammy Kaye Orchestra (vocal: Tony Alamo)
“I’m Moving On” - Hank Snow
    1951 - SKINNER, SHERROD E., JR, Medal of Honor
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve, Battery F, 2d Battalion, 11th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Korea, 26 October 1952. Entered service at: East Lansing, Mich. Born: 29 October 1929, Hartford, Conn. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as an artillery forward observer of Battery F, in action against enemy aggressor forces on the night of 26 October 1952. When his observation post in an extremely critical and vital sector of the main line of resistance was subjected to a sudden and fanatical attack by hostile forces, supported by a devastating barrage of artillery and mortar fire which completely severed communication lines connecting the outpost with friendly firing batteries, 2d Lt. Skinner, in a determined effort to hold his position, immediately organized and directed the surviving personnel in the defense of the outpost, continuing to call down fire on the enemy by means of radio alone until his equipment became damaged beyond repair. Undaunted by the intense hostile barrage and the rapidly-closing attackers, he twice left the protection of his bunker in order to direct accurate machine gun fire and to replenish the depleted supply of ammunition and grenades. Although painfully wounded on each occasion, he steadfastly refused medical aid until the rest of the men received treatment. As the ground attack reached its climax, he gallantly directed the final defense until the meager supply of ammunition was exhausted and the position overrun. During the 3 hours that the outpost was occupied by the enemy, several grenades were thrown into the bunker which served as protection for 2d Lt. Skinner and his remaining comrades. Realizing that there was no chance for other than passive resistance, he directed his men to feign death even though the hostile troops entered the bunker and searched their persons. Later, when an enemy grenade was thrown between him and 2 other survivors, he immediately threw himself on the deadly missile in an effort to protect the others, absorbing the full force of the explosion and sacrificing his life for his comrades. By his indomitable fighting spirit, superb leadership, and great personal valor in the face of tremendous odds, 2d Lt. Skinner served to inspire his fellow marines in their heroic stand against the enemy and upheld the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
    1952 - "Victory at Sea" premiered on TV. The video series does not give it justice, as many of the clips were repeated in the series, in the early days of television. The score, orchestrated by Robert Russell Bennett was written by Richard Rodgers. In 1953, "No Other Love," adapted from one of the score's songs, became a hit for Perry Como.
    1954 - Chevrolet introduces the V-8 engine. 
    1955 - “Rebel Without a Cause,” starring James Dean, Natalie Wood, and Sal Mineo, premiered in New York.  Warner Bros. released the film almost a month after Dean's death in a car accident on September 30, 1955.  Over the years, the film has achieved landmark status for the acting of cultural icon Dean, fresh from his Oscar-nominated role in “East of Eden,” in his most celebrated role. This was the only film during Dean's lifetime in which he received top billing. In 1990, “Rebel Without a Cause” was added to the Library of Congress’ National Film Registry as being deemed "culturally, historically, and aesthetically significant."
    1955 - The Village Voice is first published, backed in part by Norman Mailer.
    1955 - No. 1 Billboard Pop Hit:  “Autumn Leaves”, Roger Williams. 
    1958 - Top Hits
“It’s All in the Game” - Tommy Edwards
“Rock-in Robin” - Bobby Day
“Topsy II” - Cozy Cole
“City Lights” - Ray Price
    1958 – Pan American Airways made the first commercial flight of the Boeing 707 from New York City to Paris, France, inaugurating transatlantic jet passenger service.  The first New York-London transatlantic jet passenger service is inaugurated by BOAC.
    1958 - Berlin, Germany's first rock and roll concert ever is staged, a performance by Bill Haley and his Comets that ends in chaos when the East Berliners in the crowd of 7,000 begin to fight with the West Berliners. Twenty policemen are injured.
    1959 - The Everly Brothers leave their old label, Cadence, for Warner Brothers.
    1960 - In a move designed to get a jump on the National League in the expansion race, the American League grants franchises to Washington and Los Angeles and okays the Senators move to Minnesota.
    1961 - Bob Dylan signs with Columbia Records, his first recording contract.
    1962 - Bob Dylan records "Corrina, Corrina."
    1962 - The first Motown "revue" tour begins in Washington DC, featuring Mary Wells, Marvin Gaye, Martha and the Vandellas, the Contours, Stevie Wonder, and the Marvelettes.
    1962 - An early season snowstorm brought 4.7 inches of snow to Worcester, MA and 3.6 inches to Portland, ME. Greenville, ME had 13.9 inches. All were new records for the heaviest snow early in the season.
