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Monday, July 26, 2021

Today's Leasing News Headlines

Marlin Business Service Served with Lawsuit
    Affecting Pending Sale and Merger
Company Celebrates Being Back in the Office
    from Alina Gilmore, VP, Can Capital
License and Registration United States
  By Kenneth C. Greene, Attorney
    Segment 5
       Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi and Missouri
Leasing Funding Industry Ads
    Growing Companies for Top Sales Professionals
Top Ten Leasing News
    July 19 to July 23
Myth of Being #1 on the Google Search Page
    FinTech #102 by Brittney Holcomb
Mortgage Rates Continue a Downward Spiral
The Massive Costs behind the Olympic Games
    Since 1992
Mixed Breed
     ASPCA Shelter, New York City  Adopt-a-Dog
National Alliance of Commercial Loan Brokers Conference
    October 26th - 28th, 2021, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, NV
News Briefs---
Rivian Raises $2.5 Billion as it Readies
    Rollout of Electric Pickup, SUV
City Pound ‘Close’ to Capacity,
    as New Yorkers Return Pandemic Pets
How one S.F. tech company is reopening its office
    with a workforce that is still mostly remote
Tokyo Olympics opening drew 16.7 million TV viewers
     in the United States, a 33-year low

You May have Missed---
Americans Spend Again
    and American Express Profit Surges

Broker/Funder/Industry Lists
| Features (wrilter's columns)
Top Ten Stories Chosen by Readers | Top Stories last six months (Be Careful of Doing Business)
Leasing News Icon for Android Mobile Device

Sports Brief----
 California Nuts Brief---
  "Gimme that Wine"
    This Day in History
      Daily Puzzle
        Weather, USA or specific area
         Traffic Live----

######## surrounding the article denotes it is a “press release,” it was not written by Leasing News nor has the information been verified. The source noted. When an article is signed by the writer, it is considered a “byline.” It reflects the opinion and research of the writer.


Marlin Business Service Served with Lawsuit
Affecting Pending Sale and Merger


According to a filing by Marlin Business Service, signed by Ryan Melcher, Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary, there is a legal matter that is affecting the proposed merger. Originally, the sale of Marlin Bank was expected to occur the 1st Quarter, 2022.

The merger/sale press release stated, "Marlin Business Services (NASDAQ-MRLN) has entered into a definitive agreement with HPS Investment Partners LLC., through its European Asset Value Funds, to acquire all outstanding shared in an all-cash transaction of $23.50 per share. This is a 65% premium over the closing price of Marlin's common stock of $14.26 on April 16, 2021."

In the press release, it was stated, "The closing of the transaction is subject to various customary closing conditions, including regulatory and shareholder approvals, as well as the condition that Marlin Business Bank affect a “de-banking” and cease operations as a bank.  Subject to satisfaction of all closing conditions, of which there can be no assurances that they will occur, the Company believes the transaction would likely close in the first quarter of 2022.  In connection with the transaction, Red Mountain Capital Partners and certain of its affiliates have signed a Voting Agreement whereby Red Mountain Capital Partners has agreed to vote in favor of the transaction.  The aggregate consideration paid by certain funds managed by HPS to Marlin shareholders may be reduced if the total costs in connection with the de-banking of Marlin Business Bank exceed $8 million. At this time, the Company does not expect this provision to have a material impact on the consideration received.  Following the closing, Marlin will become a privately held company and shares of Marlin will no longer be listed on NASDAQ."

The legal complaint to halt and/or question what was submitted to stockholders by Marin was filed late June. Here it is explained by Mr. Melcher:

"On June 28, 2021, a purported holder of Company common stock filed a complaint against the Company and the members of the Company board in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York captioned Ciccotelli v. Marlin Business Services Corp. et al, No. 1:21-cv-05608 (the “Ciccotelli Complaint,” and collectively with the Stein Complaint and the Gibson Complaint, the “Complaints” and the corresponding lawsuits the “Merger Litigation”).

"The Complaints assert, among other things, claims under Section 14(a) and Section 20(a) of the Exchange Act, and Rule 14a-9 promulgated thereunder, for allegedly causing a materially incomplete and misleading preliminary proxy statement to be filed with the SEC and disseminated to the Company’s shareholders. Among other remedies, the Complaints seek to enjoin the defendants from proceeding with, consummating, or closing the merger unless and until the allegedly materially incomplete and misleading information are disclosed to Company shareholders.

"The parties to the Merger Litigation subsequently engaged in arm’s-length negotiations to attempt to resolve the claims asserted in the Merger Litigation, and reached an agreement whereby the Company would file on this Current Report on Form 8-K certain supplemental disclosures regarding the merger. The Company and Company board believes that the allegations and claims asserted in the Merger Ligation lack merit, and that the supplemental disclosures set."

The filing further states, "A number of important factors could cause actual results to differ materially from those indicated by the forward-looking statements in this report, including, but not limited to:

  • the risk that the merger may not be consummated in a timely manner or at all, which may adversely affect the Company’s business and the price of the Company common stock;
  • the risk that required approvals of the merger may not be obtained, or that the De-Banking may not be consummated, on the terms expected or on the anticipated schedule or at all;                
  • the risk that the Company shareholders may fail to adopt the merger agreement;
  • the risk that the parties to the merger agreement may fail to satisfy other conditions to the consummation of the merger or meet expectations regarding the timing and consummation of the merger;
  • the occurrence of any event, change or other circumstance that could give rise to the termination of the merger agreement;             
  • the effect of the announcement or pendency of the merger on the Company’s business relationships, operating results, employees and business generally;
  • the risk that the proposed merger disrupts current plans and operations of the Company and potential difficulties in the Company’s employee retention as a result of the merger;                     
  • risks related to diverting management’s attention from the Company’s ongoing business operations;         
  • the outcome of legal proceedings that may be instituted against the Company related to the merger agreement or the merger;
  • the amount of unexpected costs, fees, expenses and other charges related to the merger; and         
  • political instability.

“For additional factors that could materially affect our financial results and our business generally, please refer to the Company’s filings with the SEC, including but not limited to, the factors, uncertainties and risks described under the headings “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020 (which we refer to as the “2020 Annual Report”) and its Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2021, and the other reports filed by the Company with the SEC. The Company undertakes no obligation to revise these statements following the date of this communication, except as required by law."

A full copy of the Form 8-K filing:


Company Celebrates Being Back in the Office
from Alina Gilmore, VP, Can Capital


“Our first day in the office after 16+ months of working remotely was a great success! We had lots of fun reconnecting, catching up, playing games, and getting some work done too!”

Alina Gilmore
VP, Human Resources at CAN Capital



License and Registration United States
By Kenneth C. Greene, Attorney
Segment 5

Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi and Missouri

(A State-by-State Analysis of License Requirements for Lenders and Brokers

Previous states covered Alabama through Maryland (1)

Once again, I’d like to remind readers that I am endeavoring to analyze and interpret hundreds of statutes, rules, regulations, decisions, and opinions from 50+ different states. It is possible that I will relay some inaccurate information (hopefully, rarely), which might be a product of new developments, case law, or administrative rulings, some of which didn’t exist as of the publication of these articles, and some of which I may have simply overlooked.  If you have authoritative information which contradicts anything I have written or will write, please let us know, so we can publish the errata. This, not just for my sake, but for that of the readers, who deserve accuracy.

It should be noted that, as to all of those states that have license requirements for consumer loans, it is sufficient if the borrower represents, in writing, that the purpose of the loan is personal, family, or household use, unless the lender or broker has knowledge which contradicts this representation. That appears to be sufficient due diligence on the part of the lender/broker as to this issue.

21. MASSACHUSETTS: Massachusetts does not require a license for commercial finance companies. A license is required of any company or sole proprietorship that directly or indirectly engages in the business of making loans or engages, for a fee, commission, bonus or other consideration, in the business of negotiating, arranging, aiding or assisting a borrower or lender in procuring or making loans for personal, family or household purposes of $6,000 or less, and an interest rate that exceeds 12%, regardless of whether such loans are actually made by that company/ sole proprietorship or by another party (i.e. brokers are included).

22. MICHIGAN: Nor does Michigan require a license for commercial finance companies. It does require both a license and registration, which appear to be to different protocols, for first and second mortgage brokers. Michigan also requires licenses for consumer and/or “regulatory loans” under the Regulatory Loan Act, which defines “loan” or “regulatory loan” as a loan made by a licensee to an individual for personal, family, or household use.

Michigan Regularatory Act:   .aspx?page=GetObject&objectname=mcl-Act-21-of-1939 (1939)

You should be aware that the penalties for usury are severe in Michigan. Pursuant to Section 438.41, Act 259, §1 of the Michigan Statutes (1968):

 A person is guilty of criminal usury when, not being authorized or permitted by law to do so, he knowingly charges, takes or receives any money or other property as interest on the loan or forbearance of any money or other property, at a rate exceeding 25% at simple interest per annum or the equivalent rate for a longer or shorter period. Any person guilty of criminal usury may be imprisoned for a term not to exceed 5 years or fined not more than $10,000.00, or both. [emphasis added]

Definitely not a good idea in Michigan, or anywhere for that matter. The legislatures, and the courts, consider usury a profoundly serious matter. This is possibly the primary reason for getting a license in those states, like California, that fairly exempt lenders and brokers from usury claims.

23. MINNESOTA: Minnesota does not require a license for commercial lenders. Mortgage and consumer lenders do need licenses. Any corporation that engages in the making of consumer loans for personal, family or household use must be licensed. Minnesota Statutes §§56.0001-56.26 (1984) and Minnesota Regulation 2675.4100 – 2675.4170 (2007). Regulated (consumer) lenders can make loans up to $100,000, higher if capitalized (see statute below for details as to what “capitalized” means in this context).

Minnesota Maximum Rates And Charges (Consumer Loans) (2014)

24. MISSISSIPPI: Mississippi is another state in which a commercial finance company does not need to be licensed. A person who, for compensation from borrowers, finds and obtains consumer loans or credit cards for borrowers from third party lenders does need a license. No person shall engage in the business of being a consumer loan broker before posting the bond and obtaining the license as required by this chapter. Any person violating this section is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be punished by a fine of not more than One Thousand Dollars ($1,000.00) or by imprisonment in the county jail for not more than six (6) months, or by both such fine and imprisonment. Mississippi Statutes § 81-19-5 (2019). I’m quite certain none of us would be comfortable in a Mississippi prison.

A broker or loans of money may not assess or collect an advance fee and can be fined up to $5,000 for each violation. Mississippi Code Annotated, sec. 81-19-23 (2019).

Mississippi Consumer Loan Broker Act (2019)

No consumer loan broker may:
(a) Charge or collect any service charge or advance fee from a borrower unless and until a loan is actually found, obtained and closed for that borrower, and in no event shall a service charge exceed three percent (3%) of the original principal amount of the loan or a fee of Twenty-five Dollars ($25.00), whichever is greater;

Violation of this statute is a felony punishable by a fine of not more than $1000 and commitment to the custody of the State Department of Corrections for up to three years. Again, not a good place to be.

25. MISSOURI:  Missouri also elected to exclude commercial finance companies from any licensing requirement. Similar to many other states, mortgage lenders and consumer lenders need a license and need to be registered with. Once again, mortgage and consumer lenders need to be registered. Consumer loans are those in excess of $500 made for personal, family or household purposes. Missouri Rev. Statute §367.110 (2019)

A broker of loans of "money or property" may not assess or collect an advance fee.  No loan broker shall charge, assess, collect or receive an advance fee from a borrower to provide services as a loan broker. The knowing charging, assessment, collection or receipt of an advance fee, in violation of this section, is a class A misdemeanor. Missouri Revised Statutes §367. 305 (1992). "Advance fee" includes any consideration which is assessed or collected prior to the closing by a loan broker. Missouri Revised Statutes §367. 300(1) (1992).

Our next segment will cover the States of Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, and, importantly, New Jersey.