    1962 – President Kennedy warned Russia that the US would not allow Soviet missiles to remain in Cuba. Nikita Khrushchev sent note to JFK offering to withdraw his missiles from Cuba if US closed its bases in Turkey. The offer was rejected.   Kennedy ordered the first quarantine interdiction of the Marucla by a boarding party from the Pierce.   A Russian tanker, the Groznyy is placed under aerial surveillance. Three more Soviet ships en route to Cuba were reported to have changed course and were returning to their ports of departure. They were the Vishnevsky, Okhotsk, and Sergev Botkin. Later in the day, Lawrence and MacDonough were shadowing Groznyy. The tanker had several cylindrical tanks topside and had declared them to contain ammonia.
    1963 - Natalie Merchant, at one time the vocalist for the band 10,000 Maniacs, is born in Jamestown, N.Y.
    1964 - On the last day of recording their fourth album, “Beatles for Sale,” the Beatles are visited by rockabilly legend Carl Perkins, an early idol of theirs. The group decides then and there to cover Perkins' "Honey Don't." At one point, Ringo calls the Sun records artists "Mr. Perkins," to which he replies, "Son, I wish you'd just call me Carl. Mr. Perkins is my daddy."
    1965 - The Beatles receive Members of the British Empire (MBE) medals from Queen Elizabeth II in a ceremony staged at Buckingham Palace. It is the first such honor ever given to a rock band, causing many former recipients, many distinguished military personnel, to return their medals in disgust. According to John, the group is so nervous beforehand that it gets high on marijuana in a palace bathroom; during the ceremony, when Her Majesty asks the group how long it's been together, Ringo replies "forty years." Later, a press conference is held at the Saville Theatre. When asked how he enjoyed meeting Queen Elizabeth II, John said "She's much nicer than she is in the photos."
    1966 - Top Hits 
“Reach Out I’ll Be There” - Four Tops
“96 Tears - ?(Question Mark)” & The Mysterians
“Walk Away Renee” - The Left Banke
“Open Up Your Heart” - Buck Owens
    1968 - Having been fired from WOR-FM, legendary DJ Murray The K moves across town in New York, becoming one of the WMCA-AM "Good Guys."
    1970 - Garry Trudeau, only 22 years old, started his comic strip, "Doonesbury", out in 28 United States newspapers. The occasionally controversial strip is now in hundreds of papers and has a publishing empire of books and related merchandise. His wife of many years is TV news personality Jane Pauley.
    1970 – In his first fight following three years exile from boxing for evading the military draft, Muhammad Ali fought Jerry Quarry in Atlanta.
    1971 - Memphis, Tennessee minister Al Green was awarded a gold record for his single, "Tired of Being Alone."
    1971 – Vida Blue of the Oakland A’s wins the AL Cy Young award by a 98-85 margin over Mickey Lolich of the Tigers. Blue was 24-8 for Oakland, posting 301 strikeouts, eight shutouts and a 1.82 ERA, becoming the youngest pitcher to win the award. In the NL, the Cubs’ Ferguson Jenkins won.
    1974 – Dionne Warwick and the Spinners’ “Then Came You” hits #1
    1974 – Barry White’s LP “Can’t Get Enough” hits #1
    1974 – Top Hits
“Then Came You” – Dionne Warwicke & Spinners
“You Haven’t Done Nothin’” – Stevie Wonder
“You Ain’t Seen Nothing Yet/Free Wheelin’” – Bachman-Turner Overdrive
“I See the Want to in Your Eyes” – Conway Twitty
    1978 – No. 1 Billboard Pop Hit:  “Hot Child in the City,” Nick Gilder. The song takes 20 weeks from the time it enters the Hot 100 to reach No. 1, longer than any single before it.
    1978 – Sparky Lyle, the Yankees’ closer, becomes the first AL reliever to win the Cy Young Award. Lyle led the league with 72 appearances, posting a 13-5 record with 26 saves and a 2.17 ERA.  A few weeks later, the Yankees signed free agent closer Goose Gossage and Lyle would be traded a year later.  One of sports’ great quotes came from Lyle’s Yankees teammate, Graig Nettles: “he went from Cy Young to Sayonara!”
    1979 – MLB Commissioner Bowie Kuhn notified Hall of Famer Willie Mays that if he accepts a position with the Bally Manufacturing Corporation, owner of several gambling casinos, he must disassociate himself from Major League Baseball. Mays, a part-time coach and goodwill ambassador for the Mets, relinquished his duties upon accepting Bally's job offer.  In 1983, he would do the same to Hall of Famer Mickey Mantle.  Both were quickly reinstated by new Commissioner Peter Ueberroth in 1985.