Segment 1 - Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California  06/28/21
Segment 2 – Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida and Georgia 07/06/21
Segment 3 - Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana and Iowa 07/06/21
Segment 4 - Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine and Maryland 07/06/21

Ken Greene
Law Office of Kenneth Charles Greene
5743 Corsa Avenue Suite 208
Westlake Village, California 91362
Tel: 818.575.9095
Fax: 805.435.7464

This article is presented by the Law Office of Kenneth Charles Greene. All copyrightable text, the selection, arrangement, and presentation of all materials (including information in the public domain), and the overall design of this presentation are the property of the Law Office of Kenneth Charles Greene. All rights reserved. Permission is granted to download and reprint materials from this article for the purpose of viewing, reading, and retaining for reference. Any other copying, distribution, retransmission, or modification of information or materials from this article, whether in electronic or hard copy form, without the express prior written permission of Kenneth C. Greene, is strictly prohibited. The materials available from this article are for informational purposes only and not for the purpose of providing legal advice. You should contact your attorney to obtain advice with respect to any particular issue or problem. Use of and access to these materials does not create an attorney-client relationship between the Law Office of Kenneth Charles Greene and the user or viewer. The opinions expressed herein are the opinions of the individual author


Help Wanted Ads


Top Ten Leasing News
July 19 to July 23

(Most Read the Prior Week)

(1) Breaking News: All California Licensing Law Licenses
  Must Transition to NMLS by December 21, 2021
    By Kenneth C. Greene, Attorney

(2) License and Registration United States
  By Kenneth C. Greene, Attorney
    Segment 4
 Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine and Maryland

(3) Nine Classes that Should be
  Mandatory in High School

(4) Leasing 102 by Mr. Terry Winders, CLP, Remembered
    By Kit Menkin

(5) New Hires/Promotions in the Leasing Business
    and Related Industries

(6) The US Ecommerce Forecast 2021
    Retail ECommerce Sales in the US, 2019 -2025

(7) Solar Financing Firms
    Working with Third Party Originators

(8) Mortgage Rates Continue to Slide
    for the Third Consecutive Week

(9) Top Selling Cars in the United States
    Since 1978

(10) ‘6 p.m. is the new 8 p.m.’:
    Why early-bird dining is here to stay



Myth of Being #1 on the Google Search Page
FinTech #102 by Brittney Holcomb

If you were looking to bury a body anytime soon, I’d say it would be pretty safe to bury it on page 2 of Google search results. At least that is how many of us marketers have felt in the last decade. How often do you really go past the first page of search engine results for something you are looking for? Rarely ever.

The “Top Five Websites” that Leasing News runs from time to time shows the Alexa referrals from browsers. In most, the percentage is low. There is a reason for this.

The benefit of being #1 on Google search page results for any given keyword has always been to receive more visibility. In turn, more visibility equals more business opportunities. But what if you occupy the first position on Google search results page and you are not seeing a significant amount of new visibility and business opportunities from it? Is it really worth it to work hard for that top spot?

One could argue that the results from being #1 on the Google search vary from industry to industry. Also, the search traffic is not the same for every keyword or search phrase. Being #1 on Google for “Equipment Financing” is much different than being #1 on Google for “Medical Equipment Financing.” The average search volume for “Equipment Financing” is 4,400 each month, whereas “Medical Equipment Financing” is 260 each month.  So really part of the success of your organic rankings depends on what keywords you are actually ranking for and where you rank for that keyword or search phrase.

I took the top 2 organic listings on Google’s first page of search results for “Equipment Leasing” ( and and compared them to the bottom 2 organic listings on the first page for the same term ( and Here is what I found for percentage of overall website traffic coming from search engines:

1. 16.00%
2. 14.90%
9. 12.50%
10. (there was not enough search data for this site to present results)

One thing you may immediately notice about these percentages is that they seem a bit low. You shouldn’t solely rely on the percentage of traffic you receive from search engines to make or break your decision on whether or not being #1 on Google is worth it. One true way to determine whether your #1 position in Google rankings is really worth the efforts is to look at your Return on Investment (ROI) from your Search Engine Optimization (SEO) efforts.

If you have proper analytics set up to track your website conversions that originate from an organic search, then you will be able to determine your ROI. If your ROI ends up being significant to your overall monthly revenue, then regardless of your organic search traffic being a small percentage, it is making a significant impact on your overall revenue. So yes, it is worth it!

Everyone in every industry is going to have a different opinion about this topic because the ROI from organic rankings is different in every industry.

Determine the value and quality of your website visitors that come from organic rankings, regardless of how few there may be. This will ultimately determine if being #1 on Google is important for your particular business goals.

For financial companies who lack the organic traffic from Google to their site, pay-per-click marketing (PPC) offers an instant gratification and a steady stream of online business leads with real tangible ROI. For financial businesses in particular, they want to know how each cent they spend is helping to bring them business. PPC is a data minefield with those type of analytics.  SEO is not so black and white, which is why more financial businesses have turned to paid search marketing as opposed to being so concerned about where they rank organically on search engines.

Over the last 3 years, I have seen newer and small financial businesses struggle to make it to the top of Google on their budget and their timeline. Most businesses do not have the 6 month to 2-year time gap to wait for their SEO efforts to start kicking in. Even when the organic rankings start kicking in, there is no guarantee that those visitors will actually convert to sales. Maybe that is what encouraged more business owners to shift their marketing strategies towards paid search. Don’t rely on these companies that promise you to be #1 on Google. Often it is a waste of both your time and money.

Brittney Holcomb is the Director of Paid Search at The Finance Marketing Group. She works exclusively with finance companies and banks to help better develop their business online through digital marketing strategies. Brittney has been trained by some of the top leaders in the industry giving her a vast knowledge she is able to pass along to her client base.


Previous Financial Technology Articles



Mortgage Rates Continue a Downward Spiral

The latest Primary Mortgage Market Survey (PMMS) from Freddie Mac shows that the 30-year fixed-rate mortgage (FRM) averaged 2.78% for the week, down 10 points from last week when it averaged 2.88%. A year ago at this time, the 30-year FRM averaged 3.01%.

Also this week, the 15-year FRM averaged 2.12% with an average 0.7 point, down from last week when it averaged 2.22%. A year ago at this time, the 15-year FRM averaged 2.54%.

Sam Khater, Freddie Mac’s Chief Economist, observed, “Concerns about the Delta variant, and the overall trajectory of the pandemic, are undoubtedly affecting economic growth,

 “While the economy continues to mend, Treasury yields have decreased, and mortgage rates have followed suit. Unfortunately, many homebuyers are unable to take advantage of low rates due to low inventory and high prices.”

Housing inventory did see a slight recovery in June, as the latest Zillow Real Estate Market Report found that the market may be on the road to rebalancing after a long stint of being heavily in sellers' favor. Housing inventory saw a 3.1% improvement in June, following a 3.9% increase in May, as overall inventory now stands at 29.2% below 2020 levels. However, inventory remains low, and demand is still strong, sending home value appreciation to new record highs for both monthly and annual growth.

Bidding wars continue on the limited supply, as all-cash offers above the asking price continue to shun homebuyers from jumping in to take advantage of sub-3% rates. Redfin found that nearly one-third (30%) of U.S. home purchases in 2021 were paid for with all-cash, up from 25.3% during all of 2020, representing the largest share since 2014, when 30.6% of homes were purchased with all cash.

And while new home purchases are on the decline, refi's remain strong as the MBA reported that the refinance share of mortgage activity increased to 64.9% of total applications, up from 64.1% the previous week.

“These declining rates provide yet another opportunity for homeowners to save money on their monthly mortgage payment through a refinance,” said Khater.




Mixed Breed
ASPCA Shelter, New York City  Adopt-a-Dog


ID 4785004=52
5 Years Old
75  lbs.

Could you be the one to take Trey home? We hope so! Trey is a lovely boy who likes to shuffle between low-key and not so low-key. Trey’s favorite ways to pass the time include lounging around, going for walks (bonus—he’s housetrained!) where he can sniff all the things there are to sniff, playing tug or fetch and getting attention from his favorite people.

-     I’d love an adopter who can give me training to become my best self! I’d really love to learn how to keep my excitement in check and how to share my things.
-     People say that teenagers are hard to live with, but not for me! Bring ‘em on!
-     I need a home without other dogs—I prefer the attention all to myself!
-     I love using my voice! Wanna chat?

If you think that Trey may be a good match for you, click the “Adopt Me” button to complete an application!

ASPCA Adoption Center
424 East 92nd Street
New York, NY 10128

The ASPCA Adoption Center in New York City is currently closed for in-person visitors.

However, we are excited to offer remote adoptions using video conferencing! In person meet-and-greets are also sometimes available or required for specific dogs. Please check out our available pups and if one catches your eye, apply directly for him or her. An ASPCA Matchmaker will let you know if the dog you are interested in adopting is eligible for or requires an in-person meet-and-greet.

Please note: Adoption applications are handled in the order they are received and submitting an adoption survey does not constitute a hold or guaranteed adoption. You can expect to receive automated emails updating you on your adoption status as our Matchmakers go through applications. Thank you for your patience, and we hope you find your match!**


National Alliance of Commercial Loan Brokers Conference
October 26th - 28th, 2021, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, NV

Don't miss your opportunity to experience the only conference in the nation where commercial loan brokers and lenders converge over three days to gain valuable and profitable relationships.

Founded by industry leader Kris Roglieri, the NACLB was created to serve the growing industry of commercial loan and mortgage brokers. It is dedicated to serving the commercial loan and mortgage broker community and the banks and lenders who rely on brokers for deal flow. The NACLB aims to educate the industry's professionals on best practices and the ever-changing landscape in the commercial finance industry.

Last year, there were over $53 million in terms sheets generated by the lenders that sponsored the NACLB. Attending is an opportunity to meet the top lenders and service providers that cater to the brokerage community.

This year there are at least 900 commercial loan brokers expected to attend.

We are the nation’s only conference that brings together commercial lenders and commercial loan brokers. These professional loan brokers are responsible for over a billion dollars in funding. 2019’s event had over 900 brokers that attended and this year’s attendance is expected to bring many more.

Aside from custom breakout sessions with industry leaders, networking sessions, and marketing seminars --- we'll be celebrating with cocktail events AND a poker tournament hosted by various sponsors to this year's NACLB Conference and Expo.

Broker Attendee
Early Bird Pricing - $499
(Discount ends on September 30th, 2021)
Regular Pricing - $799
Additional Attendee - $199

Lender Attendee
Event Pass Only - $799
Additional Attendee - $399

Service Provider Attendee
Event Pass Only - $950
Additional Attendee - $450


Caesars Palace Rates


News Briefs---

Rivian Raises $2.5 Billion as it Readies
    Rollout of Electric Pickup, SUV

City Pound ‘Close’ to Capacity,
    as New Yorkers Return Pandemic Pets

How one S.F. tech company is reopening its office
    with a workforce that is still mostly remote

Tokyo Olympics opening drew 16.7 million TV viewers in the United States, a 33-year low



You May Have Missed---

Americans Spend Again
    and American Express Profit Surges



Sports Briefs---

Olympics Updates: U.S. Collects 10 Medals, Second to China
  Latest Update

Why Steph Curry and Kevin Durant are
     both right about the Olympics

John Fisher, Dave Kaval and the A's must realize
     Oakland's patience wearing thin

Deshaun Watson will report to Texans camp
    despite an uncertain legal future

Tampa Bay Buccaneers receive Super Bowl 55 championship rings

Dak Prescott declines to divulge vaccination status:
     'I don't necessarily think that's exactly important'

Cleveland Indians change team name to the Guardians

It’s time for A’s to end their ballpark histrionics


California Nuts Briefs---

California's largest wildfire is threatening
     thousands of structures

Lake Tahoe's New Crisis: Families Displaced,
     Long Commutes and a Missing Middle Class.

Sonoma County’s booming housing market
     sets another median price record

New Affordable Housing Site With
    Working Farm in Santa Clara Co.



“Gimme that Wine”

The World's Most Expensive Napa Cabernets

Wine Tourism will Rebound but Look Different, Experts Say

Don't Be Surprised If More SF Bars Start
    Demanding Proof of Vaccination to Enter

Glen Ellen Inn seeks to convert restaurant to rooms

Sparkling, Pricier Wines Lead in Retail Sales

Sonoma, Napa wine regions well represented among
     USA Today’s ‘10Best Readers’ Choice Awards 2021’ nominees

Will this new Sonoma County wine be a hit with millennials?