    1980 – Baltimore Colts quarterback Bert Jones is sacked a record 12 times in a 17-10 loss to St. Louis. Houston Oilers quarterback Warren Moon would equal the mark on Sept. 29, 1985 at Dallas.
    1982 – “St. Elsewhere” premiers. This very popular one-hour medical drama set in St. Eligius Hospital at Boston. Among its large and changing cast were Ed Flanders, William Daniels, Ed Begley, Jr, David Morse, Howie Mandel, Christina Pickles, Denzel Washington, Norman Lloyd, David Birney, G.W. Bailey, Kavi Raz, Stephen Furst, Mark Har­mon and Alfre Woodard. The last episode of the series, aired on Aug 10, 1988, was presented in order to cast doubt on the real­ity of the whole series, suggesting that a child’s imagination had dreamed it up.
    1982 - No. 1 Billboard Pop Hit:  “Who Can It Be Now?'' by Men at Work. The song is the 12th No. 1 single to pose a question and the first of two by the Australian band.
    1982 - Top Hits
“Jack & Diane” - John Cougar
“Who Can It Be Now?” - Men at Work
“Eye in the Sky” - The Alan Parsons Project
“He Got You” - Ronnie Milsap
    1982 – Steve Carlton of the Phillies became the first pitcher to win four Cy Young Awards, taking NL honors. The 37-year-old lefthander, who led the league in wins (23), innings pitched (295.2), strikeouts (286) and shutouts (6), was a previous winner in 1972, 1977, and 1980.
    1983 - A heat wave was in progress over the Northern Rockies, with record highs of 81 degrees at Sheridan, WY and Billings, MT.  
    1984 - Barbra Streisand got multiplatinum certification when her three albums reached the four-million-dollar sales mark. "Greatest Hits, Vol. II," "Guilty," and "A Star is Born" with Kris Kristofferson were all honored.
    1984 - "Baby Fae," born Stephanie Fae Beauclair nine days earlier, received a heart transplant from a baboon, the first infant subject of a xenotransplant procedure. The procedure, performed by Leonard Bailey at Loma Linda University Medical Center, was successful, but Fae died 21 days later of heart failure due to rejection of the transplant from blood type differential.
    1985 - The Kansas City Royals tied the World Series, three games each, against the St. Louis Cardinals by winning Game 6, 2-1. On a poor call in 6th game, umpire Don Denkinger starts a string of events costing Cardinals the 82nd World Series. The controversial call at first base by umpire Don Denkinger was shown in television replays that he had blown the call, allowing Jorge Orta to remain at first base.  A two-run single by Dane Jorg brought the Royals the win. Kansas City won the seventh game the next day, 11-0.
    1989 - Unseasonably warm weather continued in the north central U.S. Afternoon highs of 78 degrees at Alpena, MI, 75 degrees at Duluth, MN, 79 degrees at Fargo, ND, 77 degrees at International Falls, MN, 76 degrees at Marquette, MI, 75 degrees at Sault Ste Marie, MI, and 80 degrees at Saint Cloud, MN, were all the warmest of record for so late in the season. Morning lows of 63 degrees at Concordia, KS and Omaha, NE were the warmest of record for the date.
    1990 - Top Hits
“I Don’t Have the Heart” - James Ingram
“Black Cat” - Janet Jackson
“Ice Ice Baby” - Vanilla Ice
“Friends in Low Places” - Garth Brooks
    1990 - A rapidly deepening coastal storm just east of Cape Hatteras produced wind gusts in excess of 90 mph along coastal sections. A dredge barge broke loose from its moorings in the Oregon Inlet and struck the Bonner Bridge, the sole link highway between Hatteras Island and the mainland. A 369 foot section of the bridge collapsed leaving thousands stranded on the island.
    1993 - The temperature at Eureka, CA soared to 87 to set an all-time record for the city
    1994 - Top Hits
“I’ll Make Love To You”- Boyz II Men 
“All I Wanna Do”- Sheryl Crow
“Endless Love”- Luther Vandross
“Secret”- Madonna
   1996 - After two one-sided losses at home, the Yankees win the next four games and take their first World Series since 1978 with a 3-2 victory over the defending World Champs Braves in Game 6.
    1997 - With two outs in the bottom of the 11th inning of Game 7, Edgar Renteria singles home Craig Counsell giving the Florida Marlins their first World Series title with a 3-2 win over the Indians. The five-year old Marlins become the youngest expansion team to win the Fall classic.
    1998 - US Federal courts refuse to issue an injunction against makers of mp3 players, one which the RIAA has been pushing for in light of rampant piracy.