Augusta winery investor buys land for new hotel

Left Bend Tasting Room, Downtown Los Gatos,
    Closing end of July

Free Wine App

Wine Prices by vintage


This Day in History

     1526 - The Spaniard Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon and his colonists left Santo Domingo in the Caribbean for Florida.
    1559 - The French relinquished Fort Ticonderoga in New York to the British under General Jeffrey Amherst.
    1579 - Francis Drake left SF to cross Pacific Ocean.  
    1603 - James VI of Scotland was crowned King James I of England. He then 'authorized' an English translation of the Scriptures, first published in 1611 and known since as the 'King James Version' of the Bible. It brought more interest in “religious freedom.” His reign brought Europeans to the new world, where less than 10% of the native population survived once they had started to settle the new land. In 1600, the Indian population of what was to become the U.S. was about 1,000,000 when European exploration began. They were tall, healthy, hunters, farmers, had wooden houses and large leather teepees. In the beginning, some of the earliest pioneers, as at Jamestown, VA were adventurers, interested more in making a quick fortune form the alleged riches of the New World than in engaging in agriculture or forestry. In later years, through a greater diversity of settlers arrived, and brought with them a variety of skills. They ranged from wealthy Englishmen, who wanted to carve out large estates, to servants. Merchants saw the opportunity for trade as populations grew. Groups seeking religious freedom were also prominent, bringing with them a tradition of hard work and a willingness to start anew (an example of the social position of the first settlers comes from the fact that among the male settlers of Jamestown, VA., the first permanent English settlement in America, of the 105 men, 35 were considered gentlemen, persons who means freed them from the need to work or engage actively in trade. The second expedition to Jamestown contained 33 gentlemen out of 120.
    1775 - Benjamin Franklin was appointed the first Postmaster General. He had served the crown as deputy postmaster at Philadelphia, PA, form 1737 to 1753, and as deputy postmaster general for the colonies from 1753 to 1774.
    1788 - New York became the 11th state to ratify the Constitution.
(Lower half of: )
    1835 - The first sugar cane plantation started in Hawaii
    1847 - American Black Joseph Jenkins Roberts declared Liberia, formerly a colony of the American Colonization Society, an independent republic. (Liberia and its independence were the subject of my University High School English Semester Report. Do you remember yours?)
    1860 - Emperor Norton in San Francisco dissolved the United States:
"NOW, THEREFORE, WE, Norton I, by the Grace of God Emperor of the Thirty-three states & the multitude of Territories of the United States of America, do hereby dissolve the Republic of the United States, & it is hereby dissolved; & all laws made from & after this date, either by the National Congress or any State Legislature, shall be null & of no effect. 
All Governors, & all other persons in authority, shall maintain order by enforcing the heretofore existing laws & regulations until the necessary alterations can be affected. Given under our hand & seal, at Headquarters, San Francisco, this 26th day of July 1860." 
    1863 - Confederate General John Hunt Morgan was ordered to invade Kentucky He was to direct and draw General William S. Rosecrans' army from Tennessee. But Morgan went farther than he was ordered. He led a group of volunteer cavalrymen, raiding public property, burning bridges, taking horse, and captured railroad supplies. They also caused severe losses among the Union Troops and Morgan Raiders were feared wherever they went. While he never commanded more than 4,000 men, it is said he captured as many as 15,000 Union soldiers. He was a maverick. He had not followed orders and began harassing (some say plundering homes, others say they were Union sympathizer's homes) in Tennessee and Ohio, going in the opposite direction, actually into “enemy territory. “He was captured this day with 364 of his men at New Lisbon, Ohio. He had broken through the federal lines in Kentucky and crossed the Ohio River into Indiana. Used to lighting raids and use of his cavalry, a flood caused the river to rise. He could not find a way to return to Confederate territory. He was imprisoned in the Columbus, Ohio Penitentiary. It did not hold him long. He escaped the next November, continuing his many his raids. He finally made it to Kentucky, in June, 1864, where Union troops were not very strong. He was caught and defeated, but with his fast Calvary, outran the Union troops, and regrouped. He then went to Greenville, Tennessee, which now was also in Union hands, where he was killed in battle, September, 1864.
    1865 - Patrick Francis Healy is first black awarded Ph.D., from Catholic University in Louvain, Belgium.  Healy was a Catholic priest and Jesuit who was an influential president (1874-82) of Georgetown University, becoming known as its "second founder." The university's flagship building, Healy Hall, bears his name. Though self-identifying and largely passing as white, Healy would be posthumously recognized as the first African American to become a Jesuit, earn a Ph. D., and become the president of a predominantly White university.
    1875 - Windstorm (possibly a tornado) rips through Erie, PA killing 134 and doing $500,000 damage
    1875 - Black Bart, a poet with a fondness for Wells Fargo, robs his first stagecoach, the Sonora to Milton stage, in Calaveras County, California — the same stage line he targets in his last heist (his 29th) in 1883. 
"I've labored long & hard for bread,
For honor & for riches,
But on my corns too long you've tread
You fine-haired sons of bitches." 
    1890 - Powerful F3 tornado raked Lawrence, MA at 9:10 am, killing 8 and injuring 63. The storm destroyed 35 homes and damaged 60. Storms of this strength and occurring at this early hour are very rare in New England.
    1892 - Birthday of Pearl S Buck (d. 1973), Hillsboro, WV. As the daughter of missionaries, Buck spent most of her life before 1934 in China. Her novel, “The Good Earth,” was the best-selling fiction book in the United States in 1931 and 1932 and won the Pulitzer Prize in 1932. In 1938, she was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature "for her rich and truly epic descriptions of peasant life in China and for her biographical masterpieces." She was the first American woman to win the Nobel Prize in Literature.
    1895 - Birthday of Gracie Allen (d. 1964) in San Francisco. Allen was part of the highly popular comedy team of Burns and Allen. Gracie took no part in the writing or promotion of the comedy, preferring her home and children. Her comedic delivery was impeccable and the duo was highly popular, but she got tired of the airhead with the twisted logic that she was forced to portray, although she continued to do it so very well. It was totally different from her own personality. Her right arm had been badly scalded when she was a child, and she always wore long sleeves.
    1902 - Birthday of trumpet player Gus Aiken (d. 1973), Charleston, SC.   
    1907 - The first turbine-propelled ship was launched. The speedy vessel was named "Chester" and was built for the U.S. Navy.
    1914 - Birthday of bandleader Erskine Hawkins (d. 1993), Birmingham, AL.
    1918 - Race riot in Philadelphia (three whites and one black are killed)
    1922 - Birthday of Jason Robards, Jr., (d. 2000), Chicago, IL.  He was a staple on the American stage and screen for six decades. Robards was also a decorated World War II veteran. He won the Oscar for Best Supporting Actor two years in a row for 1976's “All the President's Men” and in 1977s “Julia.” His most famous stage roles were in the plays of Eugene O'Neill, including “The Iceman Cometh” and “Long Day's Journey into Night.” Saw him in both. He was outstanding. O'Neill in “The Iceman Cometh” calls for a rotund salesman.  Robards was extremely convincing, even mesmerizing in this very long play about a salesman who has become sober and visits his favorite bar to bring reality, but only wakes up the demons, including in himself. He won the Tony Award in 1959 for his portrayal of a fictionalized F. Scott Fitzgerald in “The Disenchanted.”  Played many key roles in films, such as “The Philadelphia Story” and “All the President’s Men.”
        1926 - National Bar Association incorporates
    1928 - American film writer and producer Stanley Kubrick (d. 1999), born The Bronx, NY. Kubrick started out in photography at the age of 16 with Look magazine. His first film, “Day of the Fight,” produced in 1950, was a documentary of his photo series about fighter Walter Cartier. His film credits include “Dr. Strangelove,” “Full Metal Jacket,” and “2001: A Space Odyssey.” “Eyes Wide Shut,” Kubrick's final film, was released posthumously in the summer of 1999.
    1929 - Birthday of drummer Charles Persip (d. 2020), Morristown, NJ.
    1932 - Billy Banks's Rhythmakers (Red Allen, PeeWee Russell, Fats Waller) records “Mean Old Bed Bug Blues.”
    1937 - Birthday of Al Banks (d. 1977), Philadelphia, PA.  Lead singer of The Turbans, whose hit “When You Dance” reached #3 on the R&B chart and remained there for about two months in 1955.   It only rose to #33 on the pop chart, but stayed there for about five months, so it was counted as a significant hit.
    1938 - Birthday of jazz pianist Joanne Brackeen, Ventura, CA.
    1939 - Sixteen-year-old singer Kay Starr got a big break. She recorded "Baby Me" with Glenn Miller and his orchestra on Victor Records. Starr was filling in for Marion Hutton who, at the last minute, was unable to attend the recording session.  A pop and jazz singer who enjoyed considerable success in the late 1940s and 1950s, she was of Iroquois and Irish heritage. Starr was successful in every field of music she tried (jazz, pop, and country), but her roots were in jazz.  In 1955, she signed with RCA Victor Records. However, at this time, rock-and-roll was displacing the existing forms of pop music and Kay had only two hits, the first of which is sometimes considered her attempt to sing rock and roll, and sometimes as a song poking fun at it, "The Rock and Roll Waltz". Her hits included "Wheel of Fortune" (her biggest hit, No. 1 for 10 weeks).
    1942 - Judy Garland joined Gene Kelly to record "For Me and My Gal" for Decca Records. The song is featured in the movie of the same name.
    1942 - About 400 miles southeast of Fiji, the American aircraft carriers Wasp, Enterprise and Saratoga rendezvous with the invasion force for Guadalcanal. It is the most powerful force the US Navy has yet assembled in the Pacific.
    1942 - Actor Gene Autry is sworn into the Army Air Corps on the air, during his regular radio show, “Gene Autry's Melody Ranch.” He served as an officer and flew cargo and supply planes over enemy territory in the Middle and Far East until 1945, when he resumed his show.
    1943 - Birthday of Michael Phillip (Mick) Jagger, lead singer of the Rolling Stones since their beginning in 1962, was born in Dartford, England. The Stones began billing themselves as the greatest rock 'n' roll band in the world in the late '60s, and few denied the potency of their blend of blues, R'n'B and teen rock. Their manager, Andrew Loog Oldham, promoted them as the bad boys of British rock - the opposites of the clean-cut Beatles. And Jagger was portrayed as a leering, satanic figure. The Stones' number-one records in the '60s included "Satisfaction," "Get Off My Cloud" and "Time Is On My Side." The Stones survived the departure and subsequent death of guitarist Brian Jones in 1969. In fact, this and other notorious incidents, including a rumored liaison with Margaret Trudeau in 1978, seemed to enhance the Stones' following. The group continued to hit the charts into the 1980's, with such hits as "Start Me Up" and "Harlem Shuffle." Mick Jagger's duet with Tina Turner was one of the highlights of the 1985 Live-Aid concerts. He is still touring today, more magnificent than ever. Whenever I go to his concerts, I get third or four row. You pay a premium with a broker, but it is an event you will never forget as the band gives you every dollar's worth in their performance and show. 
    1943 - Record high for the state of Oklahoma set at Tishomingo with 120.
    1944 - WILSON, LOUIS HUGH, JR., Medal of Honor
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Marine Corps, Commanding Rifle Company, 2d Battalion, 9th Marines, 3d Marine Division. Place and date: Fonte Hill, Guam, 25-26 July 1944. Entered service at: Mississippi. Born: 11 February 1920, Brandon, Miss. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as commanding officer of a rifle company attached to the 2d Battalion, 9th Marines, 3d Marine Division, in action against enemy Japanese forces at Fonte Hill, Guam, 25-26 July 1944. Ordered to take that portion of the hill within his zone of action, Capt. Wilson initiated his attack in mid-afternoon, pushed up the rugged, open terrain against terrific machinegun and rifle fire for 300 yards and successfully captured the objective. Promptly assuming command of other disorganized units and motorized equipment in addition to his own company and 1 reinforcing platoon, he organized his night defenses in the face of continuous hostile fire and, although wounded 3 times during this 5-hour period, completed his disposition of men and guns before retiring to the company command post for medical attention. Shortly thereafter, when the enemy launched the first of a series of savage counterattacks lasting all night, he voluntarily rejoined his besieged units and repeatedly exposed himself to the merciless hail of shrapnel and bullets, dashing 50 yards into the open on 1 occasion to rescue a wounded marine lying helpless beyond the frontlines. Fighting fiercely in hand-to-hand encounters, he led his men in furiously waged battle for approximately 10 hours, tenaciously holding his line and repelling the fanatically renewed counterthrusts until he succeeded in crushing the last efforts of the hard-pressed Japanese early the following morning. Then organizing a 17-man patrol, he immediately advanced upon a strategic slope essential to the security of his position and, boldly defying intense mortar, machinegun, and rifle fire which struck down 13 of his men, drove relentlessly forward with the remnants of his patrol to seize the vital ground. By his indomitable leadership, daring combat tactics, and valor in the face of overwhelming odds, Capt. Wilson succeeded in capturing and holding the strategic high ground in his regimental sector, thereby contributing essentially to the success of his regimental mission and to the annihilation of 350 Japanese troops. His inspiring conduct throughout the critical periods of this decisive action sustains and enhances the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