    1998 - Fats Domino is awarded the National Medal of Arts from US President Bill Clinton.
    1999 - Top Hits
“Smooth” - Santana Featuring Rob Thomas 
“Satisfy You” - Puff Daddy Featuring R. Kelly
“Heartbreaker” - Mariah Carey Featuring Jay-Z
“Mambo No. 5 (A Little Bit Of...)” - Lou Bega
    2000 - In Game 5 at Shea Stadium, the Yankees win their third consecutive World Series, the fourth title in five years and record 26th championship by defeating the Mets, 4-2. Luis Sojo's ninth inning two-out, tie-breaking single off starter Al Leiter is the decisive hit.
    2000 - Capitol Records honors Garth Brooks with a lavish party, marking Brooks' status as the only artist to sell more than 100 million albums in a decade and the only artist to sell 10 million copies of four different albums.
    2001 – In one of the first legislative acts following the 9/11 attacks on the US, the Patriot Act was approved by Congress and became law.
    2001 - Anthrax was found in the offices of 3 lawmakers in the Longworth House Office building on Capitol Hill. The Supreme Court was shut down to test for anthrax spores.
    2002 - When Russ Ortiz, tossing 5-0 shut-out strikes out Garret Anderson to begin the seventh, the Giants appeared destined to win their first World Series since 1954. Scoring six times in the 7th and 8th innings of Game 6, the Angels rally from five runs down to stage the biggest comeback in Series history for a team facing elimination and beat the Giants, 6-5, forcing a Game 7.
    2002 - In San Francisco, an estimated 40-80,000 people marched down Market Street to protest the Bush policy threatening war on Iraq.
    2003 - Top Hits
“Baby Boy” - Beyonce Featuring Sean Paul
“Stand Up” - Ludacris Featuring Shawnna
“Get Low” - Lil Jon & The East Side Boyz Featuring Ying Yang Twins
“Damn!” - YoungBloodZ Featuring Lil Jon
    2004 - Curt Schilling becomes the first starting pitcher to win a World Series for three different teams. In addition to his Game 3 Red Sox victory over the Cardinals, his 8-2 lifetime post-season record includes wins for the Phillies (1993) and Diamondbacks (2002).
    2004 - compiled a list of the top earning dead celebrities and to no one's surprise, Elvis Presley came out on top. 27 years after his death, fans were still buying his music and collecting memorabilia to the tune of $40 million a year. Beatle John Lennon was number four on the list with earnings of $21 million, while his former band mate George Harrison was number 7, bringing in $7 million.
    2004 - The Recording Industry Association of America brought a fresh round of copyright-infringement lawsuits against 750 file sharers, including 25 users on 13 university campuses.
    2005 - Willie Harris scores the game’s only run in the eighth inning as Jermaine Dye, the series MVP, singles the pinch hitter home giving the White Sox a 1-0 victory over the Astros and the team its first World Championship since 1917. For the second consecutive year, an American League team sweeps its National League opponent.  White Sox skipper Ozzie Guillen becomes the first foreign-born manager to win a World Series as the ‘Wizards of Ozzie’ sweep the Astros in the Fall Classic.
    2005 - Bobby Valentine becomes the first foreign manager to win the Japan Series in the 70-year history of Japanese baseball. Sweeping the Hanshin Tigers, the former Rangers and Mets skipper lead the Chiba Lotte Marines to their first league championship in 31 years.
    2005 - Tadahito Iguchi becomes the first Japanese native to win a World Series ring as the White Sox swept the Houston Astros to win the Fall Classic in 88 years. Leaving the Fukuoka Daiei Hawks, the second baseman signed as a free agent with Chicago prior to the start of the championship season.
    2008 - Before game four of The World Series, Philadelphia's Patti LaBelle sang her own special version of The Star-Spangled Banner which included straying far from the original melody and singing the wrong lyrics. The 64-year-old LaBelle was heavily criticized following the performance for singing "sky lights last gleaming" (Instead of twilight), "through the perilous flight" (Instead of light) and "Lamp parts" (Instead of ramparts).
    2018 - LA Dodgers beat Boston Red Sox, 3-2 in the 18th inning (7 hours, 20 mins) in Game 3 at Dodger Stadium with Max Muncy walk-off homer.  It is the longest World Series game by both innings and time.
World Series Champions
    1887 – Detroit (National League)
    1911 - Philadelphia Athletics
    1981 – Los Angeles Dodgers
    1996 - New York Yankees
    1997 - Florida Marlins
    2000 - New York Yankees



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