    1944 - During World War II, the US Army ordered desegregation of its training camp facilities. Later the same year, black platoons were assigned to white companies in a tentative step toward integration of the battlefield. However, it was not until after the War—July 26, 1948—that President Harry Truman signed an order officially integrating the armed forces.
    1945 - The U.S. Cruiser Indianapolis arrived at Tinian Island in the Marianas with a deadly cargo. Aboard were the makings of the atomic bomb. On the island waited scientists prepared to complete the assembly.
    1947 - President Truman signed legislation unifying the two branches of the armed forces into the Department of Defenses. The branches merged were the War Department (Army) and the Navy. The Air Force was separated from the Army at the same time. Truman nominated James Forrestal to be the first Secretary of Defense. The legislation also provided for the National Security Council, the Central Intelligence Agency and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
    1947 - President Harry S. Truman signs the National Security Act, which becomes one of the most important pieces of Cold War legislation. The act established much of the bureaucratic framework for foreign policymaking for the next 40-plus years of the Cold War. By July 1947, the Cold War was in full swing. The United States and the Soviet Union, once allies during World War II, now faced off as ideological enemies. 
    1948 - President Harry S. Truman signed an executive order officially integrating the armed forces.
    1948 - The first black host of a network show-CBS' Bob Howard Show.
    1948 - The Bambino makes his final public appearance at the New York premiere of “The Babe Ruth Story.” The Sultan of Swat will die three weeks later.
    1949 - No. 1 Billboard Pop Hit: "Some Enchanted Evening," Perry Como.
    1952 - Bob Mathias of the US won the decathlon at the Summer Olympics in Helsinki, Finland, to become the first athlete to win the Olympic decathlon twice. His first victory came in the 1948 London Games. Daley Thompson of Great Britain equaled Mathias's feat in 1980 and 1984.
    1953 - Fidel Castro with his Revolutionary Army leads attack on Moncada Barracks to take over Cuba, today known as the “26th of July Movement.” The “recognition” of Cuba is perhaps the last remains of the “Cold War” with the so-called communist form of government, which appears to be more of a “dictatorship.”
    1951 - Top Hits
“Too Young” - Nat King Cole
“My Truly, Truly Fair” - Guy Mitchell
“Mister and Mississippi” - Patti Page
“I Wanna Play House with You” - Eddy Arnold
    1952 - "Half As Much" by Rosemary Clooney topped the charts and stayed there for 3 weeks.
    1955 - Count Basie records “April in Paris.” (One more “once!”).
    1959 - Top Hits
Lonely Boy - Paul Anka
“A Big Hunk o' Love” - Elvis Presley
“My Heart is an Open Book” - Carl Dobkins, Jr.
“The Battle of New Orleans” - Johnny Horton
    1960 - Salt Lake City UT soars to all-time temperature record of 107
    1960 - Sam Cooke's "Chain Gang" is released.  The song became one of Cooke's most successful singles, peaking at number two on both the Billboard Hot 100 and the Hot R&B Sides. 
    1963 - Bob Dylan appeared at the Newport Folk Festival, where he sang "Blowin' in the Wind." Dylan had written the song in April 1962. "Blowin' in the Wind" became the unofficial anthem of the civil rights movement - and a hit for Peter, Paul and Mary.
    1963 - Record high of 96 at Eastport, ME.
    1963 - Motown Records release "Mickey's Monkey" by Smokey Robinson & the Miracles. It peaks at number three on the R&B charts and number eight on the pop chart.
    1964 - Teamsters President Jimmy Hoffa convicted of fraud and conspiracy.  He secured the first national agreement for teamsters' rates in 1964 with the National Master Freight Agreement.  Hoffa then tried to bring the airline workers and other transport employees into the union, with limited success. He was then facing immense personal strain as he was under investigation, on trial, launching appeals of convictions, or imprisoned for virtually all of the 1960s.  In May 1963, Hoffa was indicted for jury tampering in Tennessee, charged with the attempted bribery of a grand juror during his 1962 conspiracy trial in Nashville. Hoffa was convicted on March 4, 1964, and subsequently sentenced to eight years in prison and a $10,000 fine.  While on bail during his appeal, Hoffa was convicted in a second trial held in Chicago, on July 26, 1964, on one count of conspiracy and three counts of mail and wire fraud for improper use of the Teamsters' pension fund, and sentenced to five years in prison. 
    1965 - Beach Boys drummer Dennis Wilson marries Carol Freedman, the first of his four wives, in Los Angeles. 
    1966 - The Temptations' dance and show at the San Francisco Fillmore Auditorium. I was there with my late, great friend Acklin Thibeaux (May he rest in Peace.)
    1967 - Top Hits
“Windy” - The Association
“Can't Take My Eyes Off You” - Frankie Valli
“Light My Fire” - The Doors
“With One Exception” - David Houston
    1968 - John Lennon and Paul McCartney complete "Hey Jude" during a writing session at Paul's home. The song hits No. 1 in the U.S. a month later.
    1968 - The Jackson 5, discovered by Motown mainstay Gladys Knight (not, as legend has it, Diana Ross), signs to the label today for a one-year contract.
    1968 - Jeannie C. Riley records her number one hit: "Harper Valley P.T.A."
    1968 - The Rolling Stones album "Beggar's Banquet" has its release delayed because of their record label's objection to the album's cover design, which featured a graffiti-covered bathroom wall. Mick Jagger was furious. It was the first album on which Jagger played guitar.
    1969 - Mick Jagger of The Rolling Stones celebrated his 26th birthday with the release of the album, "Beggar's Banquet". It was the first time that Jagger's guitar playing had been featured on any of the Stone's records.
    1969 - Elvis Presley opens his first live engagement in nearly eight years. Las Vegas, Nev.
    1969 - The Rolling Stones' founding member and guitarist Brian Jones, found dead in his swimming pool just weeks earlier, is memorialized on the cover of Rolling Stone magazine. 
    1970 - The San Francisco Chronicle received a letter from the Zodiac killer with an unsubstantiated claim of killing 13 people. The case was never solved and is still considered "open." Speculation is he was killed in a car accident or committed to a mental institution as reasons he was never heard from again (no one knows.)
    1970 - Home runs came in triplicate. Johnny Bench of the Cincinnati Reds belted three home runs against the St. Louis Cardinals, and Orlando Cepeda of the Atlanta Braves launched a trio of homers in a game with the Chicago Cubs.
    1972 - No. 1 Billboard Pop Hit: "Alone Again (Naturally)," Gilbert O'Sullivan.
    1974 - John Denver earns a gold record for his all-time biggest hit, "Annie's Song." The song was written about his wife, who later divorced him.
    1974 - London graffiti artists hired by the Rolling Stones' management spray paint various local sites as promotion for the groups' latest single, "It's Only Rock And Roll." 
    1975 - Nat King Cole's daughter, Natalie, debuts on the music charts with "This Will Be." It makes it to number six on pop charts and number one on the R&B.
    1975 - Top Hits
“The Hustle” - Van McCoy & The Soul City Symphony
“I'm Not in Love” - 10cc
“One of These Nights” - Eagles
“Touch the Hand” - Conway Twitty
    1975 - Van McCoy and The Soul City Symphony reached the top spot on the "Billboard" record chart for the first -- and only -- time. The disco hit "The Hustle" became the top record in the U.S. The instrumental remained in the reflection of the disco mirror ball for only one week ... though plenty of other disco hits followed. Keep that white suit handy. Disco may just come back!
    1976 - Ted Nugent receives a gold record for his sixth, self-titled album. It includes "Hey Baby" and "Dog Eat Dog."
    1980 - No. 1 Billboard Pop Hit: "It's Still Rock and Roll to Me," Billy Joel. It is Joel's first No. 1 single.
    1983 - Top Hits
“Every Breath You Take” - The Police
“Electric Avenue” - Eddy Grant
“Is There Something I Should Know” - Duran Duran
“Pancho and Lefty” - Willie Nelson & Merle Haggard
    1984 - "Purple Rain," the film creation of Prince, premiered in Hollywood. Attending the gala at the Palace Theatre were Eddie Murphy, Lionel Richie and Stevie Nicks. MTV presented live coverage of the events.
    1986 - "Sledgehammer" by Peter Gabriel topped the charts and stayed there for a week
    1987 - Robert Wrenn set a record for the Buick Open. He won the golf tourney with a 26-under-par 262, a seven-stroke victory. Wrenn just missed the PGA Tour record of 27-under-par at the tourney, which was held at Grand Blanc, MI.
    1987 - Singer Billy Joel began a series of six concerts in the Soviet Union with a performance in Moscow. About 300 of the 10,000 people in attendance swarmed to the front of the auditorium, waving posters and climbing on each other's shoulders. It was an unusual display of enthusiasm for a Soviet audience, who usually showed appreciation by clapping slowly and rhythmically. At one point, Joel jumped from the stage and walked through the crowd followed by a procession of fans. He has an album plus a video/DVD on the tour.
    1988 - Thunderstorms produced large hail and damaging winds in the Middle Atlantic Coast Region, and in the south central U.S. Eight cities in the northwestern and north central U.S. reported record high temperatures for the date. Salem, OR, hit 103 degrees.
    1989 - Morning thunderstorms produced heavy rain in southeastern Texas, with more than three inches reported at the Widllife Refuge in southwestern Chambers County. Evening thunderstorms produced severe weather in Montana, with wind gusts to 62 mph reported at Helena. Eight cities from Maine to Minnesota reported record high temperatures for the date, including Newark, NJ, with a reading of 99 degrees. 
    1990 - President Bush signed the Americans with Disabilities Act, which went into effect two years later. It required that public facilities be made accessible to the disabled.
    1991 - Top Hits
“Unbelievable” - EMF
(“Everything I Do”) “I Do It for You” - Bryan Adams
P.A.S.S.I.O.N. - Rhythm Syndicate
“I Am a Simple Man” - Ricky Van Shelton
    1992 - Patty Sheehan defeated Juli Inkster in a playoff to win the 47th U.S. Women's Open at the Oakmont (PA) Country Club.
    1998 - Hale Irwin birdied the 18th hole for a 69 to win the U.S. Senior Open by one stroke over Argentina's Vicente Fernandez at Riviera Country Club, Pacific Palisades CA.
    1998 - Don Sutton and Larry Doby are inducted into the Hall of Fame along with Lee MacPhail, George Davis and Joe Rogan. MacPhail joins his dad, Larry, to become the first father and son to be enshrined at Cooperstown.
    1998 - With his 44th homer, Mark McGwire surpasses Johnny Mize as the all-time Cardinal single-season home run leader.
    1998 - Hitting his 380th career homer, Jose Canseco becomes the all-time Latin home run leader passing Orlando Cepeda and Tony Perez.
    2000 - U.S. District Judge Marilyn Hall Patel (in federal court, San Francisco CA) issued a preliminary injunction against online music service Napster. The judge ordered Napster to stop distributing copyrighted songs on the Web. Although Napster fought the ruling for months, this was the beginning of the end for the Internet music distribution site.
    2005 - After waiting through a 2 hours, 43 minutes rain delay in Atlanta to start the game, Greg Maddux becomes the 13th pitcher in baseball history to register 3,000 strikeouts. Taking an inside fastball in the top of the third inning, Omar Vizquel of the Giants becomes the historic victim of the crafty 39-year-old Cubs' right-hander.
    2020 – The body of civil rights activist John Lewis crossed the Edmund Pettis Bridge in Selma, AL for the last time with a military honor guard as part of a remembrance ceremony.  Lewis died on July 17 of pancreatic cancer while representing Georgia’s 5th District in the House, a post he had held from 1987.  He was the chairman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) from 1963 to 1966 and he was one of the “Big Six" leaders of groups who organized the 1963 March on Washington. He fulfilled many key roles in the civil rights movement and its actions to end legalized racial segregation in the US.   In 1965, Lewis led the first of three Selma to Montgomery marches across the Edmund Pettus Bridge. In an incident which became known as Bloody Sunday, state troopers and police attacked the marchers, including Lewis.  John Lewis received many honorary degrees and awards, including the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2011.  Lewis's death has given rise to support for renaming the historically significant Pettus bridge in Lewis's honor, an idea previously floated years ago.  After his death, the Board of Fairfax County Public Schools announced that Robert E. Lee High School in Springfield, VA was renamed John R. Lewis High School. 



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